Assessment of ascites

Last reviewed: 19 Apr 2022
Last updated: 12 May 2022

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Hepatitis C
  • Alcoholic liver disease
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Pancreatitis
Full details

Uncommon

  • Hepatitis B
  • Primary biliary cholangitis
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Haemochromatosis
  • Wilson's disease
  • Constrictive pericarditis
  • Budd-Chiari syndrome
  • Chronic renal failure
  • Protein-losing enteropathy
  • Peritoneal carcinomatosis
  • Myxoedema
  • Schistosomiasis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Fulminant hepatic failure
  • Hepatic metastases
  • Secondary peritonitis
  • Chylous ascites
  • Urogenital surgical trauma
  • Bile ascites
  • Ovarian tumours
  • Tricuspid regurgitation
Full details

Contributors

Authors

Kenneth D. Rothstein, MD

Professor of Clinical Medicine

Perelman School of Medicine

University of Pennsylvania

Philadelphia

PA

Disclosures

KDR declares that he has no competing interests.

Vishal Patel, MD

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Associate Medical Director, Liver Transplant

Drexel University College of Medicine

Tower Health Transplant Institute

Center for Liver Disease

Reading

PA

Disclosures

VP declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Kenneth D. Rothstein and Dr Vishal Patel would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Srikrishna Nagri and Dr Sury Anand, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

SN and SA declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Jeremiah S. Kurz, MD

Attending

New York Methodist Hospital

Brooklyn

NY

Disclosures

JSK declares that he has no competing interests.

  • Assessment of ascites images
  • Guidelines

    • Guidelines on the management of ascites in cirrhosis
    • Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome: 2021 Practice Guidance by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
    Guidelines
  • Patient leaflets

    Hepatitis C: what is it?

    Hepatitis C: what treatments work?

    More Patient leaflets
  • Videos

    Ascitic drainage animated demonstration

    More videos
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