Giardiasis

References

Key articles

Ankarklev J, Jerlström-Hultqvist J, Ringqvist E, et al. Behind the smile: cell biology and disease mechanisms of Giardia species. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010 Jun;8(6):413-22. Abstract

Escobedo AA, Almirall P, Robertson LJ, et al. Giardiasis: the ever-present threat of a neglected disease. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2010 Oct;10(5):329-48. Abstract

Lalle M. Giardiasis in the post genomic era: treatment, drug resistance and novel therapeutic perspectives. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2010 Aug;10(4):283-94. Abstract

Lopez-Velez R, Batlle C, Jiménez C, et al. Short course combination therapy for giardiasis after nitroimidazole failure. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Jul;83(1):171-3. Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Escobedo AA, Almirall P, Robertson LJ, et al. Giardiasis: the ever-present threat of a neglected disease. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2010 Oct;10(5):329-48. Abstract

3. Rosado JL, Caamaño MC, Montoya YA, et al. Interaction of zinc or vitamin A supplementation and specific parasite infections on Mexican infants' growth: a randomized clinical trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Oct;63(10):1176-84. Abstract

4. Al-Mekhlafi MS, Azlin M, Nor Aini U, et al. Giardiasis as a predictor of childhood malnutrition in Orang Asli children in Malaysia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Sep;99(9):686-91.Full text  Abstract

5. Chenu P, Gottrand F, Turck D, et al. Intestinal disaccharidase activity in giardiasis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1992 Apr;14(3):356-7. Abstract

6. Layton MA, Dziedzic K, Dawes PT. Sacroiliitis in an HLA B27-negative patient following giardiasis. Br J Rheumatol. 1998 May;37(5):581-3.Full text  Abstract

7. Halliez MC, Buret AG. Extra-intestinal and long term consequences of Giardia duodenalis infections. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Dec 21;19(47):8974-85.Full text  Abstract

8. Rogawski ET, Bartelt LA, Platts-Mills JA, et al. Determinants and impact of Giardia infection in the first 2 years of life in the MAL-ED birth cohort. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2017 Jun 1;6(2):153-160.Full text  Abstract

9. Donowitz JR, Alam M, Kabir M, et al. A prospective longitudinal cohort to investigate the effects of early life Giardiasis on growth and all cause diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 15;63(6):792-7.Full text  Abstract

10. Kappus KD, Lundgren RG Jr, Juranek DD, et al. Intestinal parasitism in the United States: update on a continuing problem. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1994 Jun;50(6):705-13. Abstract

11. Farthing MJ. The molecular pathogenesis of giardiasis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1997 Jan;24(1):79-88. Abstract

12. Ortega YR, Adam RD. Giardia: overview and update. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Sep;25(3):545-9. Abstract

13. Public Health England. Giardia data 2008 to 2017. Jul 2018 [internet publication].Full text

14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Giardiasis NNDSS summary report for 2018. May 2021 [internet publication].Full text

15. Conners EE, Miller AD, Balachandran N, et al. Giardiasis Outbreaks - United States, 2012-2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Mar 5;70(9):304-307.Full text  Abstract

16. Coffey CM, Collier SA, Gleason ME, et al. Evolving epidemiology of reported Giardiasis cases in the United States, 1995-2016. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 1;72(5):764-770.Full text  Abstract

17. Gilman RH, Brown KH, Visvesvara GS, et al. Epidemiology and serology of Giardia lamblia in a developing country: Bangladesh. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1985;79(4):469-73. Abstract

18. Reses HE, Gargano JW, Liang JL, et al. Risk factors for sporadic Giardia infection in the USA: a case-control study in Colorado and Minnesota. Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Jul;146(9):1071-1078.Full text  Abstract

19. Laupland KB, Church DL. Population-based laboratory surveillance for Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a large Canadian health region. BMC Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 16;5:72.Full text  Abstract

20. Read C, Walters J, Robertson ID, et al. Correlation between genotype of Giardia duodenalis and diarrhoea. Int J Parasitol. 2002 Feb;32(2):229-31. Abstract

21. Flanagan PA. Giardia - diagnosis, clinical course and epidemiology. A review. Epidemiol Infect. 1992 Aug;109(1):1-22. Abstract

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27. Ament ME, Rubin CE. Relation of giardiasis to abnormal intestinal structure and function in gastrointestinal immunodeficiency syndromes. Gastroenterology. 1972 Feb;62(2):216-26. Abstract

28. Scott KG, Logan MR, Klammer GM, et al. Jejunal brush border microvillous alterations in Giardia muris-infected mice: role of T lymphocytes and interleukin-6. Infect Immun. 2000 Jun;68(6):3412-8.Full text  Abstract

29. Solaymani-Mohammadi S, Singer SM. Host immunity and pathogen strain contribute to intestinal disaccharidase impairment following gut infection. J Immunol. 2011 Oct 1;187(7):3769-75.Full text  Abstract

30. Berry ASF, Johnson K, Martins R, et al. Natural infection with <i>Giardia</i> is associated with altered community structure of the human and canine gut microbiome. mSphere. 2020 Aug 5;5(4):.Full text  Abstract

31. Barash NR, Maloney JG, Singer SM, et al. Giardia alters commensal microbial diversity throughout the murine gut. Infect Immun. 2017 Jun;85(6):.Full text  Abstract

32. Beatty JK, Akierman SV, Motta JP, et al. Giardia duodenalis induces pathogenic dysbiosis of human intestinal microbiota biofilms. Int J Parasitol. 2017 May;47(6):311-326.Full text  Abstract

33. Bartelt LA, Bolick DT, Mayneris-Perxachs J, et al. Cross-modulation of pathogen-specific pathways enhances malnutrition during enteric co-infection with Giardia lamblia and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. PLoS Pathog. 2017 Jul;13(7):e1006471.Full text  Abstract

34. Mejia R, Damania A, Jeun R, et al. Impact of intestinal parasites on microbiota and cobalamin gene sequences: a pilot study. Parasit Vectors. 2020 Apr 19;13(1):200.Full text  Abstract

35. Dagci H, Ustun S, Taner MS, et al. Protozoon infections and intestinal permeability. Acta Trop. 2002 Jan;81(1):1-5. Abstract

36. Scott KG, Meddings JB, Kirk DR, et al. Intestinal infection with Giardia spp. reduces epithelial barrier function in a myosin light chain kinase-dependent fashion. Gastroenterology. 2002 Oct;123(4):1179-90. Abstract

37. Eckmann L, Laurent F, Langford TD, et al. Nitric oxide production by human intestinal epithelial cells and competition for arginine as potential determinants of host defense against the lumen-dwelling pathogen Giardia lamblia. J Immunol. 2000 Feb 1;164(3):1478-87.Full text  Abstract

38. Potoka DA, Upperman JS, Zhang XR, et al. Peroxynitrite inhibits enterocyte proliferation and modulates Src kinase activity in vitro. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Nov;285(5):G861-9.Full text  Abstract

39. Müller N, von Allmen N. Recent insights into the mucosal reactions associated with Giardia lamblia infections. Int J Parasitol. 2005 Nov;35(13):1339-47. Abstract

40. Buret AG, Scott KG-E, Chin AC. Giardiasis: pathophysiology and pathogenesis. In: Olson BE, Olson ME, Wallis PM, eds. Giardia: the cosmopolitan parasite. New York, NY: CABI Pub; 2002:109-27.

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42. Buret A, Hardin JA, Olson ME, et al. Pathophysiology of small intestinal malabsorption in gerbils infected with Giardia lamblia, Gastroenterology. 1992 Aug;103(2):506-13. Abstract

43. Cevallos A, Carnaby S, James M, et al. Small intestinal injury in a neonatal rat model of giardiasis is strain dependent. Gastroenterology. 1995 Sep;109(3):766-73. Abstract

44. Troeger H, Epple HJ, Schneider T, et al. Effect of chronic Giardia lamblia infection on epithelial transport and barrier function in human duodenum. Gut. 2007 Mar;56(3):328-35. Abstract

45. Pérez PF, Minnaard J, Rouvet M, et al. Inhibition of Giardia intestinalis by extracellular factors from lactobacilli: an in vitro study. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001 Nov;67(11):5037-42.Full text  Abstract

46. Sackey ME, Weigel MM, Armijos RX. Predictors and nutritional consequences of intestinal parasitic infections in rural Ecuadorian children. J Trop Pediatr. 2003 Feb;49(1):17-23. Abstract

47. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Giardia and pets. Feb 2021 [internet publication].Full text

48. Langford TD, Housley MP, Boes M, et al. Central importance of immunoglobulin A in host defense against Giardia spp. Infect Immun. 2002 Jan;70(1):11-18.Full text  Abstract

49. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parasites: Giardia: sources of infection & risk factors. July 2015 [internet publication].Full text

50. Ongerth JE, Johnson RL, Macdonald SC, et al. Backcountry water treatment to prevent giardiasis. Am J Public Health. 1989 Dec;79(12):1633-7.Full text  Abstract

51. Nayak N, Ganguly NK, Walia BN, et al. Specific secretory IgA in the milk of Giardia lamblia-infected and uninfected women. J Infect Dis. 1987 Apr;155(4):724-7. Abstract

52. Clasen TF, Bostoen K, Schmidt WP, et al. Interventions to improve disposal of human excreta for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jun 16;(6):CD007180.Full text  Abstract

53. Schnadower D, Tarr PI, Casper TC, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG versus placebo for acute gastroenteritis in children. N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 22;379(21):2002-2014.Full text  Abstract

54. Freedman SB, Williamson-Urquhart S, Farion KJ, et al. Multicenter trial of a combination probiotic for children with gastroenteritis. N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 22;379(21):2015-2026.Full text  Abstract

55. Solomons NW. Giardiasis: nutritional implications. Rev Infect Dis. 1982 Jul-Aug;4(4):859-69. Abstract

56. Gillon J. Clinical studies in adults presenting with giardiasis to a gastro-intestinal unit. Scott Med J. 1985 Apr;30(2):89-95. Abstract

57. Welsh JD, Poley JR, Hensley J, et al. Intestinal disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase activity in giardiasis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1984;3(1):37-40. Abstract

58. Beer KD, Collier SA, Du F, et al. Giardiasis diagnosis and treatment practices among commercially insured persons in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 May 1;64(9):1244-1250.Full text  Abstract

59. Arasaradnam RP, Brown S, Forbes A, et al. Guidelines for the investigation of chronic diarrhoea in adults: British Society of Gastroenterology, 3rd edition. Gut. 2018 Aug;67(8):1380-99.Full text  Abstract

60. Garcia LS, Shimizu RY. Evaluation of nine immunoassay kits (enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescence) for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in human fecal specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Jun;35(6):1526-9.Full text  Abstract

61. Al FD, Kuştimur S, Ozekinci T, et al. The use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) methods for diagnosis of Giardia intestinalis. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2006;30(4):275-8. Abstract

62. Weitzel T, Dittrich S, Möhl I, et al. Evaluation of seven commercial antigen detection tests for Giardia and Cryptosporidium in stool samples. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 Jul;12(7):656-9.Full text  Abstract

63. Aziz H, Beck CE, Lux MF, Hudson MJ. A comparison study of different methods used in the detection of Giardia lamblia. Clin Lab Sci. 2001 Summer;14(3):150-54. Abstract

64. Aldeen WE, Hale D, Robison AJ, et al. Evaluation of a commercially available ELISA assay for detection of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1995 Feb;21(2):77-9. Abstract

65. Garcia LS, Arrowood M, Kokoskin E, et al. Practical guidance for clinical microbiology laboratories: Laboratory diagnosis of parasites from the gastrointestinal tract. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2018 Jan;31(1):.Full text  Abstract

66. Ghosh S, Debnath A, Sil A, et al. PCR detection of Giardia lamblia in stool: targeting intergenic spacer region of multicopy rRNA gene. Mol Cell Probes. 2000 Jun;14(3):181-9. Abstract

67. Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet LE, Wallinga JA, Ruijs GJ, et al. Parasitological diagnosis combining an internally controlled real-time PCR assay for the detection of four protozoa in stool samples with a testing algorithm for microscopy. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009 Sep;15(9):869-74. Abstract

68. Garcia LS, Shimizu RY, Novak S, et al. Commercial assay for detection of Gardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum antigens in human fecal specimens by rapid solid-phase qualitative immunochromatography. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jan;41(1):209-12.Full text  Abstract

69. Ministry of Health, British Columbia. Infectious diarrhea: guideline for ordering stool specimens. Mar 2009 [internet publication].Full text

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73. Gilman RH, Marquis GS, Miranda E, et al. Rapid reinfection by Giardia lamblia after treatment in a hyperendemic Third World community. Lancet. 1988 Feb 13;1(8581):343-5. Abstract

74. Ozbilgin A, Ertan P, Yereli K, et al. Giardiasis treatment in Turkish children with a single dose of ornidazole. Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34(12):918-20. Abstract

75. Shane AL, Mody RK, Crump JA, et al. 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of infectious diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Nov 29;65(12):e45-e80.Full text  Abstract

76. Gardner TB, Hill DR. Treatment of giardiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001 Jan;14(1):114-28. Abstract

77. Tian HF, Chen B, Wen JF. Giardiasis, drug resistance, and new target discovery. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2010 Aug;10(4):295-302. Abstract

78. Lalle M. Giardiasis in the post genomic era: treatment, drug resistance and novel therapeutic perspectives. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2010 Aug;10(4):283-94. Abstract

79. Mergenhagen KA, Wattengel BA, Skelly MK, et al. Fact versus fiction: A review of the evidence behind alcohol and antibiotic interactions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Feb 21;64(3):.Full text  Abstract

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81. Rossignol JF, Ayoub A, Ayers MS. Treatment of diarrhea caused by Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica or E. dispar: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of nitazoxanide. J Infect Dis. 2001 Aug 1;184(3):381-4.Full text  Abstract

82. Ortiz JJ, Ayoub A, Gargala G, et al. Randomized clinical study of nitazoxanide compared to metronidazole in the treatment of symptomatic giardiasis in children from Northern Peru. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Sep;15(9):1409-15.Full text  Abstract

83. Davila-Gutierrez CE, Vasquez C, Trujillo-Hernandez B, et al. Nitazoxanide compared with quinfamide and mebendazole in the treatment of helminthic infections and intestinal protozoa in children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002 Mar;66(3):251-4. Abstract

84. Chan R, Chen J, York MK, et al. Evaluation of a combination rapid immunoassay for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium antigens. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Jan;38(1):393-4.Full text  Abstract

85. Solaymani-Mohammadi S, Genkinger JM, Loffredo CA, et al. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of albendazole compared with metronidazole as treatments for infections with Giardia duodenalis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 May 11;4(5):e682.Full text  Abstract

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87. van den Bijllaardt W, Overdevest IT, Buiting AG, et al. Rapid clearance of Giardia lamblia DNA from the gut after successful treatment. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Nov;20(11):O972-4.Full text  Abstract

88. Duncombe VM, Bolin TD, Davis AE, et al. Histopathology in giardiasis: a correlation with diarrhoea. Aust N Z J Med. 1978 Aug;8(4):392-6. Abstract

89. Garg BK. Furazolidone and metronidazole in the treatment of giardiasis. Indian J Pediatr. 1972 Aug;39(295):264-6. Abstract

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93. Lopez-Velez R, Batlle C, Jiménez C, et al. Short course combination therapy for giardiasis after nitroimidazole failure. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Jul;83(1):171-3. Abstract

94. Cacopardo B, Patamia I, Bonaccorso V, et al. Synergic effect of albendazole plus metronidazole association in the treatment of metronidazole-resistant giardiasis [in Italian]. Clin Ter. 1995 Dec;146(12):761-7. Abstract

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97. Smith PD, Gillin FD, Spira WM, et al. Chronic giardiasis: studies on drug sensitivity, toxin production, and host immune response. Gastroenterology. 1982 Oct;83(4):797-803. Abstract

98. Taylor GD, Wenman WM, Tyrrell DL. Combined metronidazole and quinacrine hydrochloride therapy for chronic giardiasis. CMAJ. 1987 Jun 1;136(11):1179-80.Full text  Abstract

99. Samuelson J. Why metronidazole is active against both bacteria and parasites. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Jul;43(7):1533-41.Full text  Abstract

100. Gazder AJ, Banerjee M. Single-dose treatment of giardiasis in children: a comparison of tinidazole and metronidazole. Curr Med Res Opin. 1977;5(2):164-8. Abstract

101. Ochoa TJ, Chea-Woo E, Campos M, et al. Impact of lactoferrin supplementation on growth and prevalence of Giardia colonization in children. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jun 15;46(12):1881-3.Full text  Abstract

102. Goto R, Mascie-Taylor CG, Lunn PG. Impact of anti-Giardia and anthelminthic treatment on infant growth and intestinal permeability in rural Bangladesh: a randomised double-blind controlled study. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009 May;103(5):520-9. Abstract

103. Farthing MJ, Mata L, Urrutia JJ, et al. Natural history of Giardia infection of infants and children in rural Guatemala and its impact on physical growth. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986 Mar;43(3):395-405. Abstract

104. LaBeaud AD, Nayakwadi Singer M, McKibben M, et al. Parasitism in children aged three years and under: Relationship between infection and growth in rural coastal Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 May;9(5):e0003721.Full text  Abstract

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107. Girard C, Dereure O, Blatiere V, et al. Vitamin a deficiency phrynoderma associated with chronic giardiasis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2006 Jul-Aug;23(4):346-9. Abstract

108. Desai AN. Giardiasis. JAMA. 2021 Apr 6;325(13):1356.Full text  Abstract

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