Perception of sound in the absence of any external auditory stimulus.
Sounds may be described as ringing, humming, buzzing, hissing, clicking, or pulsing.
May occur intermittently or constantly.
Diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation and audiometry. There may be a role for additional studies, such as auditory brainstem responses, otoacoustic emissions, and neuroimaging.
Treatment is challenging as tinnitus is a symptom, not a disease. Thus intervention depends on treating the underlying cause.
Tinnitus is the perception of sounds in the absence of external auditory stimulus. It is a symptom, not a diagnosis. Tinnitus may be the result of hearing loss, noise damage, ageing, medication use, sounds produced by adjacent structures, or other disease processes.
Medical Director Otologic/Neurotologic/Skull Base Surgery
Medical Director Wellness
Florida Hospital Celebration Health
Professort of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
University of Central Florida
Board of Directors American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
MDS has received funding from the NIH and Auris Medical; he receives royalties from ViSalus Sciences for his roles as Chief Scientific Officer and Director of the Medical Advisory Board; he is the founder of Body Language Vitamins Co.; he has assisted in non-compensated work for Envoy Medical, Auris Medical, and Microtransponder, Inc.; he has 7 patents; and he is part of the leadership on the AAO-HNS Board of Directors. He is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.
Dr Michael D. Seidman would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Hamid Djalilian, Dr Alice Lee, Dr Vanessa Rothholtz, and Dr Sanaz Hamidi, the previous contributors to this monograph. HD, AL, VR, and SH declare that they have no competing interests.
Clinical Adjunct Professor
Division of Neurotology
Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
University of Michigan
AB declares that he has no competing interests.
Consultant ENT Surgeon
Frimley Park Hospital
AM declares that he has no competing interests.
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