Epidemiology

GS is the most common aetiology of hereditary jaundice.[5] About one third of individuals with GS remain undiagnosed due to the asymptomatic nature of the condition.[6] Worldwide prevalence is difficult to discern, as diagnostic criteria depend on numerous factors, including levels of bilirubin; number of times bilirubin level is analysed; and whether the patient was fasting, is medicated, or has used alcohol. All of these factors may affect bilirubin concentration. The incidence of GS in the US is 3% to 7% of the population.[2] Population studies show that GS is more common in men, with a male-to-female ratio ranging from 2:1 to 7:1.[1] One study in Middle Eastern populations showed that parents of neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinaemia of unknown aetiology showed no difference in the prevalence of GS when compared with parents of neonates with normal bilirubin.[7]

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