Berlin modification of the American European Consensus Committee (AECC) definitions
In 2012, minor modifications to the AECC definitions of ARDS (termed the 'Berlin Definition') were made. A diagnosis of ARDS can be made if the patient fulfils all of the following criteria:
Acute onset (within 1 week of known clinical insult)
Bilateral opacities on chest x-ray (not explained by effusions, collapse, or nodules)
Respiratory failure not fully explained by heart failure or fluid overload (objective assessment such as echocardiogram recommended if no risk factor).
Severity of ARDS
Mild: PaO₂/FiO₂ 200-300 with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ≥5 cm H₂O
Moderate: PaO₂/FiO₂ 100-200 with PEEP ≥5 cm H₂O
Severe: PaO₂/FiO₂ ≤100 with PEEP ≥5 cm H₂O.
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