Contraception

References

Key articles

Curtis KM, Jatlaoui TC, Tepper NK, et al. US selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016 Jul 29;65(4):1-66.Full text  Abstract

The Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) of the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for contraceptive use (UKMEC). Sep 2019 [internet publication].Full text

World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria for contraceptive use (MEC). 5th ed. 2015.Full text  Abstract

Curtis KM, Tepper NK, Jatlaoui TC, et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. US Medical Eligibility Criteria (USMEC) for contraceptive use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016 Jul 29;65(3):1-103.Full text  Abstract

Stewart FH, Harper CC, Ellertson CE, et al. Clinical breast and pelvic examination requirements for hormonal contraception: Current practice vs evidence. JAMA. 2001 May 2;285(17):2232-9. Abstract

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin no. 186 summary: long-acting reversible contraception: implants and intrauterine devices. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Nov;130(5):1173-5. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Office for National Statistics. Conception statistics: conceptions in England and Wales 2016. Mar 2018 [internet publication].Full text

2. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Long-acting reversible contraception. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text

3. Hatcher R. Contraceptive technology. 21st ed. New York: Ardent Media; 2018.Full text

4. Finer LB, Zolna MR. Declines in unintended pregnancy in the United States, 2008-2011. N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 3;374(9):843-52.Full text  Abstract

5. Jones RK, Jerman J. Population group abortion rates and lifetime incidence of abortion: United States, 2008-2014. Am J Public Health. 2017 Dec;107(12):1904-9.Full text  Abstract

6. Jatlaoui TC, Shah J, Mandel MG, et al. Abortion surveillance - United States, 2014. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2017 Nov 24;66(24):1-48.Full text  Abstract

7. Curtis KM, Jatlaoui TC, Tepper NK, et al. US selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016 Jul 29;65(4):1-66.Full text  Abstract

8. The Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) of the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. UK Medical Eligibility Criteria for contraceptive use (UKMEC). Sep 2019 [internet publication].Full text

9. World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria for contraceptive use (MEC). 5th ed. 2015.Full text  Abstract

10. Curtis KM, Tepper NK, Jatlaoui TC, et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. US Medical Eligibility Criteria (USMEC) for contraceptive use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016 Jul 29;65(3):1-103.Full text  Abstract

11. Public Health England. Health matters: preventing STIs. Aug 2019 [internet publication].Full text

12. McNicholas CP, Klugman JB, Zhao Q, et al. Condom use and incident sexually transmitted infection after initiation of long-acting reversible contraception. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Dec;217(6):672.e1-672.e6.Full text  Abstract

13. Kortsmit K, Williams L, Pazol K, et al. Condom Use With Long-Acting Reversible Contraception vs Non-Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Hormonal Methods Among Postpartum Adolescents. JAMA Pediatr. 2019 Jul 1;173(7):663-670.Full text  Abstract

14. Stewart FH, Harper CC, Ellertson CE, et al. Clinical breast and pelvic examination requirements for hormonal contraception: Current practice vs evidence. JAMA. 2001 May 2;285(17):2232-9. Abstract

15. Sawaya GF, Harper C, Balistreri E, et al. Cervical neoplasia risk in women provided hormonal contraception without a Pap smear. Contraception. 2001 Feb;63(2):57-60. Abstract

16. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 710. Counseling adolescents about contraception. Aug 2017 [internet publication].Full text

17. White KO, Westhoff C. The effect of pack supply on oral contraceptive pill continuation: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Sep;118(3):615-22. Abstract

18. World Health Organization. Family planning - a global handbook for providers. 3rd edition. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

19. Barr AC, Badell ML, Vettese TE. Contraception counseling in patients with SLE and other chronic medical conditions requiring potentially teratogenic medications: a teachable moment. JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Apr 1;179(4):562-563.Full text  Abstract

20. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency drug safety update. Valproate pregnancy prevention programme: actions required now from GPs, specialists, and dispensers. Sep 2018 [internet publication].Full text

21. Van Damme L, Ramjee G, Alary M, et al. Effectiveness of COL-1492, a nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel, on HIV-1 transmission in female sex workers: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002 Sep 28;360(9338):971-7. Abstract

22. Stephenson J. Widely used spermicide may increase, not decrease, risk of HIV transmission. JAMA. 2000 Aug 23-30;284(8):949. Abstract

23. Urrutia RP, Polis CB. Fertility awareness based methods for pregnancy prevention. BMJ. 2019 Jul 11;366:l4245.Full text  Abstract

24. Food and Drug Administration. FDA allows marketing of first direct-to-consumer app for contraceptive use to prevent pregnancy. Aug 2018 [internet publication].Full text

25. Berglund Scherwitzl, Lundberg O, Kopp Kallner H, et al. Perfect-use and typical-use Pearl Index of a contraceptive mobile app. Contraception. 2017 Dec;96(6):420-5.Full text  Abstract

26. Gaffield ME, Culwell KR, Lee CR. The use of hormonal contraception among women taking anticonvulsant therapy. Contraception. 2011 Jan;83(1):16-29. Abstract

27. Lopez LM, Newmann SJ, Grimes DA, et al. Immediate start of hormonal contraceptives for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Dec 12;(12):CD006260.Full text  Abstract

28. The Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) of the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. Clinical guidance: quick starting contraception - April 2017. Apr 2017 [internet publication].Full text

29. Burkman R, Schlesselman JJ, Zieman M. Safety concerns and health benefits associated with oral contraception. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;190(4 Suppl):S5-22. Abstract

30. Reid R, Leyland N, Wolfman W, et al. SOGC clinical practice guidelines: Oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thromboembolism: an update: no. 252, December 2010. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011 Mar;112(3):252-6. Abstract

31. Stegeman BH, de Bastos M, Rosendaal FR, et al. Different combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosis: systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013 Sep 12;347:f5298.Full text  Abstract

32. Wu CQ, Grandi SM, Filion KB, et al. Drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive pills and the risk of venous and arterial thrombosis: a systematic review. BJOG. 2013 Jun;120(7):801-10.Full text  Abstract

33. World Health Organization. Medical eligibility for contraceptive use. Fifth edition. Aug 2015 [internet publication].Full text

34. NHS Specialist Pharmacy Service. What is a suitable combined oral contraceptive pill in a patient who is taking hepatic enzyme-inducing drugs, such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampicin or rifabutin? May 2019 [internet publication].Full text

35. The Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) of the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. Clinical guidance: combined hormonal contraception - January 2019. Jan 2019 [internet publication].Full text

36. Dragoman MV, Tepper NK, Fu R, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of venous thrombosis risk among users of combined oral contraception. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2018 Jun;141(3):287-94.Full text  Abstract

37. Lopez LM, Grimes DA, Gallo MF, et al. Skin patch and vaginal ring versus combined oral contraceptives for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Apr 30;(4):CD003552.Full text  Abstract

38. Dragoman MV, Simmons KB, Paulen ME, et al. Combined hormonal contraceptive (CHC) use among obese women and contraceptive effectiveness: a systematic review. Contraception. 2017 Feb;95(2):117-29. Abstract

39. Shimoni N, Westhoff C. Review of the vaginal contraceptive ring (NuvaRing). J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2008 Oct;34(4):247-50.Full text  Abstract

40. López-Picado A, Lapuente O, Lete I, et al. Efficacy and side-effects profile of the ethinylestradiol and etonogestrel contraceptive vaginal ring: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2017 Apr;22(2):131-46. Abstract

41. Black A, Guilbert E, Costescu D, et al. Canadian Contraception Consensus (part 3 of 4): chapter 8 - progestin-only contraception. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2016 Mar;38(3):279-300. Abstract

42. Abdel-Aleem H, d'Arcangues C, Vogelsong KM, et al. Treatment of vaginal bleeding irregularities induced by progestin only contraceptives. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Oct 21;(10):CD003449.Full text  Abstract

43. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin no. 186 summary: long-acting reversible contraception: implants and intrauterine devices. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Nov;130(5):1173-5. Abstract

44. The Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) of the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. Clinical guidance: progestogen-only implants - February 2014. Feb 2014 [internet publication].Full text

45. Darney P, Patel A, Rosen K, et al. Safety and efficacy of a single-rod etonogestrel implant (Implanon): results from 11 international clinical trials. Fertil Steril. 2009 May;91(5):1646-53. Abstract

46. Laumonerie P, Blasco L, Tibbo ME, et al. Peripheral nerve injury associated with a subdermal contraceptive implant: illustrative cases and systematic review of literature. World Neurosurg. 2018 Mar;111:317-25. Abstract

47. World Health Organization. WHO statement on progestogen-only implants. 2015 [internet publication].Full text

48. World Health Organization. Selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use. Third edition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. Abstract

49. Guiahi M, McBride M, Sheeder J, et al. Short-term treatment of bothersome bleeding for etonogestrel implant users using a 14-day oral contraceptive pill regimen: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Sep;126(3):508-13. Abstract

50. Dragoman MV, Gaffield ME. The safety of subcutaneously administered depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (104mg/0.65mL): a systematic review. Contraception. 2016 Sep;94(3):202-15.Full text  Abstract

51. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 602. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and bone effects. June 2014 (re-affirmed 2017) [internet publication].Full text

52. The Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) of the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. Clinical guidance: progestrogen-only injectable contraception - December 2014 (updated April 2019). Apr 2019 [internet publication].Full text

53. Lyus R, Lohr P, Prager S, et al. Use of the Mirena LNG-IUS and Paragard CuT380A intrauterine devices in nulliparous women. Contraception. 2010 May;81(5):367-71. Abstract

54. Lohr PA, Lyus R, Prager S. Use of intrauterine devices in nulliparous women. Contraception. 2017 Jun;95(6):529-37. Abstract

55. The Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) of the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. Clinical guidance: intrauterine contraception - October 2015. Oct 2015 [internet publication].Full text

56. Grimes DA. Intrauterine devices and infertility: sifting through the evidence. Lancet. 2001 Jul 7;358(9275):6-7. Abstract

57. Grimes DA. Intrauterine device and upper-genital-tract infection. Lancet. 2000 Sep 16;356(9234):1013-9. Abstract

58. Okusanya BO, Oduwole O, Effa EE. Immediate postabortal insertion of intrauterine devices. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jul 28;(7):CD001777.Full text  Abstract

59. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 670. Immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception. Aug 2016 [internet publication].Full text

60. Berry-Bibee EN, Tepper NK, Jatlaoui TC, et al. The safety of intrauterine devices in breastfeeding women: a systematic review. Contraception. 2016 Dec;94(6):725-38. Abstract

61. Black A, Guilbert E, Costescu D, et al. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 3 of 4): Chapter 7 - intrauterine contraception. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2016 Feb;38(2):182-222. Abstract

62. Hubacher D, Lara-Ricalde R, Taylor D, et al. Use of copper intrauterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. N Engl J Med. 2001 Aug 23;345(8):561-7.Full text  Abstract

63. Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) of the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. FSRH guidance: contraception for women aged over 40 years. Oct 2017 [internet publication].Full text

64. Jatlaoui TC, Simmons KB, Curtis KM. The safety of intrauterine contraception initiation among women with current asymptomatic cervical infections or at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections. Contraception. 2016 Jun 1;94(6):701-12. Abstract

65. Nelson A, Apter D, Hauck B, et al. Two low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive systems: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Dec;122(6):1205-13. Abstract

66. Wu JP, Moniz MH, Ursu AN. Long-acting reversible contraception-highly efficacious, safe, and underutilized. JAMA. 2018 Jul 24;320(4):397-8. Abstract

67. Mosher WD, Martinez GM, Chandra A, et al. Use of contraception and use of family planning services in the United States: 1982-2002. Adv Data. 2004 Dec 10;(350):1-36. Abstract

68. Lawrie TA, Kulier R, Nardin JM. Techniques for the interruption of tubal patency for female sterilisation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Aug 5;(8):CD003034.Full text  Abstract

69. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA activities Essure. Nov 2019 [internet publication].Full text

70. Hillis SD, Marchbanks PA, Tylor LR, et al. Poststerilization regret: findings from the United States Collaborative Review of Sterilization. Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jun;93(6):889-95. Abstract

71. The Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) of the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. Male and female sterilisation - September 2014. Sep 2014 [internet publication].Full text

72. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 695. Sterilization of women: ethical issues and considerations. Apr 2017 [internet publication].Full text

73. Bhindi B, Wallis CJD, Nayan M, et al. The association between vasectomy and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Sep 1;177(9):1273-86. Abstract

74. Møller H, Knudsen LB, Lynge E. Risk of testicular cancer after vasectomy: cohort study of over 73,000 men. BMJ. 1994 Jul 30;309(6950):295-9.Full text  Abstract

75. Duan H, Deng T, Chen Y, et al. Association between vasectomy and risk of testicular cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2018 Mar 22;13(3):e0194606.Full text  Abstract

76. Anderson FD, Hait H. A multicenter, randomized study of an extended cycle oral contraceptive. Contraception. 2003 Aug;68(2):89-96. Abstract

77. Edelman AB, Micks E, Gallo MF, et al. Continuous or extended cycle versus cyclic use of combined hormonal contraceptives for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jul 29;(7):CD004695.Full text  Abstract

78. Bosetti C, Bravi F, Negri E, et al. Oral contraceptives and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2009 Sep-Oct;15(5):489-98.Full text  Abstract

79. Meyer JL, Gold MA, Haggerty CL. Advance provision of emergency contraception among adolescent and young adult women: a systematic review of literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2011 Feb;24(1):2-9. Abstract

80. Jatlaoui TC, Riley H, Curtis KM. Safety data for levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate and Yuzpe regimens for emergency contraception. Contraception. 2016 Feb;93(2):93-112. Abstract

81. Piaggio G, Kapp N, von Hertzen H. Effect on pregnancy rates of the delay in the administration of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception: a combined analysis of four WHO trials. Contraception. 2011 Jul;84(1):35-9. Abstract

82. Glasier A, Cameron ST, Blithe D, et al. Can we identify women at risk of pregnancy despite using emergency contraception? Data from randomized trials of ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel. Contraception. 2011 Oct;84(4):363-7. Abstract

83. Jatlaoui TC, Curtis KM. Safety and effectiveness data for emergency contraceptive pills among women with obesity: a systematic review. Contraception. 2016 Dec;94(6):605-11.Full text  Abstract

84. Gemzell-Danielsson K, Kardos L, von Hertzen H. Impact of bodyweight/body mass index on the effectiveness of emergency contraception with levonorgestrel: a pooled-analysis of three randomized controlled trials. Curr Med Res Opin. 2015 Dec;31(12):2241-8. Abstract

85. The Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) of the Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. Clinical guidance: emergency contraception. Dec 2017 [internet publication].Full text

86. Glasier AF, Cameron ST, Fine PM, et al. Ulipristal acetate versus levonorgestrel for emergency contraception: a randomised non-inferiority trial and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2010 Feb 13;375(9714):555-62. Abstract

87. Moreau C, Trussell J. Results from pooled phase III studies of ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception. Contraception. 2012 Dec;86(6):673-80.Full text  Abstract

88. Belden P, Harper CC, Speidel JJ. The copper IUD for emergency contraception, a neglected option. Contraception. 2012 Apr;85(4):338-9. Abstract

89. Shen J, Che Y, Showell E, et al. Interventions for emergency contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Aug 2;(8):CD001324.Full text  Abstract

90. World Health Organization. Emergency contraception fact sheet. Feb 2018 [internet publication].Full text

91. Yuzpe AA, Lancee WJ. Ethinylestradiol and dl-norgestrel as a postcoital contraceptive. Fertil Steril. 1977 Sep;28(9):932-6. Abstract

92. Shen J, Che Y, Showell E, et al. Interventions for emergency contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 20;1:CD001324.Full text  Abstract

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