Toxic shock syndrome

References

Key articles

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS): 2010 case definition. 2010 [internet publication].Full text

Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;49(11):e1063-e1143.Full text  Abstract

Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, et al. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jul 15;59(2):e10-52.Full text  Abstract

Sartelli M, Guirao X, Hardcastle TC, et al. 2018 WSES/SIS-E consensus conference: recommendations for the management of skin and soft-tissue infections. World J Emerg Surg. 2018;13:58.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS): 2010 case definition. 2010 [internet publication].Full text

3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Case definitions for infectious conditions under public health surveillance. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1997 May 2;46(10):1-55.Full text  Abstract

4. Reingold AL, Hargrett NT, Shands KN, et al. Toxic shock syndrome surveillance in the United States, 1980 to 1981. Ann Intern Med. 1982 Jun;96(6 Pt 2):875-80. Abstract

5. Kotler DP, Sandkovsky U, Schlievert PM, et al. Toxic shock-like syndrome associated with staphylococcal enterocolitis in an HIV-infected man. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Jun 15;44(12):e121-3.Full text  Abstract

6. Paterson MP, Hoffman EB, Roux P. Severe disseminated staphylococcal disease associated with osteitis and septic arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1990 Jan;72(1):94-7.Full text  Abstract

7. Ferguson MA, Todd JK. Toxic shock syndrome associated with Staphylococcus aureus sinusitis in children. J Infect Dis. 1990 May;161(5):953-5. Abstract

8. Parsonnet J. Nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome: new insights into diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis. 1996;16:1-20. Abstract

9. Darenberg J, Luca-Harari B, Jasir A, et al. Molecular and clinical characteristics of invasive group A streptococcal infections in Sweden. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Aug 15;45(4):450-8.Full text  Abstract

10. Gnann JW Jr. Varicella-zoster virus: atypical presentations and unusual complications. J Infect Dis. 2002 Oct 15;186(suppl 1):S91-S98.Full text  Abstract

11. Imöhl M, van der Linden M, Reinert RR, et al. Invasive group A streptococcal disease and association with varicella in Germany, 1996-2009. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2011 Jun;62(1):101-9.Full text  Abstract

12. Davis JP, Osterholm MT, Helms CM, et al. Tri-state toxic-shock syndrome study: clinical and laboratory findings. J Infect Dis. 1982 Apr;145(4):441-8. Abstract

13. Chesney PJ. Clinical aspects and spectrum of illness of toxic shock syndrome: overview. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jan-Feb;11(suppl 1):S1-S7. Abstract

14. Kain KC, Schulzer M, Chow AW. Clinical spectrum of nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS): comparison with menstrual TSS by multivariate discriminant analyses. Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Jan;16(1):100-6. Abstract

15. Andrews M, Parent EM, Barry M, et al. Recurrent nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 May 15;32(10):1470-9. Abstract

16. Stolz SJ, Davis JP, Vergeront JM, et al. Development of serum antibody to toxic shock toxin among individuals with toxic shock syndrome in Wisconsin. J Infect Dis. 1985 May;151(5):883-9. Abstract

17. Cone LA, Woodard DR, Byrd RG, et al. A recalcitrant, erythematous, desquamating disorder associated with toxin-producing staphylococci in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1992 Apr;165(4):638-43.Full text  Abstract

18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Group A Streptococcal (GAS) disease. November 2018 [internet publication].Full text

19. Lamagni TL, Darenberg J, Luca-Harari B, et al. Epidemiology of severe Streptococcus pyogenes disease in Europe. J Clin Microbiol. 2008 Jul;46(7):2359-67.Full text  Abstract

20. Nelson GE, Pondo T, Toews KA, et al. Epidemiology of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections in the United States, 2005-2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 15;63(4):478-86.Full text  Abstract

21. Ekelund K, Skinhoj P, Madsen J, et al. Reemergence of emm1 and a changed superantigen profile for group A streptococci causing invasive infections: results from a nationwide study. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Apr;43(4):1789-96.Full text  Abstract

22. Svensson N, Oberg S, Henriques B, et al. Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Sweden in 1994 and 1995: epidemiology and clinical spectrum. Scand J Infect Dis. 2000;32(6):609-14. Abstract

23. Kaul R, McGeer A, Low DE, et al. Population-based surveillance for group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis: clinical features, prognostic indicators, and microbiological analysis of seventy-seven cases. Am J Med. 1997 Jul;103(1):18-24. Abstract

24. Schwartz B, Facklam RR, Brieman RF. Changing epidemiology of group A streptococcal infection in the USA. Lancet. 1990 Nov 10;336(8724):1167-71. Abstract

25. Davies HD, McGeer A, Schwartz B, et al. Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada. N Engl J Med. 1996 Aug 22;335(8):547-54.Full text  Abstract

26. Demers B, Simor AE, Vellend H, et al. Severe invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada: 1987-1991. Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Jun;16(6):792-800. Abstract

27. O'Brien KL, Levine OS, Schwartz B. The changing epidemiology of group A streptococcus infections. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 1997;8:10-16.

28. Schwartz B, Elliot JA, Butler JC, et al. Clusters of invasive group A streptococcal infections in family, hospital, and nursing home settings. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;15(2):277-84. Abstract

29. Kakis A, Gibbs L, Eguia J, et al. An outbreak of group A streptococcal infection among health care workers. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Dec 1;35(11):1353-9.Full text  Abstract

30. Auerbach SB, Schwartz B, Williams D, et al. Outbreak of invasive group A streptococcal infections in a nursing home: lessons on prevention and control. Arch Intern Med. 1992 May;152(5):1017-22. Abstract

31. Hohenboken JJ, Anderson F, Kaplan EL. Invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) serotype M-1 outbreak in a long-term care facility (LTCF) with mortality. Paper presented at: 34th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; 1994; Orlando, FL.

32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nosocomial group A streptococcal infections associated with asymptomatic health-care workers: Maryland and California, 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999 Mar 5;48(8):163-6.Full text  Abstract

33. Berger S, Kunerl A, Wasmuth S, et al. Menstrual toxic shock syndrome: case report and systematic review of the literature. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019 Sep;19(9):e313-e321.Full text  Abstract

34. Sharma H, Smith D, Turner CE, et al. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome in the United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Feb;24(2):.Full text  Abstract

35. Hajjeh RA, Reingold A, Weil A, et al. Toxic shock syndrome in the United States: surveillance update, 1979-1996. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999 Nov-Dec;5(6):807-10.Full text  Abstract

36. Gaventa S, Reingold AL, Hightower AW, et al. Active surveillance for toxic shock syndrome in the United States, 1986. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jan-Feb;11(suppl 1):S28-S34. Abstract

37. Schwartz B, Gaventa S, Broome CV, et al. Nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome associated with barrier contraceptives: report of a case-control study. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jan-Feb;11(suppl 1):S43-S48. Abstract

38. Durand G, Bes M, Meugnier H, et al. Detection of new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones containing the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 gene responsible for hospital- and community-acquired infections in France. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Mar;44(3):847-53.Full text  Abstract

39. Fey PD, Said-Salim B, Rupp ME, et al. Comparative molecular analysis of community- or hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Jan;47(1):196-203.Full text  Abstract

40. Stevens DL. Invasive group A streptococcus infections. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Jan;14(1):2-11. Abstract

41. Tang WM, Ho PL, Yau WP, et al. Report of two fatal cases of adult necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus agalactiae. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Oct;31(4):E15-7.Full text  Abstract

42. Kotb M. Bacterial pyrogenic exotoxins as superantigens. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1995 Jul;8(3):411-26.Full text  Abstract

43. Norrby-Teglund A, Thulin P, Gan BS, et al. Evidence for superantigen involvement in severe group A streptococcal tissue infections. J Infect Dis. 2001 Oct 1;184(7):853-60.Full text  Abstract

44. Stevens DL, Bryant AE, Hackett SP, et al. Group A streptococcal bacteremia: the role of tumor necrosis factor in shock and organ failure. J Infect Dis. 1996 Mar;173(3):619-26. Abstract

45. Gaworzewska ET, Coleman G. Correspondence: group A streptococcal infections and a toxic shock-like syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:1546.

46. Stegmayr B, Bjorck S, Holm S, et al. Septic shock induced by group A streptococcal infections: clinical and therapeutic aspects. Scand J Infect Dis. 1992;24(5):589-97. Abstract

47. Holm SE, Norrby A, Bergholm AM, et al. Aspects of pathogenesis of serious group A streptococcal infections in Sweden, 1988-1989. J Infect Dis. 1992 Jul;166(1):31-7. Abstract

48. Eriksson BK, Andersson J, Holm SE, et al. Invasive group A streptococcal infections: T1M1 isolates expressing pyrogenic exotoxins A and B in combination with selective lack of toxin-neutralizing antibodies are associated with increased risk of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;180(2):410-8.Full text  Abstract

49. Norrby-Teglund A, Newton D, Kotb M, et al. Superantigenic properties of the group A streptococcal exotoxin SpeF (MF). Infect Immun. 1994 Dec;62(12):5227-33.Full text  Abstract

50. Norrby-Teglund A, Kotb M. Host-microbe interactions in the pathogenesis of invasive group A streptococcal infections. J Med Microbiol. 2000 Oct;49(10):849-52.Full text  Abstract

51. Barry W, Hudgins L, Donta ST, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for toxic shock syndrome. JAMA. 1992 Jun 24;267(24):3315-6. Abstract

52. Basma H, Norrby-Teglund A, Guedez Y, et al. Risk factors in the pathogenesis of invasive group A streptococcal infections: role of protective humoral immunity. Infect Immun. 1999 Apr;67(4):1871-7.Full text  Abstract

53. Ato M, Ikebe T, Kawataba H, et al. Incompetence of neutrophils to invasive group A streptococcus is attributed to induction of plural virulence factors by dysfunction of a regulator. PLoS ONE. 2008;3(10):e3455.Full text  Abstract

54. Kikuchi K, Takahashi N, Piao C, et al. Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains causing neonatal toxic shock syndrome-like exanthematous disease in neonatal and perinatal wards. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jul;41(7):3001-6.Full text  Abstract

55. van der Mee-Marquet N, Lina G, Quentin R, et al. Staphylococcal exanthematous disease in a newborn due to a virulent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain containing the TSST-1 gene in Europe: an alert for neonatologists. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Oct;41(10):4883-4.Full text  Abstract

56. De Boer ML, Kum WW, Pang LT, et al. Co-production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) enhances TSST-1 mediated mortality in a D-galactosamine sensitized mouse model of lethal shock. Microb Pathog. 1999 Aug;27(2):61-70. Abstract

57. Lehn N, Schaller E, Wagner H, et al. Frequency of toxic shock syndrome toxin- and enterotoxin-producing clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1995 Jan;14(1):43-6. Abstract

58. Parsonnet J, Hansmann MA, Delaney ML, et al. Prevalence of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 producing Staphylococcus aureus and the presence of antibodies to this superantigen in menstruating women. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Sep;43(9):4628-34.Full text  Abstract

59. Bonventre PF, Thompson MR, Adinolfi LE, et al. Neutralization of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 by monoclonal antibodies in vitro and in vivo. Infect Immun. 1988 Jan;56(1):135-41.Full text  Abstract

60. O'Brien KL, Beall B, Barrett NL, et al. Epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcus disease in the United States, 1995-1999. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Aug 1;35(3):268-76.Full text  Abstract

61. Stevens DL, Tanner MH, Winship J, et al. Severe group A streptococcal infections associated with a shock-like syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1989 Jul 6;321(1):1-7. Abstract

62. Stevens DL. Streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome: spectrum of disease, pathogenesis, and new concepts in treatment. Emerg Infect Dis. 1995 Jul-Sep;1(3):69-78.Full text  Abstract

63. Gourlay M, Gutierrez C, Chong A, et al. Group A streptococcal sepsis and ovarian vein thrombosis after an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2001 Sep-Oct;14(5):375-80.Full text  Abstract

64. Gergis H, Barik S, Lim K, et al. Life-threatening puerperal infection with group A streptococcus. J R Soc Med. 1999 Aug;92(8):412-3.Full text  Abstract

65. Okumura K, Schroff R, Campbell R, et al. Group A streptococcal puerperal sepsis with retroperitoneal involvement developing in a late postpartum woman: case report. Am Surg. 2004 Aug;70(8):730-2. Abstract

66. Agerson AN, Wilkins EG. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome after breast reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 2005 May;54(5):553-6. Abstract

67. Reingold AL, Broome CV, Gaventa S, et al. Risk factors for menstrual toxic shock syndrome: results of a multistate case-control study. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jan-Feb;11(suppl 1):S35-S41. Abstract

68. Osterholm MT, Davis JP, Gibson RW, et al. Toxic shock syndrome: relation to catamenial products, personal health and hygiene, and sexual practices. Ann Intern Med. 1982 Jun;96(6 Pt 2):954-8. Abstract

69. Broome CV. Epidemiology of toxic shock syndrome in the United States: overview. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jan-Feb;11(suppl 1):S14-S21. Abstract

70. Strandberg KL, Peterson ML, Schaefers MM, et al. Reduction in Staphylococcus aureus growth and exotoxin production and in vaginal interleukin 8 levels due to glycerol monolaurate in tampons. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Dec 1;49(11):1711-7. Abstract

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73. Tseng HW, Liu CC, Wang SM, et al. Complications of varicella in children: emphasis on skin and central nervous system disorders. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2000 Dec;33(4):248-52. Abstract

74. Stevens DL. The toxic shock syndromes. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1996 Dec;10(4):727-46. Abstract

75. Effler PV, Bogard AK, Domen HY, et al. Evaluation of eight rapid screening tests for acute leptospirosis in Hawaii. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Apr;40(4):1464-9.Full text  Abstract

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88. Gooskens J, Neeling AJ, Willems RJ, et al. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome by an iMLS resistant M type 77 Streptococcus pyogenes in the Netherlands. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37(2):85-9. Abstract

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90. Carapetis JR, Jacoby P, Carville K, et al. Effectiveness of clindamycin and intravenous immunoglobulin, and risk of disease in contacts, in invasive group a streptococcal infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 1;59(3):358-65. Abstract

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92. Linnér A, Darenberg J, Sjölin J, et al. Clinical efficacy of polyspecific intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: a comparative observational study. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Sep 15;59(6):851-7. Abstract

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