Legionella infection


Key articles

Neil K, Berkelman R. Increasing incidence of legionellosis in the United States, 1990-2005: changing epidemiologic trends. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Sep 1;47(5):591-9. Abstract

Stout JE, Yu V. Legionellosis. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):682-7. Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Gupta SK, Imperiale TF, Sarosi GA. Evaluation of the Winthrop-University Hospital criteria to identify Legionella pneumonia. Chest. 2001 Oct;120(4):1064-71. Abstract

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9. Neil K, Berkelman R. Increasing incidence of legionellosis in the United States, 1990-2005: changing epidemiologic trends. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Sep 1;47(5):591-9. Abstract

10. Stout JE, Yu V. Legionellosis. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):682-7. Abstract

11. Soda EA, Barskey AE, Shah PP, et al. Vital signs: health care-associated Legionnaires' disease surveillance data from 20 states and a large metropolitan area - United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jun 9;66(22):584-9. Abstract

12. Fields BS, Benson RF, Besser RE. Legionella and Legionnaires' disease: 25 years of investigation. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002 Jul;15(3):506-26. Abstract

13. Gomez-Valero L, Rusniok C, Buchrieser C. Legionella pneumophila: population genetics, phylogeny and genomics. Infect Genet Evol. 2009 Sep;9(5):727-39. Abstract

14. Conza L, Pagani SC, Gaia V. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 2;8(7):e68244.Full text  Abstract

15. Sabria M, Yu VL. Hospital-acquired legionellosis: solutions for a preventable infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002 Jun;2(6):368-73. Abstract

16. Payne NR, Horwitz MA. Phagocytosis of Legionella pneumophila is mediated by human monocyte complement receptors. J Exp Med. 1987 Nov 1;166(5):1377-89.Full text  Abstract

17. Winn WC Jr, Myerowitz RL. The pathology of the Legionella pneumonias: A review of 74 cases and the literature. Hum Pathol. 1981 May;12(5):401-22. Abstract

18. Straus WL, Plouffe JF, File TM, et al. Risk factors for domestic acquisition of Legionnaires disease. Ohio Legionnaires Disease Group. Arch Intern Med. 1996 Aug 12-26;156(15):1685-92. Abstract

19. Den Boer JW, Nijhof J, Friesema I. Risk factors for sporadic community-acquired Legionnaires' disease. A 3-year national case-control study. Public Health. 2006 Jun;120(6):566-71. Abstract

20. el-Ebiary M, Sarmiento X, Torres A, et al. Prognostic factors of severe Legionella pneumonia requiring admission to ICU. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 Nov;156(5):1467-72.Full text  Abstract

21. Lanternier F, Tubach F, Ravaud P, et al. Incidence and risk factors of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia during anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy: a prospective French study. Chest. 2013 Sep;144(3):990-8. Abstract

22. Jernigan DB, Hofmann J, Cetron MS, et al. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease among cruise ship passengers exposed to a contaminated whirlpool spa. Lancet. 1996 Feb 24;347(9000):494-9. Abstract

23. Miyamoto H, Jitsurong S, Shiota R, et al. Molecular determination of infection source of a sporadic Legionella pneumonia case associated with a hot spring bath. Microbiol Immunol. 1997;41(3):197-202. Abstract

24. Bhopal RS, Fallon RJ, Buist EC, et al. Proximity of the home to a cooling tower and risk of non-outbreak Legionnaires' disease. BMJ. 1991 Feb 16;302(6773):378-83. Abstract

25. Marrie TJ, Haldane D, MacDonald S, et al. Control of endemic nosocomial Legionnaires' disease by using sterile potable water for high risk patients. Epidemiol Infect. 1991 Dec;107(3):591-605. Abstract

26. Hlady WG, Mullen RC, Mintz CS, et al. Outbreak of Legionnaire's disease linked to a decorative fountain by molecular epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Oct 15;138(8):555-62. Abstract

27. Bangsborg JM, Uldum S, Jensen JS, et al. Nosocomial legionellosis in three heart-lung transplant patients: case reports and environmental observations. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1995 Feb;14(2):99-104. Abstract

28. Franzin L, Scolfaro C, Cabodi D, et al. Legionella pneumophila pneumonia in a newborn after water birth: a new mode of transmissions. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Nov 1;33(9):e103-4. Abstract

29. Nolt D, O'Leary ST, Aucott SW. Risks of infectious diseases in newborns exposed to alternative perinatal practices. Pediatrics. 2022 Feb 1;149(2):e2021055554.Full text  Abstract

30. Currie SL, Beattie TK, Knapp CW, et al. Legionella spp. in UK composts-a potential public health issue? Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Apr;20(4):O224-9. Abstract

31. Garcia-Vidal C, Labori M, Viasus D, et al. Rainfall is a risk factor for sporadic cases of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 16;8(4):e61036.Full text  Abstract

32. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet): operating procedures. January 2012 [internet publication].Full text

33. Cachafeiro SP, Naveira IM, García IG. Is copper-silver ionisation safe and effective in controlling legionella? J Hosp Infect. 2007 Nov;67(3):209-16. Abstract

34. Mulazimoglu L, Yu VL. Can Legionnaires disease be diagnosed by clinical criteria? A critical review. Chest. 2001 Oct;120(4):1049-53. Abstract

35. Carratala J, Garcia-Vidal C. An update on Legionella. Cur Opin Infect Dis. 2010 Apr;23(2):152-7. Abstract

36. Shimada T, Noguchi Y, Jackson JL, et al. Systematic review and metaanalysis: urinary antigen tests for Legionellosis. Chest. 2009 Dec;136(6):1576-85. Abstract

37. Public Health England. Guidance on investigating cases, clusters and outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. January 2021 [internet publication].Full text

38. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Legionella (Legionnaires' disease and pontiac fever): diagnosis, treatment, & prevention. March 2021 [internet publication].Full text

39. Tronel H, Hartemann P. Overview of diagnostic and detection methods for legionellosis and Legionella spp. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009 Jun;48(6):653-6. Abstract

40. Edelstein PH, Cianciotto NP. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2005:2711-24.

41. Dominguez J, Gali N, Blanco S, et al. Assessment of a new test to detect Legionella urinary antigen for the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001 Dec;41(4):199-203. Abstract

42. Dominguez J, Gali N, Matas L, et al. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for the detection of Legionella antigen in urine samples. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999 Dec;18(12):896-8. Abstract

43. Stout, JE, Rihs, JD, Yu, VL. Legionella. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Jorgensen JH, et al, eds. Manual of clinical microbiology. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press; 2003.

44. Plouffe JF, File TM, Breiman RF; et al. Reevaluation of the definition of Legionnaires' disease: use of the urinary antigen assay. Community Based Pneumonia Incidence Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 May;20(5):1286-91. Abstract

45. Ramirez JA, Ahkee S, Tolentino A, et al. Diagnosis of Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae lower respiratory infection using the polymerase chain reaction on a single throat swab specimen. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1996 Jan;24(1):7-14. Abstract

46. Fiore AE, Butler JC, Emori TG, et al. A survey of methods used to detect nosocomial legionellosis among participants in the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999 Jun;20(6):412-6. Abstract

47. González-Moraleja J, Sesma P, González C, et al. [What is the cost of inappropriate admission of pneumonia patients?]. [in spa]. Arch Bronconeumol. 1999 Jul-Aug;35(7):312-6. Abstract

48. Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jan 23;336(4):243-50. Abstract

49. Lim WS, van der Eerden MM, Laing R, et al. Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation study. Thorax. 2003 May;58(5):377-82.Full text  Abstract

50. España PP, Capelastegui A, Gorordo I, et al. Development and validation of a clinical prediction rule for severe community-acquired pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Dec 1;174(11):1249-56.Full text  Abstract

51. Charles PG, Wolfe R, Whitby M, et al. SMART-COP: a tool for predicting the need for intensive respiratory or vasopressor support in community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Aug 1;47(3):375-84.Full text  Abstract

52. Restrepo MI, Mortensen EM, Rello J, et al. Late admission to the ICU in patients with community-acquired pneumonia is associated with higher mortality. Chest. 2010 Mar;137(3):552-7.Full text  Abstract

53. Metlay JP, Waterer GW, Long AC, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. An official clinical practice guideline of the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Oct 1;200(7):e45-e67.Full text  Abstract

54. Brown SM, Jones JP, Aronsky D, et al. Relationships among initial hospital triage, disease progression and mortality in community-acquired pneumonia. Respirology. 2012 Nov;17(8):1207-13.Full text  Abstract

55. Phua J, Ngerng WJ, Lim TK. The impact of a delay in intensive care unit admission for community-acquired pneumonia. Eur Respir J. 2010 Oct;36(4):826-33.Full text  Abstract

56. Aliberti S, Ramirez J, Cosentini R, et al. Low CURB-65 is of limited value in deciding discharge of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Respir Med. 2011 Nov;105(11):1732-8.Full text  Abstract

57. Sharp AL, Jones JP, Wu I, et al. CURB-65 performance among admitted and discharged emergency department patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Acad Emerg Med. 2016 Apr;23(4):400-5.Full text  Abstract

58. Benin AL, Benson RF, Besser RE. Trends in Legionnaires disease, 1980-1998: declining mortality and new patterns of diagnosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Nov 1;35(9):1039-46. Abstract

59. Heath CH, Grove DI, Looke DFM. Delay in appropriate therapy of Legionella pneumonia associated with increased mortality. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1996 Apr;15(4):286-90. Abstract

60. Arnold F, Summersgill JT, Lajoie AS, et al. A worldwide perspective of atypical pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 May 15;175(10):1086-93. Abstract

61. Mills GD, Oehley MR, Arrol B. Effectiveness of beta lactam antibiotics compared with antibiotics active against atypical pathogens in non-severe community acquired pneumonia: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2005 Feb 26;330(7489):456.Full text  Abstract

62. Shefet D, Robenshtok E, Paul M, et al. Empirical atypical coverage for inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Sep 26;165(17):1992-2000.Full text  Abstract

63. British Thoracic Society. 2015 - annotated BTS guideline for the mangement of CAP in adults (2009) summary of recommendations. Jan 2015 [internet publication].Full text

64. Mykietiuk A, Carratala J, Fernandez-Sabe N, et al. Clinical outcomes for hospitalized patients with Legionella pneumonia in the antigenuria era: the influence of levofloxacin therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Mar 15;40(6):794-9. Abstract

65. Edelstein PH, Shinzato T, Doyle E, et al. In vitro activity of gemifloxacin (SB-265805, LB20304a) against Legionella pneumophila and its pharmacokinetics in guinea pigs with L. pneumophila pneumonia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Aug;45(8):2204-9.Full text  Abstract

66. Blazquez-Garrido RM, Espinosa-Parra FJ, Alemany-Frances L, et al. Antimicrobial chemotherapy for Legionnaires disease: levofloxacin versus macrolides. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Mar 15;40(6):800-6. Abstract

67. Sabria M, Pedro-Botet ML, Gomez J, et al. Fluoroquinolones vs macrolides in the treatment of Legionnaires disease. Chest. 2005 Sep;128(3):1401-5. Abstract

68. Griffin AT, Peyrani P, Wiemken T, et al. Macrolides versus quinolones in Legionella pneumonia: results from the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization international study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 Apr;14(4):495-9. Abstract

69. Dournon E, Mayaud CH, Wolff M, et al. Comparison of the activity of three antibiotic regimens in severe LD. J. Antimicrob Chemother. 1990 Oct;26(suppl B):129-39. Abstract

70. Roig J, Rello J. Legionnaires' disease: a rational approach to therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003 May;51(5):1119-29.Full text  Abstract

71. Grau S, Antonio JM, Ribes E, et al. Impact of rifampicin addition to clarithromycin in Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006 Sep;28(3):249-52. Abstract

72. Mallegol J, Fernandes P, Melano RG, et al. Antimicrobial activity of solithromycin against clinical isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58:909-15. Abstract

73. Dillon C, Guarascio AJ, Covvey JR. Lefamulin: a promising new pleuromutilin antibiotic in the pipeline. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2019 Jan;17(1):5-15. Abstract

74. Alexander E, Goldberg L, Das AF, et al. Oral lefamulin vs moxifloxacin for early clinical response among adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: The LEAP 2 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019 Nov 5;322(17):1661-71.Full text  Abstract

75. El Moussaoui R, Opmeer BC, de Borgie CA, et al. Long-term symptom recovery and health-related quality of life in patients with mild-to-moderate-severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2006 Oct;130(4):1165-72. Abstract

76. Lettinga KD, Verbon A, Nieuwkerk PT, et al. Health-related quality of life and posttraumatic. stress disorder among survivors of an outbreak of Legionnaires disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jul 1;35(1):11-7.Full text  Abstract

77. Fraser DW, Tsai TR, Orenstein W, et al. Legionnaires' disease: description of an epidemic of pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1977 Dec 1;297(22):1189-97. Abstract

78. Garcia-Vidal C, Carratala J. Current clinical management of Legionnaires' disease. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2006 Dec;4(6):995-1004. Abstract

79. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1997 Jan 3;46(RR-1):1-79.Full text  Abstract

80. Benin AL, Benson RF, Besser RE. Trends in legionnaires disease, 1980-1998: declining mortality and new patterns of diagnosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Nov 1;35(9):1039-46. Abstract

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