Asthma in adults

References

Key articles

National Institutes of Health; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Expert panel report 3: Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. August 2007 [internet publication].Full text

Global Initiative for Asthma. 2022 GINA report, global strategy for asthma management and prevention. 2022 [internet publication.Full text

Expert Panel Working Group of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) administered and coordinated National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee (NAEPPCC); Cloutier MM, Baptist AP, Blake KV, et al. 2020 focused updates to the asthma management guidelines: a report from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee Expert Panel Working Group. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Dec;146(6):1217-70.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Asthma: diagnosis, monitoring and chronic asthma management. March 2021 [internet publication].Full text

British Thoracic Society; Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma: a national clinical guideline. July 2019 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

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19. Paterson CA, Sharpe RA, Taylor T, et al. Indoor PM2.5, VOCs and asthma outcomes: a systematic review in adults and their home environments. Environ Res. 2021 Nov;202:111631.Full text  Abstract

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21. van der Wiel E, ten Hacken NH, Postma DS, et al. Small-airways dysfunction associates with respiratory symptoms and clinical features of asthma: a systematic review. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Mar;131(3):646-57. Abstract

22. Saikumar Jayalatha AK, Hesse L, Ketelaar ME, et al. The central role of IL-33/IL-1RL1 pathway in asthma: From pathogenesis to intervention. Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Sep;225:107847.Full text  Abstract

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24. Boyce JA. Asthma 2005-2006: bench to bedside. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Sep;118(3):582-6. Abstract

25. Cockcroft DW, Davis BE. Mechanisms of airway hyperresponsiveness. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Sep;118(3):551-9. Abstract

26. Kuruvilla ME, Vanijcharoenkarn K, Shih JA, et al. Epidemiology and risk factors for asthma. Respir Med. 2019 Mar;149:16-22.Full text  Abstract

27. Gabryszewski SJ, Hill DA. One march, many paths: insights into allergic march trajectories. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2021 Sep;127(3):293-300. Abstract

28. Polosa R, Thomson NC. Smoking and asthma: dangerous liaisons. Eur Respir J. 2013 Mar;41(3):716-26.Full text  Abstract

29. Wold LE, Tarran R, Crotty Alexander LE, et al. Cardiopulmonary consequences of vaping in adolescents: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circ Res. 2022 Jul 22;131(3):e70-82.Full text  Abstract

30. Feddema JJ, Claassen E. Prevalence of viral respiratory infections amongst asthmatics: Results of a meta-regression analysis. Respir Med. 2020 Nov;173:106020.Full text  Abstract

31. Laidlaw TM, Mullol J, Woessner KM, et al. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Mar;9(3):1133-41.Full text  Abstract

32. Langdon C, Mullol J. Nasal polyps in patients with asthma: prevalence, impact, and management challenges. J Asthma Allergy. 2016;9:45-53.Full text  Abstract

33. Sharma V, Cowan DC. Obesity, inflammation, and severe asthma: an update. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2021 Dec 18;21(12):46.Full text  Abstract

34. Miethe S, Karsonova A, Karaulov A, et al. Obesity and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Oct;146(4):685-93.Full text  Abstract

35. Xu M, Lodge CJ, Lowe AJ, et al. Are adults with asthma less physically active? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Asthma. 2021 Nov;58(11):1426-43. Abstract

36. Xu S, Gilliland FD, Conti DV. Elucidation of causal direction between asthma and obesity: a bi-directional Mendelian randomization study. Int J Epidemiol. 2019 Jun 1;48(3):899-907.Full text  Abstract

37. Asamoah-Boaheng M, Farrell J, Osei Bonsu K, et al. Examining risk factors accelerating time-to-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis among asthma patients. COPD. 2022;19(1):47-56.Full text  Abstract

38. Shore SA. Obesity and asthma: possible mechanisms. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 May;121(5):1087-93. Abstract

39. King GG, Brown NJ, Diba C, et al. The effects of body weight on airway calibre. Eur Respir J. 2005 May;25(5):896-901.Full text  Abstract

40. Zhu Z, Guo Y, Shi H, et al. Shared genetic and experimental links between obesity-related traits and asthma subtypes in UK Biobank. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Feb;145(2):537-49.Full text  Abstract

41. Paoletti G, Melone G, Ferri S, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux and asthma: when, how, and why. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021 Feb 1;21(1):52-8. Abstract

42. Cantarutti A, Barbiellini Amidei C, Valsecchi C, et al. Association of treated and untreated gastroesophageal reflux disease in the first year of life with the subsequent development of asthma. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Sep 13;18(18):9633. Abstract

43. Rogers L. Role of sleep apnea and gastroesophageal reflux in aevere asthma. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2016 Aug;36(3):461-71. Abstract

44. Kopsaftis Z, Yap HS, Tin KS, et al. Pharmacological and surgical interventions for the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux in adults and children with asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 17;5:CD001496.Full text  Abstract

45. Prasad B, Nyenhuis SM, Imayama I, et al. Asthma and abstructive sleep apnea overlap: what has the evidence taught us? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 Jun 1;201(11):1345-57.Full text  Abstract

46. Kong DL, Qin Z, Shen H, et al. Association of obstructive sleep apnea with asthma: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 22;7(1):4088.Full text  Abstract

47. British Thoracic Society. BTS clinical statement: asssessment and management of respiratory problems in athletic individuals. Apr 2022 [internet publication].Full text

48. Global Initiative for Asthma. 2022 GINA report, global strategy for asthma management and prevention. 2022 [internet publication.Full text

49. Louis R, Satia I, Ojanguren I, et al. European Respiratory Society guidelines for the diagnosis of asthma in adults. Eur Respir J. 2022 Feb 15;2101585 [Epub ahead of print].Full text  Abstract

50. Parsons JP, Hallstrand TS, Mastronarde JG, et al. An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline: exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 May 1;187(9):1016-27.Full text  Abstract

51. Cockcroft DD. Direct and indirect challenges in the clinical assessment of asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009 Nov;103(5):363-9. Abstract

52. Menzies-Gow A, Mansur AH, Brightling CE. Clinical utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in severe asthma management. Eur Respir J. 2020 Mar;55(3):1901633.Full text  Abstract

53. Expert Panel Working Group of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) administered and coordinated National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee (NAEPPCC); Cloutier MM, Baptist AP, Blake KV, et al. 2020 focused updates to the asthma management guidelines: a report from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee Expert Panel Working Group. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Dec;146(6):1217-70.Full text  Abstract

54. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Asthma: diagnosis, monitoring and chronic asthma management. March 2021 [internet publication].Full text

55. Kuo CR, Spears M, Haughney J, et al. Scottish consensus statement on the role of FeNO in adult asthma. Respir Med. 2019 Aug;155:54-7.Full text  Abstract

56. British Thoracic Society; Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma: a national clinical guideline. July 2019 [internet publication].Full text

57. Dweik RA, Boggs PB, Erzurum SC, et al. An official ATS clinical practice guideline: interpretation of exhaled nitric oxide levels (FENO) for clinical applications. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Sep 1;184(5):602-15.Full text  Abstract

58. Powell H, Murphy VE, Taylor DR, et al. Management of asthma in pregnancy guided by measurement of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011 Sep 10;378(9795):983-90. Abstract

59. Honkoop PJ, Loijmans RJ, Termeer EH, et al; Asthma Control Cost-Utility Randomized Trial Evaluation (ACCURATE) Study Group. Symptom-and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide-driven strategies for asthma control: a cluster-randomized trial in primary care. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Mar;135(3):682-8. Abstract

60. Petsky HL, Kew KM, Turner C, et al. Exhaled nitric oxide levels to guide treatment for adults with asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Sep 1;(9):CD011440.Full text  Abstract

61. Petsky HL, Li A, Chang AB. Tailored interventions based on sputum eosinophils versus clinical symptoms for asthma in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Aug 24;(8):CD005603.Full text  Abstract

62. Khatri SB, Iaccarino JM, Barochia A, et al. Use of fractional exhaled nitric oxide to guide the treatment of asthma: an official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 15;204(10):e97-e109.Full text  Abstract

63. British Thoracic Society and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma. July 2019 [internet publication].Full text

64. Carden KA, Boiselle PM, Waltz DA, et al. Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia in children and adults. An in-depth review. Chest. 2005 Mar;127(3):984-1005.Full text  Abstract

65. Lee KS, Sun MR, Ernst A, et al. Comparison of dynamic expiratory CT with bronchoscopy for diagnosing airway malacia: a pilot evaluation. Chest. 2007 Mar;131(3):758-64.Full text  Abstract

66. Reddel HK, Taylor DR, Bateman ED, et al. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: asthma control and exacerbations: standardizing endpoints for clinical asthma trials and clinical practice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Jul 1;180(1):59-99.Full text  Abstract

67. Global Initiative for Asthma. Pocket guide for asthma management and prevention. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

68. Ahmad S, Kew KM, Normansell R. Stopping long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA) for adults with asthma well controlled by LABA and inhaled corticosteroids. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jun 19;(6):CD011306.Full text  Abstract

69. Hodkinson A, Bower P, Grigoroglou C, et al. Self-management interventions to reduce healthcare use and improve quality of life among patients with asthma: systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020 Aug 18;370:m2521.Full text  Abstract

70. Nyenhuis SM, Kahwash B, Cooke A, et al. Recommendations for physical activity in asthma: a work group report of the AAAAI Sports, Exercise, and Fitness Committee. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2022 Feb;10(2):433-43. Abstract

71. Kahwash BM, Gregory KL, Sharp LK, et al. Results from a national survey of asthma provider beliefs and practices regarding exercise and asthma: a work group report of the AAAAI Committee on Sports, Exercise, and Fitness. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2022 Jul;10(7):1778-83.Full text  Abstract

72. Quirce S, Domínguez-Ortega J, Luna JA. Novel approaches in occupational asthma diagnosis and management. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2021 Jan;27(1):9-14.Full text  Abstract

73. Leas BF, D'Anci KE, Apter AJ, et al. Effectiveness of indoor allergen reduction in asthma management: a systematic review. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 May;141(5):1854-69.Full text  Abstract

74. Okoniewski W, Lu KD, Forno E. Weight loss for children and adults with obesity and asthma: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2019 May;16(5):613-25.Full text  Abstract

75. Thompson CA, Eslick SR, Berthon BS, et al. Asthma medication use in obese and healthy weight asthma: systematic review/meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2021 Mar;57(3):2000612.Full text  Abstract

76. Hossain N, Arhi C, Borg CM. Is bariatric surgery better than nonsurgical weight loss for improving asthma control? A Systematic Review. Obes Surg. 2021 Apr;31(4):1810-32. Abstract

77. Santino TA, Chaves GS, Freitas DA, et al. Breathing exercises for adults with asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Mar 25;(3):CD001277.Full text  Abstract

78. Lee C, Alexander E, Lee R, et al. Behavioral interventions for asthma self-management in South Asian populations: a systematic review. J Asthma. 2021 Jan;58(1):112-20. Abstract

79. Lazarinis N, Jørgensen L, Ekström T, et al. Combination of budesonide/formoterol on demand improves asthma control by reducing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Thorax. 2014 Feb;69(2):130-6.Full text  Abstract

80. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Drug safety communication: FDA requires boxed warning about serious mental health side effects for asthma and allergy drug montelukast (Singulair); advises restricting use for allergic rhinitis. March 2020 [internet publication].Full text

81. Welsh EJ, Cates CJ. Formoterol versus short-acting beta-agonists as relief medication for adults and children with asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Sep 8;(9):CD008418.Full text  Abstract

82. O'Byrne PM, FitzGerald JM, Bateman ED, et al. Inhaled combined budesonide-formoterol as needed in mild asthma. N Engl J Med. 2018 May 17;378(20):1865-76.Full text  Abstract

83. Beasley R, Holliday M, Reddel HK, et al. Controlled trial of budesonide-formoterol as needed for mild asthma. N Engl J Med. 2019 May 23;380(21):2020-30.Full text  Abstract

84. Hardy J, Baggott C, Fingleton J, et al. Budesonide-formoterol reliever therapy versus maintenance budesonide plus terbutaline reliever therapy in adults with mild to moderate asthma (PRACTICAL): a 52-week, open-label, multicentre, superiority, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2019 Sep 14;394(10202):919-28. Abstract

85. Crossingham I, Turner S, Ramakrishnan S, et al. Combination fixed-dose beta agonist and steroid inhaler as required for adults or children with mild asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 4;(5):CD013518.Full text  Abstract

86. O'Byrne PM, FitzGerald JM, Bateman ED, et al. Effect of a single day of increased as-needed budesonide-formoterol use on short-term risk of severe exacerbations in patients with mild asthma: a post-hoc analysis of the SYGMA 1 study. Lancet Respir Med. 2021 Feb;9(2):149-58. Abstract

87. Nwaru BI, Ekström M, Hasvold P, et al. Overuse of short-acting β2-agonists in asthma is associated with increased risk of exacerbation and mortality: a nationwide cohort study of the global SABINA programme. Eur Respir J. 2020 Apr;55(4):1901872.Full text  Abstract

88. Stanford RH, Shah MB, D'Souza AO, et al. Short-acting β-agonist use and its ability to predict future asthma-related outcomes. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012 Dec;109(6):403-7. Abstract

89. Bloom CI, Cabrera C, Arnetorp S, et al. Asthma-related health outcomes associated with short-acting β2-agonist inhaler use: an observational UK study as part of the SABINA global program. Adv Ther. 2020 Oct;37(10):4190-208.Full text  Abstract

90. Amin S, Soliman M, McIvor A, et al. Usage patterns of short-acting β2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids in asthma: a targeted literature review. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2020 Sep;8(8):2556-64. Abstract

91. Kaplan AG, Correia-de-Sousa J, McIvor A, et al. Global quality statements on reliever use in asthma in adults and children older than 5 years of age. Adv Ther. 2021 Mar;38(3):1382-96.Full text  Abstract

92. Bateman ED, Reddel HK, O'Byrne PM, et al. As-needed budesonide-formoterol versus maintenance budesonide in mild asthma. N Engl J Med. 2018 May 17;378(20):1877-87.Full text  Abstract

93. Janjua S, Schmidt S, Ferrer M, et al. Inhaled steroids with and without regular formoterol for asthma: serious adverse events. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Sep 25;(9):CD006924.Full text  Abstract

94. Papi A, Canonica GW, Maestrelli P, et al. Rescue use of beclomethasone and albuterol in a single inhaler for mild asthma. N Engl J Med. 2007 May 17;356(20):2040-52.Full text  Abstract

95. Martinez FD, Chinchilli VM, Morgan WJ, et al. Use of beclomethasone dipropionate as rescue treatment for children with mild persistent asthma (TREXA): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2011 Feb 19;377(9766):650-7. Abstract

96. Calhoun WJ, Ameredes BT, King TS, et al. Comparison of physician-, biomarker-, and symptom-based strategies for adjustment of inhaled corticosteroid therapy in adults with asthma: the BASALT randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2012 Sep 12;308(10):987-97.Full text  Abstract

97. Sumino K, Bacharier LB, Taylor J, et al. A pragmatic trial of symptom-based inhaled corticosteroid use in African-American children with mild asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2020 Jan;8(1):176-85.Full text  Abstract

98. Chauhan BF, Ducharme FM. Anti-leukotriene agents compared to inhaled corticosteroids in the management of recurrent and/or chronic asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 May 16;(5):CD002314.Full text  Abstract

99. Ni Chroinin M, Greenstone I, Lasserson TJ, et al. Addition of inhaled long-acting beta2-agonists to inhaled steroids as first line therapy for persistent asthma in steroid-naive adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD005307.Full text  Abstract

100. O'Shea O, Stovold E, Cates CJ. Regular treatment with formoterol and an inhaled corticosteroid versus regular treatment with salmeterol and an inhaled corticosteroid for chronic asthma: serious adverse events. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Apr 14;4:CD007694.Full text  Abstract

101. Virchow JC, Backer V, Kuna P, et al. Efficacy of a house dust mite sublingual allergen immunotherapy tablet in adults with allergic asthma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016 Apr 26;315(16):1715-25.Full text  Abstract

102. Mosbech H, Deckelmann R, de Blay F, et al. Standardized quality (SQ) house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy tablet (ALK) reduces inhaled corticosteroid use while maintaining asthma control: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Sep;134(3):568-75.Full text  Abstract

103. Fortescue R, Kew KM, Leung MST. Sublingual immunotherapy for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Sep 14;(9):CD011293.Full text  Abstract

104. Calderón MA, Bacharier LB. Controversies in allergy: a pro/con review of rublingual allergen immunotherapy and allergic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 May;9(5):1818-25. Abstract

105. Cates CJ, Karner C. Combination formoterol and budesonide as maintenance and reliever therapy versus current best practice (including inhaled steroid maintenance), for chronic asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Apr 30;(4):CD007313.Full text  Abstract

106. Kew KM, Karner C, Mindus SM, et al. Combination formoterol and budesonide as maintenance and reliever therapy versus combination inhaler maintenance for chronic asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Dec 16;(12):CD009019.Full text  Abstract

107. Papi A, Corradi M, Pigeon-Francisco C, et al. Beclometasone-formoterol as maintenance and reliever treatment in patients with asthma: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2013 Mar;1(1):23-31. Abstract

108. Patel M, Pilcher J, Pritchard A, et al. Efficacy and safety of maintenance and reliever combination budesonide-formoterol inhaler in patients with asthma at risk of severe exacerbations: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2013 Mar;1(1):32-42. Abstract

109. Bateman ED, Harrison TW, Quirce S, et al. Overall asthma control achieved with budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy for patients on different treatment steps. Respir Res. 2011 Apr 4;12:38.Full text  Abstract

110. Jorup C, Lythgoe D, Bisgaard H. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy in adolescent patients with asthma. Eur Respir J. 2018 Jan;51(1):1701688.Full text  Abstract

111. Demoly P, Louis R, Søes-Petersen U, et al. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy versus conventional best practice. Respir Med. 2009 Nov;103(11):1623-32.Full text  Abstract

112. Rogliani P, Ritondo BL, Ora J, et al. SMART and as-needed therapies in mild-to-severe asthma: a network meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2020 Sep;56(3):2000625.Full text  Abstract

113. O'Byrne PM, Naya IP, Kallen A, et al. Increasing doses of inhaled corticosteroids compared to adding long-acting inhaled beta2-agonists in achieving asthma control. Chest. 2008 Dec;134(6):1192-9.Full text  Abstract

114. Sobieraj DM, Baker WL, Nguyen E, et al. Association of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting muscarinic antagonists with asthma control in patients with uncontrolled, persistent asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2018 Apr 10;319(14):1473-84.Full text  Abstract

115. Kew KM, Dahri K. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA) added to combination long-acting beta2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids (LABA/ICS) versus LABA/ICS for adults with asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jan 21;(1):CD011721.Full text  Abstract

116. Kerstjens HAM, Maspero J, Chapman KR, et al. Once-daily, single-inhaler mometasone-indacaterol-glycopyrronium versus mometasone-indacaterol or twice-daily fluticasone-salmeterol in patients with inadequately controlled asthma (IRIDIUM): a randomised, double-blind, controlled phase 3 study. Lancet Respir Med. 2020 Oct;8(10):1000-12. Abstract

117. Kim LHY, Saleh C, Whalen-Browne A, et al. Triple vs dual inhaler therapy and asthma outcomes in moderate to severe asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2021 Jun 22;325(24):2466-79. Abstract

118. Lee LA, Bailes Z, Barnes N, et al. Efficacy and safety of once-daily single-inhaler triple therapy (FF/UMEC/VI) versus FF/VI in patients with inadequately controlled asthma (CAPTAIN): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3A trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2021 Jan;9(1):69-84. Abstract

119. Virchow JC, Kuna P, Paggiaro P, et al. Single inhaler extrafine triple therapy in uncontrolled asthma (TRIMARAN and TRIGGER): two double-blind, parallel-group, randomised, controlled phase 3 trials. Lancet. 2019 Nov 9;394(10210):1737-49. Abstract

120. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Bronchial thermoplasty for severe asthma. December 2018 [internet publication].Full text

121. Hiles SA, McDonald VM, Guilhermino M, et al. Does maintenance azithromycin reduce asthma exacerbations? An individual participant data meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2019 Nov;54(5):1901381.Full text  Abstract

122. Undela K, Goldsmith L, Kew KM, et al. Macrolides versus placebo for chronic asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Nov 22;11:CD002997.Full text  Abstract

123. Gibson PG, Yang IA, Upham JW, et al. Effect of azithromycin on asthma exacerbations and quality of life in adults with persistent uncontrolled asthma (AMAZES): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2017 Aug 12;390(10095):659-68. Abstract

124. Zaroff JG, Cheetham TC, Palmetto N, et al. Association of azithromycin use with cardiovascular mortality. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Jun 1;3(6):e208199.Full text  Abstract

125. Busby J, Khoo E, Pfeffer PE, et al. The effects of oral corticosteroids on lung function, type-2 biomarkers and patient-reported outcomes in stable asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respir Med. 2020 Nov;173:106156. Abstract

126. Volmer T, Effenberger T, Trautner C, et al. Consequences of long-term oral corticosteroid therapy and its side-effects in severe asthma in adults: a focused review of the impact data in the literature. Eur Respir J. 2018 Oct;52(4):1800703.Full text  Abstract

127. Cataldo D, Louis R, Michils A, et al. Severe asthma: oral corticosteroid alternatives and the need for optimal referral pathways. J Asthma. 2021 Apr;58(4):448-58.Full text  Abstract

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