Last reviewed: 21 Aug 2021
Last updated: 18 Jun 2021

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • abdominal bloating and discomfort
  • malaise
  • weight loss
  • nausea and vomiting

Risk factors

  • contaminated water/food
  • domestic animals living in or around the house
  • hypogammaglobulinaemia
  • young age
  • male sex
  • day-care centre attendance
  • men having sex with men
  • recent antibiotic use

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  • nucleic acid amplification test, polymerase chain reaction of stool sample
  • stool microscopy
  • FBC

Investigations to consider

  • Lateral flow immunoassay (e.g., ImmunoCard STAT!)
  • string test (EnteroTest)
  • duodenal aspirates and biopsies

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Luther A. Bartelt, MD

Assistant Professor of Medicine

University of North Carolina School of Medicine

Division of Infectious Diseases

Chapel Hill

NC

Disclosures

LAB declares that he has no competing interests. LAB is the author of two articles cited in this topic.

Acknowledgements

Dr Luther Bartelt would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Fida Khan and Dr Musaddiq Waheed, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

FK and MW declared that they had no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Zana Nikolla, MD

Faculty of Medicine

University of Tirana

Tirana

Albania

Disclosures

ZN declares that she has no competing interests.

Rodney Adam, MD

Professor of Medicine and Immunobiology

University of Arizona

Tucson

AZ

Disclosures

RA declares that he has no competing interests.

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