Gilbert syndrome


Key articles

Watson KJ, Gollan JL. Gilbert's syndrome. Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol. 1989 Apr;3(2):337-55. Abstract

Bosma PJ, Chowdhury JR, Bakker C, et al. The genetic basis of the reduced expression of bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 in Gilbert's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1995 Nov 2;333(18):1171-5.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Watson KJ, Gollan JL. Gilbert's syndrome. Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol. 1989 Apr;3(2):337-55. Abstract

2. Berg CL, Crawford JM, Gollan JL. Bilirubin metabolism and the pathophysiology of jaundice. In: Schiff ER, Sorrell MF, Maddrey WC, eds. Schiff's diseases of the liver. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven; 1999:147-92.

3. Kamal S, Abdelhakam S, Ghoraba D, et al. The frequency, clinical course, and health related quality of life in adults with Gilbert's syndrome: a longitudinal study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2019 Feb 4;19(1):22.Full text  Abstract

4. Singer S, Pilpel N, Pinhas-Hamiel O. Gilbert syndrome in patients with type 1 diabetes: prevalence, glycemic control, and microalbuminuria. Pediatr Diabetes. 2017 Dec;18(8):803-7. Abstract

5. Sticova E, Jirsa M. New insights in bilirubin metabolism and their clinical implications. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Oct 14;19(38):6398-407.Full text  Abstract

6. Claridge LC, Armstrong MJ, Booth C, et al. Gilbert's syndrome. BMJ. 2011 Apr 19;342:d2293. Abstract

7. Saki F, Hemmati F, Haghighat M. Prevalence of Gilbert syndrome in parents of neonates with pathologic indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Ann Saudi Med. 2011 Mar-Apr;31(2):140-4.Full text  Abstract

8. Burchell B, Hume R. Molecular genetic basis of Gilbert's syndrome. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999 Oct;14(10):960-6. Abstract

9. Takeuchi K, Kobayashi Y, Tamaki S, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of bilirubin uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase gene in Japanese patients with Crigler-Najjar syndrome or Gilbert's syndrome as well as in healthy Japanese subjects. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Sep;19(9):1023-8. Abstract

10. Bosma PJ, Chowdhury JR, Bakker C, et al. The genetic basis of the reduced expression of bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 in Gilbert's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1995 Nov 2;333(18):1171-5.Full text  Abstract

11. Chowdhury RJ, Chowdhury RN, Jansen P. Bilirubin metabolism and its disorders. In: Boyer TD, Wright TL, Manns MP, eds. Zakim and Boyer's hepatology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2006:1449-85.

12. King D, Armstrong MJ. Overview of Gilbert's syndrome. Drug Ther Bull. 2019 Feb;57(2):27-31. Abstract

13. Monaghan G, Ryan M, Seddon R, et al. Genetic variation in bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase gene promoter and Gilbert's syndrome. Lancet. 1996 Mar 2;347(9001):578-81. Abstract

14. Strassburg CP. Gilbert-Meulengracht’s syndrome and pharmacogenetics: is jaundice just the tip of the iceberg? Drug Metab Rev. 2010 Feb;42(1):168-81. Abstract

15. Minucci A, Concolino P, Giardina B, et al. Rapid UGT1A1 (TA)(n) genotyping by high resolution melting curve analysis for Gilbert’s syndrome diagnosis. Clin Chim Acta. 2010 Feb;411(3-4):246-9. Abstract

16. Muraca M, Fevery J. Influence of sex and sex steroids on bilirubin uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase activity of rat liver. Gastroenterology. 1984 Aug;87(2):308-13. Abstract

17. Thompson RPH. Jaundice. In: Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD, eds. Oxford textbook of medicine. 5th ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2010.

18. Gollan JL, Bateman C, Billing BH. Effect of dietary composition on the unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia of Gilbert's syndrome. Gut. 1976 May;17(5):335-40.Full text  Abstract

19. Black M, Sherlock S. Treatment of Gilbert's syndrome with phenobarbitone. Lancet. 1970 Jun 27;1(7661):1359-61. Abstract

20. Kutz K, Kandler H, Gugler R, et al. Effect of clofibrate on the metabolism of bilirubin, bromosulphophthalein and indocyanine green and on the biliary lipid composition in Gilbert's syndrome. Clin Sci (Lond). 1984 Apr;66(4):389-97. Abstract

21. Ohkubo H, Okuda K, Iida S. Effects of corticosteroids on bilirubin metabolism in patients with Gilbert's syndrome. Hepatology. 1981 Mar-Apr;1(2):168-72. Abstract

22. Ehmer U, Lankisch TO, Erichsen TJ, et al. Rapid allelic discrimination by TaqMan PCR for the detection of the Gilbert's syndrome marker UGT1A1*28. J Mol Diagn. 2008 Nov;10(6):549-52.Full text  Abstract

23. Marques SC, Ikediobi ON. The clinical application of UGT1A1 pharmacogenetic testing: gene-environment interactions. Hum Genomics. 2010 Apr;4(4):238-49.Full text  Abstract

24. Bensinger TA, Maisels MJ, Carlson DE, et al. Effect of low caloric diet on endogenous carbon monoxide production: normal adults and Gilbert's syndrome. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1973 Nov;144(2):417-9. Abstract

25. Gärtner U, Goeser T, Wolkoff AW. Effect of fasting on the uptake of bilirubin and sulfobromophthalein by the isolated perfused rat liver. Gastroenterology. 1997 Nov;113(5):1707-13. Abstract

26. Martin JF, Vierling JM, Wolkoff AW, et al. Abnormal hepatic transport of indocyanine green in Gilbert's syndrome. Gastroenterology. 1976 Mar;70(3):385-91. Abstract

27. Hauser SC, Gollan J. Bilirubin metabolism and hyperbilirubinaemic disorders. In: Millward-Sadler GH, Wright R, Arthur MJ, eds. Wright's liver and biliary disease. London: W.B. Saunders; 1992:318-51.

28. Očadlík I, Hlinštáková S, Oravec S. Relationship between unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and lipoprotein spectrum. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2011;32(3):360-4. Abstract

29. Tapan S, Karadurmus N, Dogru T, et al. Decreased small dense LDL levels in Gilbert's syndrome. Clin Biochem. 2011 Mar;44(4):300-3. Abstract

30. Horsfall LJ, Nazareth I, Pereira SP, et al. Gilbert's syndrome and the risk of death: a population-based cohort study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Oct;28(10):1643-7. Abstract

31. Horsfall LJ, Rait G, Walters K, et al. Serum bilirubin and risk of respiratory disease and death. JAMA. 2011 Feb 16;305(7):691-7.Full text  Abstract

32. Kwon YJ, Lee YJ, Park BJ, et al. Total serum bilirubin and 8-year incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Diabetes Metab. 2018 Sep;44(4):346-53. Abstract

33. Wagner KH, Wallner M, Mölzer C, et al. Looking to the horizon: the role of bilirubin in the development and prevention of age-related chronic diseases. Clin Sci (Lond). 2015 Jul;129(1):1-25. Abstract

34. Innocenti F, Iyer L, Ratain MJ. Pharmacogenetics: a tool for individualizing antineoplastic therapy. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000 Nov;39(5):315-25. Abstract

35. de Morais SM, Uetrecht JP, Wells PG. Decreased glucuronidation and increased bioactivation of acetaminophen in Gilbert's syndrome. Gastroenterology. 1992 Feb;102(2):577-86.Full text  Abstract

36. Ullrich D, Sieg A, Blume R, et al. Normal pathways for glucuronidation, sulphation and oxidation of paracetamol in Gilbert's syndrome. Eur J Clin Invest. 1987 Jun;17(3):237-40. Abstract

37. Rauchschwalbe SK, Zühlsdorf MT, Wensing G, et al. Glucuronidation of acetaminophen is independent of UGT1A1 promotor genotype. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Feb;42(2):73-7. Abstract

38. Lee JS, Wang J, Martin M, et al. Genetic variation in UGT1A1 typical of Gilbert syndrome is associated with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in patients receiving tocilizumab. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011 Jul;21(7):365-74. Abstract

39. Deterding K, Grüngreiff K, Lankisch TO, et al. Gilbert's syndrome and antiviral therapy of hepatitis C. Ann Hepatol. 2009 Jul-Sep;8(3):246-50. Abstract

40. Jordovic J, Bojovic K, Simonovic-Babic J, et al. Significance of UGT1A1*28 genotype in patients with advanced liver injury caused by chronic hepatitis C. J Med Biochem. 2019 Mar 1;38(1):45-52.Full text  Abstract

41. Peer CJ, Sissung TM, Kim A, et al. Sorafenib is an inhibitor of UGT1A1 but is metabolized by UGT1A9: implications of genetic variants on pharmacokinetics and hyperbilirubinemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Apr 1;18(7):2099-107.Full text  Abstract

42. Prueksaritanont T, Tang C, Qiu Y, et al. Effects of fibrates on metabolism of statins in human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Nov;30(11):1280-7. Abstract

43. Jialal I, Siegel D. Statin intolerance in a patient with Gilberts syndrome and hypercholesterolemia. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes Rep. 2016;3(01):e8-10.Full text

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