Erythema multiforme

References

Key articles

Lerch M, Mainetti C, Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli B, Harr T. Current perspectives on erythema multiforme. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2018 Feb;54(1):177-84. Abstract

Assier H, Bastuji-Garin S, Revuz J, et al. Erythema multiforme with mucous membrane involvement and Stevens-Johnson syndrome are clinically different disorders with distinct causes. Arch Dermatol. 1995 May;131(5):539-43. Abstract

Assier H, Bastuji-Garin S, Revuz J, et al. Erythema multiforme with mucous membrane involvement and Stevens-Johnson syndrome are clinically different disorders with distinct causes. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:539-543. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Lerch M, Mainetti C, Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli B, Harr T. Current perspectives on erythema multiforme. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2018 Feb;54(1):177-84. Abstract

2. Sokumbi O, Wetter DA. Clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of erythema multiforme: a review for the practicing dermatologist. Int J Dermatol. 2012 Aug;51(8):889-902.Full text  Abstract

3. Grünwald P, Mockenhaupt M, Panzer R, et al. Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis - diagnosis and treatment. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2020 Jun;18(6):547-53. Abstract

4. Trayes KP, Love G, Studdiford JS. Erythema Multiforme: Recognition and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2019 Jul 15;100(2):82-88.Full text  Abstract

5. Bastuji-Garin S, Rzany B, Stern RS, et al. Clinical classification of cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and erythema multiforme. Arch Dermatol. 1993 Jan;129(1):92-6. Abstract

6. Assier H, Bastuji-Garin S, Revuz J, et al. Erythema multiforme with mucous membrane involvement and Stevens-Johnson syndrome are clinically different disorders with distinct causes. Arch Dermatol. 1995 May;131(5):539-43. Abstract

7. Xia Y, Yang Z, Chen S, et al. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma mimicking erythema multiforme. Indian J Dermatol. 2015;60:322.Full text  Abstract

8. Ma JH, Smith S, Gordon LA. Acute HIV infection presenting as erythema multiforme in a 45-year-old heterosexual man. Med J Aust. 2015;202:273-275.Full text  Abstract

9. Ghosh I, Pahwa P, Dinda AK, et al. Erythema multiforme associated with metastatic breast cancer. Indian J Dermatol. 2013;58:485-486.Full text  Abstract

10. Auquier-Dunant A, Mockenhaupt M, Maldi L, et al. Correlations between clinical patterns and causes of erythema multiforme majus, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis: results of an international prospective study. Arch Dermatol. 2002 Aug;138(8):1019-24.Full text  Abstract

11. Eun LY, Go JW, Kang WH, et al. Erythema multiforme associated with Kawasaki Disease in a Korean child. Eur J Dermatol. Jul-Aug 2010;20(4):524-5. Abstract

12. Kishore BN, Ankadavar NS, Kamath GH, et al. Varicella zoster with erythema multiforme in a young girl: a rare association. Indian J Dermatol. 2014 May;59(3):299-301.Full text  Abstract

13. Kasuya A, Sakabe J, Kageyama R, et al. Successful differentiation of herpes zoster-associated erythema multiforme from generalized extension of herpes by rapid polymerase chain reaction analysis. J Dermatol. 2014 Jun;41(6):542-4. Abstract

14. Borrás-Blasco J, Navarro-Ruiz A, Borrás C, et al. Adverse cutaneous reactions induced by TNF-alpha antagonist therapy. South Med J. 2009 Nov;102(11):1133-40. Abstract

15. Lenalidomide: Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Prescrire Int. 2010 Jun;19(107):125. Abstract

16. Ballester I, Guijarro J, Silvestre JF, et al. Erythema multiforme induced by imiquimod 5% cream. Int J Dermatol. 2014 Jul;53(7):e347-8. Abstract

17. Chahal D, Aleshin M, Turegano M et al. Vaccine-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis: a case and systematic review. Dermatol Online J. 2018 Jan 15;24(1):13030/qt7qn5268s.Full text  Abstract

18. Allione A, Dutto L, Castagna E, et al. Erythema multiforme caused by tattoo: a further case. Intern Emerg Med. 2011 Jun;6(3):263-5.Full text  Abstract

19. Sai Keerthana PC, Anila KN, Reshma R. Naproxen induced erythema multiforme - a rare case report. Int J Pharm and Pharmaceutical Sci. 2017;9:294-5.Full text

20. Rodríguez-Pazos L, Sánchez-Aguilar D, Rodríguez-Granados MT, et al. Erythema multiforme photoinduced by statins. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2010 Aug;26(4):216-8. Abstract

21. Rodríguez-Pazos L, Gómez-Bernal S, Rodríguez-Granados MT, et al. Photodistributed erythema multiforme. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2013 Oct;104(8):645-53.Full text  Abstract

22. Lamoreux MR, Stern MR, Hsu WT. Erythema multiforme. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Dec 1;74(11):1883-8.Full text  Abstract

23. Gantala R, Devaraju RR, G SG, et al. Condiments costing high. . . ! A case report of erythema multiforme. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015 Jul;9(7):ZD22-4.Full text  Abstract

24. Kumar MS, Kumar MH, Kumar VS, et al. Herpes-associated erythema multiforme worsened by a Siddha drug, Alpinia galanga, in an 18-year-old man. BMJ Case Rep. 2015 Sep 21;2015:bcr2015212303.Full text  Abstract

25. Sundram U. A review of important skin disorders occurring in the posttransplantation patient. Adv Anat Pathol. 2014 Sep;21(5):321-9. Abstract

26. Ng PP, Sun YJ, Tan HH, et al. Detection of HSV genomic DNA in various subsets of Erythema multiforme by polymerase chain reaction. Dermatology. 2003;207(4):349-53. Abstract

27. Ono F, Sharma BK, Smith CC, et al. CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood transport HSV DNA fragments to the skin of patients with erythema multiforme (HAEM). J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Jun;124(6):1215-24.Full text  Abstract

28. Kokuba H, Aurelian L, Burnett J. Herpes simplex virus associated erythema multiforme (HAEM) is mechanistically distinct from drug-induced erythema multiforme: interferon-gamma is expressed in HAEM lesions and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in drug-induced erythema multiforme lesions. J Invest Dermatol. 1999 Nov;113(5):808-15.Full text  Abstract

29. Wetter DA, Davis MD. Recurrent erythema multiforme: clinical characteristics, etiologic associations, and treatment in a series of 48 patients at Mayo Clinic, 2000 to 2007. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Jan;62(1):45-53.Full text  Abstract

30. Amode R, Ingen-Housz-Oro S, Ortonne N et al. Clinical and histologic features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related erythema multiforme: a single-center series of 33 cases compared with 100 cases induced by other causes. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018 Jul;79(1):110-7. Abstract

31. Olut AI, Erkek E, Ozunlu H, et al. Erythema multiforme associated with acute hepatitis B virus infection. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2006 Jan;31(1):137-8.Full text  Abstract

32. Hafsi W, Badri T. Erythema multiforme. In: StatPearls [internet]. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing; 2020.Full text  Abstract

33. Ma JH, Smith S, Gordon LA. Acute HIV infection presenting as erythema multiforme in a 45-year-old heterosexual man. Med J Aust. 2015 Mar 16;202(5):273-5.Full text  Abstract

34. Xia Y, Yang Z, Chen S, et al. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma mimicking erythema multiforme. Indian J Dermatol. May-Jun 2015;60(3):322.Full text  Abstract

35. Joseph RH, Haddad FA, Matthews AL, et al. Erythema multiforme after orf virus infection: a report of two cases and literature review. Epidemiol Infect. 2015 Jan;143(2):385-90.Full text  Abstract

36. Utsunomiya A, Oyama N, Iino S et al. A case of erythema multiforme major developed after sequential use of two immune checkpoint inhibitors, nivolumab and ipilimumab, for advanced melanoma: possible implication of synergistic and/or complementary immunomodulatory effects. Case Rep Dermatol. 2018 Jan 18;10(1):1-6.Full text  Abstract

37. de Arruda JA, Silva P, Amaral MB, et al. Erythema multiforme induced by alendronate sodium in a geriatric patient: A case report and review of the literature. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017 Jul;9(7):e929-e933.Full text  Abstract

38. Abou Assalie N, Durcan R, Durcan L, et al. Hydroxychloroquine-Induced Erythema Multiforme. J Clin Rheumatol. 2017 Mar;23(2):127-128.Full text  Abstract

39. Mantovani A, Álvares-Da-Silva MR. Anaphylaxis preceded by erythema multiforme with sorafenib: First case report. Ann Hepatol. 2019 Sep - Oct;18(5):777-779.Full text  Abstract

40. Wine E, Ballin A, Dalal I. Infantile erythema multiforme following hepatitis B vaccine. Acta Paediatr. 2006 Jul;95(7):890-1.Full text  Abstract

41. Loche F, Schwarze HP, Thedenat B, et al. Erythema multiforme associated with hepatitis B immunization. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2000 Mar;25(2):167-8.Full text  Abstract

42. Chiang MC, Chiang FC, Chang YT, et al. Erythema multiforme caused by Treponema pallidum in a young patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Jul;48(7):2640-2.Full text  Abstract

43. Cote B, Wechsler J, Bastuji-Garin S. Clinicopathologic correlation in erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Arch Dermatol. 1995 Nov;131(11):1268-72. Abstract

44. Yachoui R, Cronin PM. Systemic lupus erythematosus associated with erythema multiforme-like lesions. Case Rep Rheumatol. 2013;2013:212145.Full text  Abstract

45. Lee HJ, Kwon JA, Kim JW. Erythema multiforme-like molluscum dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2002;82(3):217-8. Abstract

46. Tirado-Sánchez A, Bonifaz A. Paraneoplastic Pemphigus. A Life-Threatening Autoimmune Blistering Disease. [in spa]. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2017 Dec;108(10):902-910.Full text  Abstract

47. Metlay JP, Waterer GW, Long AC, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Community-acquired Pneumonia. An Official Clinical Practice Guideline of the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Oct 1;200(7):e45-e67.Full text  Abstract

48. Oak AS, Seminario-Vidal L, Sami N. Treatment of antiviral-resistant recurrent erythema multiforme with dapsone. Dermatol Ther. 2017 Mar;30(2):e12449. Abstract

49. Hirsch G, Ingen-Housz-Oro S, Fite C, et al. Rituximab, a new treatment for difficult-to-treat chronic erythema multiforme major? Five cases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016 Jul;30(7):1140-3. Abstract

50. Baillis B, Maize JC Sr. Treatment of recurrent erythema multiforme with adalimumab as monotherapy. JAAD Case Rep. 2017 Mar 2;3(2):95-7.Full text  Abstract

51. Davis MD, Rogers RS, Pittelkow MR. Recurrent erythema multiforme/Stevens-Johnson syndrome: response to mycophenolate mofetil. Arch Dermatol. 2002 Dec;138(12):1547-50.Full text  Abstract

52. Jones RR. Azathioprine therapy in the management of persistent erythema multiforme. Br J Dermatol. 1981 Oct;105(4):465-7. Abstract

53. Bakis S, Zagarella S. Intermittent oral cyclosporin for recurrent herpes simplex-associated erythema multiforme. Australas J Dermatol. 2005 Feb;46(1):18-20. Abstract

54. Morison WL, Anhalt GJ. Therapy with oral psoralen plus UV-A for erythema multiforme. Arch Dermatol. 1997 Nov;133(11):1465-6. Abstract

55. de Castro Rodrigues CM, dos Reis DCS, Jaime Paiva LG, et al. Microstomy after erythema multiforme: surgical treatment and results. Ann Pediatr Child Health 2020;8(7):1198.Full text

56. Oluwadaisi AM, A. Adewale A, Mogaji IK, et al. Erythema multiforme: a retrospective study of the clinical manifestations of patients attending an oral medicine clinic in Nigeria. Int J Res Rep Dent. 2020 Jan 25;3(1):6-14.Full text

57. Sokumbi O, Wetter DA. Clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of erythema multiforme: a review for the practicing dermatologist. Int J Dermatol. 2012;51:889-902.Full text  Abstract

58. French LE, Prins C. Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP, eds. Dermatology. 2nd ed. London, UK: Mosby-Elsevier; 2008:287-300.

59. Bastuji-Garin S, Rzany B, Stern RS, et al. Clinical classification of cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and erythema multiforme. Arch Dermatol. 1993;129:92-6. Abstract

60. Assier H, Bastuji-Garin S, Revuz J, et al. Erythema multiforme with mucous membrane involvement and Stevens-Johnson syndrome are clinically different disorders with distinct causes. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:539-543. Abstract

61. Auquier-Dunant A, Mockenhaupt M, Maldi L, et al. Correlations between clinical patterns and causes of erythema multiforme majus, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis: results of an international prospective study. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138:1019-1024. Abstract

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