Peripheral arterial disease

References

Key articles

Mills JL Sr, Conte MS, Armstrong DG, et al. The Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System: risk stratification based on wound, ischemia, and foot infection (WIfI). J Vasc Surg. 2014 Jan;59(1):220-34;e1-2.Full text  Abstract

Bedenis R, Stewart M, Cleanthis M, et al. Cilostazol for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Oct 31;(10):CD003748.Full text  Abstract

Chowdhury MM, McLain AD, Twine CP. Angioplasty versus bare metal stenting for superficial femoral artery lesions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(6):CD006767.Full text  Abstract

Alonso-Coello P, Bellmunt S, McGorrian C, et al. Antithrombotic therapy in peripheral artery disease: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(suppl 2):e669S-90S. Abstract

Abu Dabrh AM, Steffen MW, Asi N, et al. Bypass surgery versus endovascular interventions in severe or critical limb ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2016 Jan;63(1):244-53.Full text  Abstract

Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. Randomized trial of the effects of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin on peripheral vascular and other major vascular outcomes in 20,536 people with peripheral arterial disease and other high-risk conditions. J Vasc Surg. 2007 Apr;45(4):645-54.Full text  Abstract

Fadini GP, Agostini C, Avogaro A. Autologous stem cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease: meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature. Atherosclerosis. 2010 Mar;209(1):10-7. Abstract

Rosenfield K, Jaff MR, White CJ, et al. Trial of a paclitaxel-coated balloon for femoropopliteal artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 9;373(2):145-53.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Gerhard-Herman MD, Gornik HL, Barrett C, et al. 2016 AHA/ACC guideline on the management of patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease: executive summary. Circulation. 2017 Mar 21;135(12):e686-725.Full text  Abstract

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7. Vitalis A, Lip GY, Kay M, et al. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2017 Apr;15(4):327-38. Abstract

8. Fowkes FG, Rudan D, Rudan I, et al. Comparison of global estimates of prevalence and risk factors for peripheral artery disease in 2000 and 2010: a systematic review and analysis. Lancet. 2013 Oct 19;382(9901):1329-40. Abstract

9. Watson K, Watson BD, Pater KS. Peripheral arterial disease: a review of disease awareness and management. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2006 Dec;4(4):365-79. Abstract

10. Abaraogu UO, Ezenwankwo EF, Dall PM, et al. Living a burdensome and demanding life: A qualitative systematic review of the patients experiences of peripheral arterial disease. PLoS One. 2018 Nov 15;13(11):e0207456.Full text  Abstract

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13. Youssef F, Gupta P, Mikhailidis DP, et al. Risk modification in patients with peripheral arterial disease: a retrospective survey. Angiology. 2005 May-Jun;56(3):279-87. Abstract

14. Paraskevas KI, Papas TT, Pavlidis P, et al. The importance of conservative measures in peripheral arterial disease: an update. Angiology. 2008 Oct-Nov;59(5):529-33. Abstract

15. Ostchega Y, Paulose-Ram R, Dillon CF, et al. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and risk factors in persons aged 60 and older: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007 Apr;55(4):583-9. Abstract

16. Willigendael EM, Teijink JA, Bartelink ML, et al. Influence of smoking on incidence and prevalence of peripheral arterial disease. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Dec;40(6):1158-65. Abstract

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18. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet. 1998 Nov 7;352(9139):1558. Abstract

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20. Criqui MH, Aboyans V. Epidemiology of peripheral artery disease. Circ Res. 2015 Apr 24;116(9):1509-26. Abstract

21. Murabito JM, D'Agostino RB, Silbershatz H, et al. Intermittent claudication. A risk profile from The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 1997 Jul 1;96(1):44-9. Abstract

22. Joosten MM, Pai JK, Bertoia ML, et al. Associations between conventional cardiovascular risk factors and risk of peripheral artery disease in men. JAMA. 2012 Oct 24;308(16):1660-7. Abstract

23. Lane DA, Lip GY. Treatment of hypertension in peripheral arterial disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(12):CD003075.Full text  Abstract

24. Thomas Manapurathe D, Krishna SM, Dewdney B, et al. Effect of blood pressure lowering medications on leg ischemia in peripheral artery disease patients: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 2;12(6):e0178713.Full text  Abstract

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26. Armstrong EJ, Chen DC, Singh GD, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use is associated with reduced major adverse cardiovascular events among patients with critical limb ischemia. Vasc Med. 2015 Jun;20(3):237-44. Abstract

27. Mehler PS, Coll JR, Estacio R, et al. Intensive blood pressure control reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral arterial disease and type 2 diabetes. Circulation. 2003 Feb 11;107(5):753-6.Full text  Abstract

28. Harris SK, Roos MG, Landry GJ. Statin use in patients with peripheral arterial disease. J Vasc Surg. 2016 Dec;64(6):1881-8. Abstract

29. National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel. Third report: detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation. 2002 Dec 17;106(25):3143-421. Abstract

30. Aung PP, Maxwell HG, Jepson RG, et al. Lipid-lowering for peripheral arterial disease of the lower limb. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(4):CD000123.Full text  Abstract

31. Stoekenbroek RM, Boekholdt SM, Fayyad R, et al. High-dose atorvastatin is superior to moderate-dose simvastatin in preventing peripheral arterial disease. Heart. 2015 Mar;101(5):356-62. Abstract

32. Selvin E, Erlinger TP. Prevalence of and risk factors for peripheral arterial disease in the United States: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2000. Circulation. 2004 Aug 10;110(6):738-43. Abstract

33. Andras A, Stansby G, Hansrani M. Homocysteine lowering interventions for peripheral arterial disease and bypass grafts. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(7):CD003285.Full text  Abstract

34. Lane R, Harwood A, Watson L, et al. Exercise for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(12):CD000990.Full text  Abstract

35. Małecki R, Zdrojowy K, Adamiec R. Thromboangiitis obliterans in the 21st century - a new face of disease. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Oct;206(2):328-34. Abstract

36. Esfahani F, Rooholamini SA, Azadeh B, et al. Arterial fibrodysplasia: a regional cause of peripheral occlusive vascular disease. Angiology. 1989 Feb;40(2):108-13. Abstract

37. Department of Health, UK. Putting prevention first: vascular checks: risk assessment and management. Impact assessment. Apr 2008 [internet publication].Full text

38. McDermott MM, Liu K, Greenland P, et al. Functional decline in peripheral arterial disease: associations with the ankle brachial index and leg symptoms. JAMA. 2004 Jul 28;292(4):453-61.Full text  Abstract

39. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Peripheral arterial disease: diagnosis and management. February 2018 [internet publication].Full text

40. Paraskevas KI, Kotsikoris I, Koupidis SA, et al. Ankle-brachial index: a marker of both peripheral arterial disease and systemic atherosclerosis as well as a predictor of vascular events. Angiology. 2010 Aug;61(6):521-3. Abstract

41. Depalma RG. Impotence in vascular disease: relationship to vascular surgery. Br J Surg. 1982 Jun;69(suppl):S14-S16. Abstract

42. Mills JL Sr, Conte MS, Armstrong DG, et al. The Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System: risk stratification based on wound, ischemia, and foot infection (WIfI). J Vasc Surg. 2014 Jan;59(1):220-34;e1-2.Full text  Abstract

43. Dormandy JA, Rutherford RB. Management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). TASC Working Group. TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC). J Vasc Surg. 2000 Jan;31(1 Pt 2):S1-296. Abstract

44. TASC Steering Committee; Jaff MR, White CJ, Hiatt WR, et al. An update on methods for revascularization and expansion of the TASC lesion classification to include below-the-knee arteries: a supplement to the inter-society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II). Vasc Med. 2015 Oct;20(5):465-78. Abstract

45. Gerhard-Herman MD, Gornik HL, Barrett C, et al. 2016 AHA/ACC guideline on the management of patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease: executive summary. Circulation. 2017 Mar 21;135(12):e686-725.Full text  Abstract

46. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 May 15;71(19):e127-248.Full text  Abstract

47. Gerhard-Herman MD, Gornik HL, Barrett C, et al. 2016 AHA/ACC guideline on the management of patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease: executive summary. Circulation. 2017 Mar 21;135(12):e686-725.Full text  Abstract

48. Razavi MK, Lee DS, Hofmann LV. Catheter-directed thrombolytic therapy for limb ischemia: current status and controversies. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004 Jan;15(1 Pt 1):13-23. Abstract

49. Guidon M, McGee H. Exercise-based interventions and health-related quality of life in intermittent claudication: a 20-year (1989-2008) review. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010 Apr;17(2):140-54. Abstract

50. Mays RJ, Hiatt WR, Casserly IP, et al. Community-based walking exercise for peripheral artery disease: an exploratory pilot study. Vasc Med. 2015 Aug;20(4):339-47. Abstract

51. Mangiafico RA, Fiore CE. Current management of intermittent claudication: the role of pharmacological and nonpharmacological symptom-directed therapies. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2009 Jul;7(3):394-413. Abstract

52. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Cilostazol, naftidrofuryl oxalate, pentoxifylline and inositol nicotinate for the treatment of intermittent claudication in people with peripheral arterial disease. May 2011 [internet publication].Full text

53. Pande RL, Hiatt WR, Zhang P, et al. A pooled analysis of the durability and predictors of treatment response of cilostazol in patients with intermittent claudication. Vasc Med. 2010 Jun;15(3):181-8.Full text  Abstract

54. Bedenis R, Stewart M, Cleanthis M, et al. Cilostazol for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Oct 31;(10):CD003748.Full text  Abstract

55. Warner CJ, Greaves SW, Larson RJ, et al. Cilostazol is associated with improved outcomes after peripheral endovascular interventions. J Vasc Surg. 2014 Jun;59(6):1607-14. Abstract

56. Iida O, Yokoi H, Soga Y, et al; STOP-IC investigators. Cilostazol reduces angiographic restenosis after endovascular therapy for femoropopliteal lesions in the Sufficient Treatment of Peripheral Intervention by Cilostazol study. Circulation. 2013 Jun 11;127(23):2307-15.Full text  Abstract

57. De Backer T, Vander Stichele R, Lehert P, et al. Naftidrofuryl for intermittent claudication: meta-analysis based on individual patient data. BMJ. 2009 Mar 10;338:b603Full text  Abstract

58. Stevens JW, Simpson E, Harnan S, et al. Systematic review of the efficacy of cilostazol, naftidrofuryl oxalate and pentoxifylline for the treatment of intermittent claudication. Br J Surg. 2012;99:1630-1638. Abstract

59. Fakhry F, Fokkenrood HJ, Spronk S, et al. Endovascular revascularisation versus conservative management for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 8;(3):CD010512.Full text  Abstract

60. Malgor RD, Alahdab F, Elraiyah TA, et al. A systematic review of treatment of intermittent claudication in the lower extremities. Vasc Surg. 2015 Mar Mar;61(3 Suppl):54S-73S. Abstract

61. Nicolaï SP, Kruidenier LM, Bendermacher BL, et al. Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(6):CD006888.Full text  Abstract

62. Ubbink DT, Vermeulen H. Spinal cord stimulation for non-reconstructable chronic critical leg ischaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(2):CD004001.Full text  Abstract

63. Liu Y, Xu Y, Fang F, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of stem cell-based therapy in peripheral arterial disease: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 29;10(4):e0125032. Abstract

64. Rigato M, Monami M, Fadini GP. Autologous cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, nonrandomized, and noncontrolled studies. Circ Res. 2017 Apr 14;120(8):1326-40. Abstract

65. Bachoo P, Thorpe PA, Maxwell H, et al. Endovascular stents for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(1):CD003228.Full text  Abstract

66. Chowdhury MM, McLain AD, Twine CP. Angioplasty versus bare metal stenting for superficial femoral artery lesions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(6):CD006767.Full text  Abstract

67. Nguyen BN, Amdur RL, Abugideiri M, et al. Postoperative complications after common femoral endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg. 2015 Jun;61(6):1489-94. Abstract

68. Micari A, Nerla R, Vadalà G, et al. 2-year results of paclitaxel-coated balloons for long femoropopliteal artery disease: evidence from the SFA-long study. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2017 Apr 10;10(7):728-34.Full text  Abstract

69. Reifsnyder T, Arhuidese IJ, Hicks CW, et al. Contemporary outcomes for open infrainguinal bypass in the endovascular era. Ann Vasc Surg. 2016 Jan;30:52-8. Abstract

70. Bedenis R, Lethaby A, Maxwell H, et al. Antiplatelet agents for preventing thrombosis after peripheral arterial bypass surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(2):CD000535.Full text  Abstract

71. Alonso-Coello P, Bellmunt S, McGorrian C, et al. Antithrombotic therapy in peripheral artery disease: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(suppl 2):e669S-90S. Abstract

72. Abu Dabrh AM, Steffen MW, Asi N, et al. Bypass surgery versus endovascular interventions in severe or critical limb ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2016 Jan;63(1):244-53.Full text  Abstract

73. Hsu CC, Kwan GN, Singh D, et al. Angioplasty versus stenting for infrapopliteal arterial lesions in chronic limb-threatening ischaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 8;(12):CD009195.Full text  Abstract

74. Momsen AH, Jensen MB, Norager CB, et al. Drug therapy for improving walking distance in intermittent claudication: a systematic review and meta-analysis of robust randomised controlled studies. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009 Oct;38(4):463-74. Abstract

75. Paraskevas KI, Athyros VG, Briana DD, et al. Statins exert multiple beneficial effects on patients undergoing percutaneous revascularization procedures. Curr Drug Targets. 2007 Aug;8(8):942-51. Abstract

76. Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. Randomized trial of the effects of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin on peripheral vascular and other major vascular outcomes in 20,536 people with peripheral arterial disease and other high-risk conditions. J Vasc Surg. 2007 Apr;45(4):645-54.Full text  Abstract

77. Ahimastos AA, Walker PJ, Askew C, et al. Effect of ramipril on walking times and quality of life among patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2013 Feb 6;309(5):453-60. Abstract

78. Basili S, Raparelli V, Vestri A, et al. Comparison of efficacy of antiplatelet treatments for patients with claudication. A meta-analysis. Thromb Haemost. 2010 Apr;103(4):766-73. Abstract

79. Li L, Geraghty OC, Mehta Z, et al. Age-specific risks, severity, time course, and outcome of bleeding on long-term antiplatelet treatment after vascular events: a population-based cohort study. Lancet. 2017 Jul 29;390(10093):490-9. Abstract

80. Kayssi A1, Al-Atassi T, Oreopoulos G, et al. Drug-eluting balloon angioplasty versus uncoated balloon angioplasty for peripheral arterial disease of the lower limbs. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(8):CD011319.Full text  Abstract

81. Antoniou GA, Georgiadis GS, Antoniou SA, et al. Bypass surgery for chronic lower limb ischaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(4):CD002000.Full text  Abstract

82. Abu Dabrh AM, Steffen MW, Asi N, et al. Nonrevascularization-based treatments in patients with severe or critical limb ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 201 Nov;62(5):1330-9. Abstract

83. Aboyans V, Bauersachs R, Mazzolai L, et al. Antithrombotic therapies in aortic and peripheral arterial diseases in 2021: a consensus document from the ESC working group on aorta and peripheral vascular diseases, the ESC working group on thrombosis, and the ESC working group on cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. Eur Heart J. 2021 Jul 19;:.Full text  Abstract

84. Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Bosch J, et al; COMPASS Investigators. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in stable cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2017 Oct 5;377(14):1319-30. Abstract

85. Anand SS, Bosch J, Eikelboom JW, et al; COMPASS Investigators. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in patients with stable peripheral or carotid artery disease: an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2018 Jan 20;391(10117):219-29.Full text  Abstract

86. Eikelboom JW, Bhatt DL, Fox KAA, et al. Mortality Benefit of Rivaroxaban Plus Aspirin in Patients With Chronic Coronary or Peripheral Artery Disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 Jul 6;78(1):14-23.Full text  Abstract

87. Bonaca MP, Bauersachs RM, Anand SS, et al. Rivaroxaban in Peripheral Artery Disease after Revascularization. N Engl J Med. 2020 May 21;382(21):1994-2004.Full text  Abstract

88. Debus ES, Nehler MR, Govsyeyev N, et al. Effect of Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Surgical Revascularization: Insights from the VOYAGER PAD Trial. Circulation. 2021 Aug 12;:.Full text  Abstract

89. Paraskevas KI, Mikhailidis DP. Angiogenesis: a promising treatment option for peripheral arterial disease. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2008Apr;6(2):78-80. Abstract

90. Fadini GP, Agostini C, Avogaro A. Autologous stem cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease: meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature. Atherosclerosis. 2010 Mar;209(1):10-7. Abstract

91. Moazzami K, Moazzami B, Roohi A, et al. Local intramuscular transplantation of autologous mononuclear cells for critical lower limb ischaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(12):CD008347.Full text  Abstract

92. Teraa M, Sprengers RW, van der Graaf Y, et al. Autologous bone marrow-derived cell therapy in patients with critical limb ischemia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Ann Surg. 2013 Dec;258(6):922-9. Abstract

93. Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves first drug-coated angioplasty balloon catheter to treat vascular disease. October 2014 [internet publication].

94. Food and Drug Administration. Medtronic IN.PACT Admiral paclitaxel-coated PTA balloon catheter - P140010. December 2014 [internet publication].Full text

95. Rosenfield K, Jaff MR, White CJ, et al. Trial of a paclitaxel-coated balloon for femoropopliteal artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 9;373(2):145-53.Full text  Abstract

96. Tepe G, Laird J, Schneider P, et al. Drug-coated balloon versus standard percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for the treatment of superficial femoral and popliteal peripheral artery disease: 12-month results from the IN.PACT SFA randomized trial. Circulation. 2015 Feb 3;131(5):495-502.Full text  Abstract

97. Kayssi A, Al-Jundi W, Papia G, et al. Drug-eluting balloon angioplasty versus uncoated balloon angioplasty for the treatment of in-stent restenosis of the femoropopliteal arteries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 26;(1):CD012510.Full text  Abstract

98. Katsanos K, Spiliopoulos S, Kitrou P, et al. Risk of death following application of paclitaxel-coated balloons and stents in the femoropopliteal artery of the leg: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Dec 18;7(24):e011245.Full text  Abstract

99. Food and Drug Administration. August 7, 2019 UPDATE: treatment of peripheral arterial disease with paclitaxel-coated balloons and paclitaxel-eluting stents potentially associated with increased mortality. August 2019 [internet publication].Full text

100. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Recommendations for ongoing use of paclitaxel drug coated balloons (DCBs) and implantable drug eluting stents (DESs) in the treatment of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) (MDA/2019/023R). June 2019 [internet publication].Full text

101. Gryka RJ, Buckley LF, Anderson SM. Vorapaxar: the current role and future directions of a novel protease-activated receptor antagonist for risk reduction in atherosclerotic disease. Drugs R D. 2017 Mar;17(1):65-72. Abstract

102. Bonaca MP, Nault P, Giugliano RP, et al. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering with evolocumab and outcomes in patients with peripheral artery disease: insights from the FOURIER trial (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk). Circulation. 2018 Jan 23;137(4):338-50.Full text  Abstract

103. Davies MG. Criticial limb ischemia: epidemiology. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2012 Oct-Dec;8(4):10-4. Abstract

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