Anorexia nervosa

References

Key articles

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed., text revision (DSM-5-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2022.

Torpy JM, Burke AE, Glass RM. Anorexia nervosa. JAMA. 2006 Jun 14;295(22):2684. Abstract

Royal College of Psychiatrists. Medical emergencies in eating disorders (MEED): guidance on recognition and management. May 2022 [internet publication].Full text

Mitchell JE, Peterson CB. Anorexia nervosa. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 2;382(14):1343-51. Abstract

Yager J, Andersen AE. Clinical practice. Anorexia nervosa. N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 6;353(14):1481-8. Abstract

Reference articles

1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed., text revision (DSM-5-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2022.

2. World Health Organization. International classification of diseases, 11th revision. 2022 [internet publication].

3. Carlat DJ, Camargo CA, Herzog DB. Eating disorders in males: a report on 135 patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1997 Aug;154(8):1127-32. Abstract

4. Hoek HW. Incidence, prevalence and mortality of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;19(4):389-94. Abstract

5. Miller KK, Grinspoon SK, Ciampa J, et al. Medical findings in outpatients with anorexia nervosa. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Mar 14;165(5):561-6. Abstract

6. Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG Jr, et al. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Feb 1;61(3):348-58. Abstract

7. Torpy JM, Burke AE, Glass RM. Anorexia nervosa. JAMA. 2006 Jun 14;295(22):2684. Abstract

8. Bryan-Waugh R, Lask B. Childhood-onset eating disorders. In: Fairburn GC, Brownell KD, eds. Eating disorders and obesity: a comprehensive handbook. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press, 2002:210-4.

9. Andersen AE. Eating disorders in males. In: Fairburn CG, Brownell KD, eds. Eating disorders and obesity: a comprehensive handbook. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press, 2002:210-4.

10. Hoek HW, van Hoeken D. Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders. Int J Eating Dis. 2003 Dec;34(4):383-96. Abstract

11. Smink FR, van Hoeken D, Donker GA, et al. Three decades of eating disorders in Dutch primary care: decreasing incidence of bulimia nervosa but not of anorexia nervosa. Psychol Med. 2016 Apr;46(6):1189-96. Abstract

12. Halmi KA, Casper RC, Eckert ED, et al. Unique features associated with age of onset of anorexia nervosa. Psychiatr Res. 1979 Oct;1(2):209-15. Abstract

13. Public Health England. Eating disorders in young people. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text

14. Petkova H, Simic M, Nicholls D, et al. Incidence of anorexia nervosa in young people in the UK and Ireland: a national surveillance study. BMJ Open. 2019 Oct 22;9(10):e027339.Full text  Abstract

15. Steiner H, Kwan W, Shaffer TG, et al. Risk and protective factors for juvenile eating disorders. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;12(suppl 1):I38-46. Abstract

16. Nagel KL, Jones KH. Sociological factors in the development of eating disorders. Adolescence. 1992 Spring;27(105):107-13. Abstract

17. Becker AE. Television, disordered eating, and young women in Fiji: negotiating body image and identity during rapid social change. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2004 Dec;28(4):533-59. Abstract

18. Tao ZL. Epidemiological risk factor study concerning abnormal attitudes toward eating and adverse dieting behaviours among 12- to 25-years-old Chinese students. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2010 Nov-Dec;18(6):507-14. Abstract

19. Bulik CM, Thornton LM, Root TL, et al. Understanding the relation between anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in a Swedish national twin sample. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Jan 1;67(1):71-7. Abstract

20. Kaye WH, Wierenga CE, Bailer UF, et al. Does a shared neurobiology for foods and drugs of abuse contribute to extremes of food ingestion in anorexia and bulimia nervosa? Biol Psychiatry. 2013 May 1;73(9):836-42.Full text  Abstract

21. Solmi M, Veronese N, Correll CU, et al. Bone mineral density, osteoporosis, and fractures among people with eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016 May;133(5):341-51. Abstract

22. Misra M. Long-term skeletal effects of eating disorders with onset in adolescence. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1135:212-8. Abstract

23. Pawluck DE, Gorey KM. Secular trends in the incidence of anorexia nervosa: integrative review of population-based studies. Int J Eat Disord. 1998 May;23(4):347-52. Abstract

24. Fairburn CG, Cooper Z, Doll HA, et al. Risk factors for anorexia nervosa: three integrated case-control comparisons. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999 May;56(5):468-76. Abstract

25. Makino M, Tsuboi K, Dennerstein L, et al. Prevalence of eating disorders: a comparison of Western and non-Western countries. Med Gen Med. 2004 Sep 27;6(3):49. Abstract

26. DiNicola-Vincenzo F. Anorexia multiforme: self-starvation in historical and cultural context: II anorexia nervosa as a culture-reactive syndrome. Transcult Psychiatr Res Rev. 1990;27:245-86.

27. Halmi KA. A 24-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa. JAMA. 1998 Jun 24;279(24):1992-8. Abstract

28. Nevonen L, Norring C. Socio-economic variables and eating disorders: a comparison between patients and normal controls. Eat Weight Disord. 2004 Dec;9(4):279-84. Abstract

29. Rogers L, Resnick MD, Mitchell JE, et al. The relationship between socioeconomic status and eating-disordered behaviors in a community sample of adolescent girls. Int J Eat Disord. 1997 Jul;22(1):15-23. Abstract

30. Schoemaker C. Does early intervention improve the prognosis of anorexia nervosa? A systematic review of the treatment-outcome literature. Int J Eat Disord. 1997 Jan;21(1):1-15. Abstract

31. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Eating disorders: recognition and treatment. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Full text

32. Royal College of Psychiatrists. Medical emergencies in eating disorders (MEED): guidance on recognition and management. May 2022 [internet publication].Full text

33. Crow SJ, Swanson SA, le Grange D, et al. Suicidal behavior in adolescents and adults with bulimia nervosa. Compr Psychiatry. 2014 Oct;55(7):1534-9. Abstract

34. Vincenzi BO. PANDAS and anorexia nervosa - a spotters' guide: Suggestions for medical assessment. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2010 Mar;18(2):116-23. Abstract

35. Pritts SD, Susman J. Diagnosis of eating disorders in primary care. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Jan 15;67(2):297-304.Full text  Abstract

36. Fairburn CG, Harrison PJ. Eating disorders. Lancet. 2003 Feb 1;361(9355):407-16. Abstract

37. American Diabetes Association. Standards of care in diabetes - 2023. Dec 2022 [internet publication]Full text

38. Rosen DS. Eating disorders in children and young adolescents: etiology, classification, clinical features, and treatment. Adolesc Med. 2003 Feb;14(1):49-59. Abstract

39. Norris ML, Hiebert JD, Katzman DK. Determining treatment goal weights for children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa [in French]. Paediatr Child Health. 2018 Dec;23(8):551-2.Full text  Abstract

40. US Preventive Services Task Force., Davidson KW, Barry MJ, et al. Screening for eating disorders in adolescents and adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2022 Mar 15;327(11):1061-7.Full text  Abstract

41. Royal College of Psychiatrists. Position statement on early intervention for eating disorders. May 2019 [internet publication].Full text

42. American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (Draft). Apr 2022 [internet publication].Full text

43. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Eating disorders. Aug 2022 [internet publication].Full text

44. Hay PJ, Touyz S, Claudino AM, et al. Inpatient versus outpatient care, partial hospitalisation and waiting list for people with eating disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 21;(1):CD010827.Full text  Abstract

45. Mitchell JE, Peterson CB. Anorexia nervosa. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 2;382(14):1343-51. Abstract

46. Hay P, Chinn D, Forbes D, et al; Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of eating disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2014 Nov;48(11):977-1008.Full text  Abstract

47. Yager J, Andersen AE. Clinical practice. Anorexia nervosa. N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 6;353(14):1481-8. Abstract

48. Bargiacchi A, Clarke J, Paulsen A, et al. Refeeding in anorexia nervosa. Eur J Pediatr. 2019 Mar;178(3):413-22. Abstract

49. Haynos AF, Snipes C, Guarda A, et al. Comparison of standardized versus individualized caloric prescriptions in the nutritional rehabilitation of inpatients with anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2016 Jan;49(1):50-8.Full text  Abstract

50. Garber AK, Sawyer SM, Golden NH, et al. A systematic review of approaches to refeeding in patients with anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2016 Mar;49(3):293-310. Abstract

51. Okamoto A, Yamashita T, Nagoshi Y, et al. A behavior therapy program combined with liquid nutrition designed for anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2002 Oct;56(5):515-20. Abstract

52. Royal College of Psychiatrists. Guidelines for the nutritional management of anorexia nervosa. Jul 2005 [internet publication].Full text

53. Fonseca V, Havard CWH. Electrolyte disturbances and cardiac failure with hypomagnesaemia in anorexia nervosa. BMJ. 1985 Dec 14;291(6510):1680-2. Abstract

54. Solmi M, Wade TD, Byrne S, et al. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychological interventions for the treatment of adult outpatients with anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2021 Mar;8(3):215-24. Abstract

55. Attia E, Walsh BT. Behavioral management for anorexia nervosa. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 29;360(5):500-6. Abstract

56. McIntosh VV, Jordan J, Carter FA, et al. Three psychotherapies for anorexia nervosa: a randomized, controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Apr;162(4):741-7. Abstract

57. Pike KM, Walsh BT, Vitousek K, et al. Cognitive behavior therapy in the posthospitalization treatment of anorexia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Nov;160(11):2046-9. Abstract

58. Byrne S, Wade T, Hay P, et al. A randomised controlled trial of three psychological treatments for anorexia nervosa. Psychol Med. 2017 Dec;47(16):2823-33. Abstract

59. Schmidt U, Magill N, Renwick B, et al. The Maudsley Outpatient Study of Treatments for Anorexia Nervosa and Related Conditions (MOSAIC): Comparison of the Maudsley Model of Anorexia Nervosa Treatment for Adults (MANTRA) with specialist supportive clinical management (SSCM) in outpatients with broadly defined anorexia nervosa: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2015 Aug;83(4):796-807. Abstract

60. Zipfel S, Wild B, Groß G, et al. Focal psychodynamic therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, and optimised treatment as usual in outpatients with anorexia nervosa (ANTOP study): randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2014 Jan 11;383(9912):127-37. Abstract

61. Hay PJ, Claudino AM, Touyz S, et al. Individual psychological therapy in the outpatient treatment of adults with anorexia nervosa. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jul 27;(7):CD003909.Full text  Abstract

62. Lock J, Le Grange D, Agras WS, et al. Randomized clinical trial comparing family-based treatment with adolescent-focused individual therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Oct;67(10):1025-32.Full text  Abstract

63. Robin AL, Siegel PT, Koepke T, et al. Family therapy versus individual therapy for adolescent females with anorexia nervosa. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1994 Apr;15(2):111-6. Abstract

64. Eisler I, Simic M, Russell GF, et al. A randomised controlled treatment trial of two forms of family therapy in adolescent anorexia nervosa: a five-year follow-up. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Jun;48(6):552-60. Abstract

65. Fisher CA, Skocic S, Rutherford KA, et al. Family therapy approaches for anorexia nervosa. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 May 1;5(5):CD004780.Full text  Abstract

66. Forsberg S, Fitzpatrick KK, Darcy A, et al. Development and evaluation of a treatment fidelity instrument for family-based treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2015 Jan;48(1):91-9. Abstract

67. Couturier J, Isserlin L, Lock J. Family-based treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa: a dissemination study. Eat Disord. 2010 May-Jun;18(3):199-209.Full text  Abstract

68. Bissada H, Tasca GA, Barber AM, et al. Olanzapine in the treatment of low body weight and obsessive thinking in women with anorexia nervosa: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2008 Oct;165(10):1281-8. Abstract

69. Attia E, Kaplan AS, Walsh BT, et al. Olanzapine versus placebo for out-patients with anorexia nervosa. Psychol Med. 2011 Oct;41(10):2177-82. Abstract

70. Attia E, Steinglass JE, Walsh BT, et al. Olanzapine versus placebo in adult outpatients with anorexia nervosa: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2019 Jun 1;176(6):449-56.Full text  Abstract

71. Crow SJ. Pharmacologic treatment of eating disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2019 Jun;42(2):253-62. Abstract

72. Alvarez PA, Pahissa J. QT alterations in psychopharmacology: proven candidates and suspects. Curr Drug Saf. 2010 Jan;5(1):97-104. Abstract

73. Rutherford L, Couturier J. A review of psychotherapeutic interventions for children and adolescents with eating disorders. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Nov;16(4):153-7.Full text  Abstract

74. Couturier J, Lock J. A review of medication use for children and adolescents with eating disorders. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Nov;16(4):173-6. Abstract

75. Aigner M, Treasure J, Kaye W, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of eating disorders. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Sep;12(6):400-43. Abstract

76. Walsh BT, Kaplan AS, Attia E, et al. Fluoxetine after weight restoration in anorexia nervosa: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006 Jun 14;295(22):2605-12. Abstract

77. Alañón Pardo MDM, Ferrit Martín M, Calleja Hernández MÁ, et al. Adherence of psychopharmacological prescriptions to clinical practice guidelines in patients with eating behavior disorders. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Oct;73(10):1305-13. Abstract

78. Misra M, Klibanski A. Anorexia nervosa and bone. J Endocrinol. 2014 Jun;221(3):R163-76.Full text  Abstract

79. Delgado PL, Miller HL, Salomon RM, et al. Tryptophan-depletion challenge in depressed patients treated with desipramine or fluoxetine: implications for the role of serotonin in the mechanism of antidepressant action. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Jul 15;46(2):212-20. Abstract

80. Wenzel-Seifert, K, Wittmann M, Haen E. QTc prolongation by psychotropic drugs and the risk of Torsade de Pointes. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011 Oct;108(41):687-93.Full text  Abstract

81. MHRA. Citalopram and escitalopram: QT interval prolongation - new maximum daily dose restrictions (including in elderly patients), contraindications, and warnings. Dec 2011 [internet publication].Full text

82. Touyz SW, Beaumont PJ, Glaun D, et al. A comparison of lenient patients with anorexia nervosa. Br J Psychiatry. 1984 May;144:517-20. Abstract

83. Lipsman N, Lam E, Volpini M, et al. Deep brain stimulation of the subcallosal cingulate for treatment-refractory anorexia nervosa: 1 year follow-up of an open-label trial. Lancet Psychiatry. 2017 Apr;4(4):285-94. Abstract

84. Strober M, Freeman R, Morrell W. Long-term course of severe anorexia nervosa in adolescents: survival analysis of recovery, relapse, and outcome predictors over 10-15 years in a prospective study. Int J Eat Disord. 1997 Dec;22(4):339-60. Abstract

85. Walsh JME, Wheat ME, Freund K. Detection, evaluation, and treatment of eating disorders: the role of the primary care physician. J Gen Intern Med. 2000 Aug;15(8):577-90. Abstract

86. Fichter MM, Quadflieg N, Hedlund S. Twelve-year course and outcome predictors of anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2006 Mar;39(2):87-100. Abstract

87. Franko DL, Keshaviah A, Eddy KT, et al. A longitudinal investigation of mortality in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Aug;170(8):917-25.Full text  Abstract

88. Hsu LKG. Outcome of early onset anorexia nervosa: what do we know? J Youth Adolesc. 1996 Aug;25(4):563-8.

89. Bouquegneau A, Dubois BE, Krzesiski JM, et al. Anorexia nervosa and the kidney. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012 Aug;60(2):299-307. Abstract

90. Loucks AB, Verdun M, Heath EM. Low energy availability, not stress of exercise, alters LH pulsatility in exercising women. J Appl Physiol. 1998 Jan;84(1):37-46. Abstract

91. Mehler PS, MacKenzie TD. Treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review of the literature. Int J Eat Disord. 2009 Apr;42(3):195-201. Abstract

92. Rigotti NA, Neer RM, Skates SJ, et al. The clinical course of osteoporosis in anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal study of cortical bone mass. JAMA. 1991 Mar 6;265(9):1133-8. Abstract

93. Powers PS, Thompson RA. The exercise balance. Carlsbad, CA: Gurze Books; 2008.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer