Ankle fractures

References

Key articles

Lauge-Hansen N. Fractures of the ankle. II. Combined experimental-surgical and experimental-roentgenologic investigations. Arch Surg. 1950;60:957-985. Abstract

American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria: acute trauma to the ankle. 2020 [internet publication].Full text

Stiell IG, Greenberg GH, McKnight RD, et al. Decision rules for the use of radiography in acute ankle injuries. Refinement and prospective validation. JAMA. 1993;269:1127-1132. Abstract

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Prevention of surgical site infections after major extremity trauma: evidence-based clinical practice guideline. March 2022 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

1. Orthopaedic Trauma Association Committee for Coding and Classification. Fracture and dislocation compendium. J Orthop Trauma. 1996:10:v-ix,1-154. Abstract

2. Lauge-Hansen N. Fractures of the ankle. II. Combined experimental-surgical and experimental-roentgenologic investigations. Arch Surg. 1950;60:957-985. Abstract

3. Koval KJ, Lurie J, Zhou W, et al. Ankle fractures in the elderly: what you get depends on where you live and who you see. J Orthop Trauma. 2005;19:635-639. Abstract

4. Hasselman CT, Vogt MT, Stone KL, et al. Foot and ankle fractures in elderly white women. Incidence and risk factors. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85:820-824. Abstract

5. Court-Brown C, McQueen M, Tornetta P 3rd. Ankle fractures. in: Trauma, orthopaedic surgery essentials. Tornetta P 3rd, Einhorn T, eds. Philadelphia, PA; Lippincott Williams and Wilkins: 2006.

6. Weening B, Bhandari M. Predictors of functional outcome following transsyndesmotic screw fixation of ankle fractures. 2005;19:102-108. Abstract

7. Jensen SL, Andresen BK, Mencke S. Epidemiology of ankle fractures. A prospective population-based study of 212 cases in Aalborg, Denmark. Acta Orthop Scand. 1998;69:48-50. Abstract

8. Lauge-Hansen N. Fractures of the ankle. II. Combined experimental-surgical and experimental-roentgenologic investigations. Arch Surg. 1950;60:957-85. Abstract

9. Gardner MJ, Demetrakopoulos D, Briggs SM, et al. The ability of the Lauge-Hansen classification to predict ligament injury and mechanism in ankle fractures: an MRI study. J Orthop Trauma. 2006;20:267-272. Abstract

10. Greenfield DM, Eastell R. Risk factors for ankle fracture. Osteoporos Int. 2001;12:97-103. Abstract

11. Seeley DG, Kelsey J, Jergas M, et al. Predictors of ankle and foot fractures in older women. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. J Bone Miner Res. 1996;11:1347-1355. Abstract

12. McGuine TA, Brooks A, Hetzel S. The effect of lace-up ankle braces on injury rates in high school basketball players. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:1840-1848.Full text  Abstract

13. van den Bekerom MP, Mutsaerts EL, van Dijk CN. Evaluation of the integrity of the deltoid ligament in supination external rotation ankle fractures: a systematic review of the literature. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2009;129:227-235. Abstract

14. Milne L. Ottawa ankle decision rules. West J Med. 1996;164:67.Full text  Abstract

15. Stiell IG, Greenberg GH, McKnight RD, et al. Decision rules for the use of radiography in acute ankle injuries. Refinement and prospective validation. JAMA. 1993;269:1127-32. Abstract

16. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) Manual. 7th ed. American College of Surgeons: 2007.

17. Park SS, Kubiak EN, Egol KA, et al. Stress radiographs after ankle fracture: the effect of ankle position and deltoid ligament status on medial clear space measurements. J Orthop Trauma. 2006;20:11-18. Abstract

18. Nielson JH, Gardner MJ, Peterson MG, et al. Radiographic measurements do not predict syndesmotic injury in ankle fractures: an MRI study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005;436;216-221. Abstract

19. Schock HJ, Pinzur M, Manion L, et al. The use of gravity or manual-stress radiographs in the assessment of supination-external rotation fractures of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2007;89:1055-1059. Abstract

20. Koval KJ, Egol KA, Cheung Y, et al. Does a positive ankle stress test indicate the need for operative treatment after lateral malleolus fracture? A preliminary report. J Orthop Trauma. 2007;21:449-455. Abstract

21. Lampridis V, Gougoulias N, Sakellariou A. Stability in ankle fractures: Diagnosis and treatment. EFORT Open Rev. 2018 May;3(5):294-303.Full text  Abstract

22. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria: acute trauma to the ankle. 2020 [internet publication].Full text

23. Stiell IG, Greenberg GH, McKnight RD, et al. Decision rules for the use of radiography in acute ankle injuries. Refinement and prospective validation. JAMA. 1993;269:1127-1132. Abstract

24. DeAngelis NA, Eskander MS, French BG. Does medial tenderness predict deep deltoid ligament incompetence in supination-external rotation type ankle fractures? J Orthop Trauma. 2007;21:244-247. Abstract

25. Alonso A, Khoury L, Adams R. Clinical tests for ankle syndesmosis injury: reliability and predictors of return to function. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1998;27:276-284. Abstract

26. Petrisor BA, Poolman R, Koval K, et al. Management of displaced ankle fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2006;20:515-518. Abstract

27. Schepers T, de Vries MR, van Lieshout EM, et al. The timing of ankle fracture surgery and the effect on infectious complications; a case series and systematic review of the literature. Int Orthop. 2013;37:489-494.Full text  Abstract

28. Pakarinen H. Stability-based classification for ankle fracture management and the syndesmosis injury in ankle fractures due to a supination external rotation mechanism of injury. Acta Orthop Suppl. 2012;83:1-26. Abstract

29. Kurmis AP, Kurmis TP, O'Brien JX, et al. The effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration on acute phase fracture-healing: a review. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:815-823. Abstract

30. British Orthopaedic Association and British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Open fractures. December 2017 [internet publication].Full text

31. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Prevention of surgical site infections after major extremity trauma: evidence-based clinical practice guideline. March 2022 [internet publication].Full text

32. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Appropriate Use Criteria: prevention of surgical site infection after high energy extremity trauma. March 2022 [internet publication].Full text

33. British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Standards for the management of open fractures of the lower limb. 2009 [internet publication].

34. Smit L, Boyle M. Management of ankle injuries in the prehospital environment - a review of the literature. Australas J Paramed. 2013;10:6.

35. Gosselin RA, Roberts I, Gillespie WJ. Antibiotics for preventing infection in open limb fractures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD003764. Abstract

36. Rhee P, Nunley MK, Demetriades D, et al. Tetanus and trauma: a review and recommendations. J Trauma. 2005;58:1082-1088. Abstract

37. Kortekangas T, Haapasalo H, Flinkkilä T, et al. Three week versus six week immobilisation for stable Weber B type ankle fractures: randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority clinical trial. BMJ. 2019 Jan 23;364:k5432.Full text  Abstract

38. Donken CC, Al-Khateeb H, Verhofstad MH, et al. Surgical versus conservative interventions for treating ankle fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(8):CD008470.Full text  Abstract

39. Slobogean GP, Marra CA, Sadatsafavi M, et al; Canadian Orthopedic Trauma Society. Is surgical fixation for stress-positive unstable ankle fractures cost effective? Results of a multicenter randomized control trial. J Orthop Trauma. 2012;26:652-658. Abstract

40. Hoelsbrekken SE, Kaul-Jensen K, Mørch T, et al. Nonoperative treatment of the medial malleolus in bimalleolar and trimalleolar ankle fractures: a randomized controlled trial. J Orthop Trauma. 2013;27:633-637. Abstract

41. van den Bekerom MP, Haverkamp D, Kloen P. Biomechanical and clinical evaluation of posterior malleolar fractures. A systematic review of the literature. J Trauma. 2009;66:279-284. Abstract

42. Li ZH, Yu AX, Guo XP, et al. Absorbable implants versus metal implants for the treatment of ankle fractures: a meta-analysis. Exp Ther Med. 2013;5:1531-1537. Abstract

43. Hu YL, Yuan WQ, Wang LF, et al. A prospective randomized trial of poly-DL-lactic acid absorbable and metallic screws for treatment of syndesmotic disruptions [in Chinese]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao [J South Med Univ.]. 2010;30:2360-2362. Abstract

44. Schepers T. Acute distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury: a systematic review of suture-button versus syndesmotic screw repair. Int Orthop. 2012;36:1199-1206.Full text  Abstract

45. Kortekangas T, Savola O, Flinkkilä T, et al. A prospective randomised study comparing TightRope and syndesmotic screw fixation for accuracy and maintenance of syndesmotic reduction assessed with bilateral computed tomography. Injury. 2015;46:1119-1126. Abstract

46. Laflamme M, Belzile EL, Bédard L, et al. A prospective randomized multicenter trial comparing clinical outcomes of patients treated surgically with a static or dynamic implant for acute ankle syndesmosis rupture. J Orthop Trauma. 2015;29:216-223. Abstract

47. Hancock MJ, Herbert RD, Stewart M. Prediction of outcome after ankle fracture. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2005;35:786-792. Abstract

48. Shah NH, Sundaram RO, Velusamy A, et al. Five-year functional outcome analysis of ankle fracture fixation. Injury. 2007;38:1308-1312. Abstract

49. McKeown R, Ellard DR, Rabiu AR, et al. A systematic review of the measurement properties of patient reported outcome measures used for adults with an ankle fracture. J Patient Rep Outcomes. 2019 Dec 17;3(1):70.Full text  Abstract

50. Tejwani NC, McLaurin TM, Walsh M, et al. Are outcomes of bimalleolar fractures poorer than those of lateral malleolar fractures with medial ligamentous injury? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:1438-1441. Abstract

51. Egol KA, Tejwani NC, Walsh MG, et al. Predictors of short-term functional outcome following ankle fracture surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88:974-979. Abstract

52. Dehghan N, McKee MD, Jenkinson RJ, et al. Early weightbearing and range of motion versus non-weightbearing and immobilization after open reduction and internal fixation of unstable ankle fractures: a randomized controlled trial. J Orthop Trauma. 2016;30:345-352. Abstract

53. Bhandari M, Sprague S, Hanson B, et al. Health-related quality of life following operative treatment of unstable ankle fractures: a prospective observational study. J Orthop Trauma. 2004;18:338-345. Abstract

54. Obremskey WT, Dirschl DR, Crowther JD, et al. Change over time of SF-36 functional outcomes for operatively treated unstable ankle fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2002;16:30-33. Abstract

55. Nilsson G, Jonsson K, Ekdahl C, et al. Outcome and quality of life after surgically treated ankle fractures in patients 65 years or older. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2007;8:127.Full text  Abstract

56. Ganesh SP, Pietrobon R, Cecilio WA, et al. The impact of diabetes on patient outcomes after ankle fracture. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:1712-1718. Abstract

57. Brown OL, Dirschl DR, Obremskey WT. Incidence of hardware-related pain and its effect on functional outcomes after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2001;15:271-274. Abstract

58. Schepers T. To retain or remove the syndesmotic screw: a review of literature. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2011;131:879-883.Full text  Abstract

59. Walsh EF, DiGiovanni C. Fibular nonunion after closed rotational ankle fracture. Foot Ankle Int. 2004;25:488-495. Abstract

60. Thomas G, Whalley H, Modi C. Early mobilization of operatively fixed ankle fractures: a systematic review. Foot Ankle Int. 2009;30:666-674. Abstract

61. Lin CW, Donkers NA, Refshauge KM, et al. Rehabilitation for ankle fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(11):CD005595.Full text  Abstract

62. Smeeing DPJ, Houwert RM, Briet JP, et al. Weight-bearing or non-weight-bearing after surgical treatment of ankle fractures: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2020 Feb;46(1):121-130.Full text  Abstract

63. Moseley AM, Beckenkamp PR, Haas M, et al. Rehabilitation after immobilization for ankle fracture: the EXACT randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;314:1376-1385.Full text  Abstract

64. Nilsson GM, Jonsson K, Ekdahl CS, et al. Effects of a training program after surgically treated ankle fracture: a prospective randomised controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2009;10:118.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer