Reported lifetime prevalence of exposure to potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) varies considerably between countries and, within countries, between certain groups. Exposure to PTEs was reported by 21.4% of individuals in a German sample,[2] 63.6% in a sample from 6 European countries,[3] 64.6% of males and 49.5% of females in an Australian sample,[4] and 80.7% in a sample from the Netherlands.[5] Higher frequency of exposure has been reported in inner cities[6] and where natural disasters have occurred.[7] Certain groups are more likely to be exposed to PTEs: these include military personnel, emergency-service workers, police, and refugees.

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