Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually arises in patients with cirrhosis of the liver due to any cause.
A significant number of patients may be asymptomatic and are diagnosed following screening.
Patients at risk of HCC should receive surveillance with an ultrasound of the liver at 6-month intervals.
Treatment is guided by staging and prognosis. Treatment options include resection, transplantation, percutaneous ablation therapy, and chemo-embolisation.
Sorafenib and lenvatinib are the only targeted agents approved for advanced-stage HCC. Regorafenib and nivolumab are second-line treatments for patients who progress on sorafenib.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also known as hepatoma, is a primary cancer arising from hepatocytes in predominantly cirrhotic liver. However, some patients may not have cirrhosis before developing HCC, especially patients with chronic hepatitis B virus.
Consultant, Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Assistant Professor, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine
National University of Singapore
PST has received a speaker honorarium from GE Healthcare, Bayer, and Sirtex. PST has received travel and accommodation arrangements for medical conferences from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Sirtex, Bayer, and Novartis.
Dr Poh Seng Tan would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Badar Muneer and Dr Smruti R. Mohanty, previous contributors to this monograph. BM declares that he has no competing interests. SRM serves as a speaker for Bristol-Myers Squibb regarding the use of entecavir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.
SN declares that he has no competing interests.
Professor of Medicine
Chief of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
University of Texas Medical Branch
NS declares that he has no competing interests.
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