Graves' disease


Key articles

Smith TJ, Hegedüs L. Graves' disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 20;375(16):1552-65. Abstract

Davies TF, Andersen S, Latif R, et al. Graves' disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2020 Jul 2;6(1):52.Full text  Abstract

Smith TJ, Hegedüs L. Graves' disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 20;375(16):1552-65. Abstract

Kahaly GJ, Bartalena L, Hegedüs L, et al. 2018 European Thyroid Association Guideline for the management of Graves' hyperthyroidism. Eur Thyroid J. 2018 Jul 25;7(4):167-86.Full text  Abstract

Bartalena L, Kahaly GJ, Baldeschi L, et al. The 2021 European Group on Graves' orbitopathy (EUGOGO) clinical practice guidelines for the medical management of Graves' orbitopathy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2021 Aug 27;185(4):G43-G67.Full text  Abstract

Kahaly GJ. Management of Graves thyroidal and extrathyroidal disease: an update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Dec 1;105(12):3704-20Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Thyroid disease: assessment and management. Nov 2019 [internet publication].Full text

Fatourechi V. Pretibial myxedema: pathophysiology and treatment options. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2005;6(5):295-309. Abstract

Reference articles

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39. Roque C, Vasconcelos CA. <sup>131</sup>I-Induced Graves' disease in patients treated for toxic multinodular goitre: systematic review and descriptive analysis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2018 Sep;41(9):1019-1028.Full text  Abstract

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51. Yoshimura Noh J, Momotani N, Fukada S, et al. Ratio of serum free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine in Graves' hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis caused by painless thyroiditis. Endocr J. 2005 Oct;52(5):537-42.Full text  Abstract

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53. Bogazzi F, Vitti P. Could improved ultrasound and power Doppler replace thyroidal radioiodine uptake to assess thyroid disease? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Feb;4(2):70-1. Abstract

54. Bartalena L, Kahaly GJ, Baldeschi L, et al. The 2021 European Group on Graves' orbitopathy (EUGOGO) clinical practice guidelines for the medical management of Graves' orbitopathy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2021 Aug 27;185(4):G43-G67.Full text  Abstract

55. Schwartz KM, Fatourechi V, Ahmed DD, et al. Dermopathy of Graves' disease (pretibial myxedema): long-term outcome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb;87(2):438-46. Abstract

56. Fatourechi V, Ahmed DDF, Schwartz KM. Thyroid acropachy: report of 40 patients treated at a single institution in a 26-year period. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Dec;87(12):5435-41. Abstract

57. Anagnostis P, Boboridis K, Adamidou F, et al. Natural course of mild Graves' orbitopathy: is it a chronic remitting or a transient disease? J Endocrinol Invest. 2017 Mar;40(3):257-61. Abstract

58. Mitchell AL, Goss L, Mathiopoulou L, et al. Diagnosis of Graves' orbitopathy (DiaGO): results of a pilot study to assess the utility of an office tool for practicing endocrinologists. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Mar;100(3):E458-62. Abstract

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70. Elston MS, Sehgal S, Du Toit S, et al. Factitious Graves' disease due to biotin immunoassay interference - a case and review of the literature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Sep;101(9):3251-5.Full text  Abstract

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75. Kahaly GJ. Management of Graves thyroidal and extrathyroidal disease: an update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Dec 1;105(12):3704-20Full text  Abstract

76. Weber KJ, Solorzano CC, Lee JK, et al. Thyroidectomy remains an effective treatment option for Graves' disease. Am J Surg. 2006 Mar;191(3):400-5. Abstract

77. Hegedüs L. Treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism: evidence-based and emerging modalities. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2009 Jun;38(2):355-71. Abstract

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82. Vijayakumar V, Nusynowitz ML, Ali S. Is it safe to treat hyperthyroid patients with I-131 without fear of thyroid storm? Ann Nucl Med. 2006 Jul;20(6):383-5. Abstract

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84. Burch HB, Burman KD, Cooper DS. A 2011 survey of clinical practice patterns in the management of Graves' disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;97(12):4549-58.Full text  Abstract

85. Committee on Pharmaceutical Affairs, Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, and the Pediatric Thyroid Disease Committee, Japan Thyroid Association (Taskforce for the Revision of the Guidelines for the Treatment of Childhood-Onset Graves’ Disease)., Minamitani K, Sato H, et al. Guidelines for the treatment of childhood-onset Graves' disease in Japan, 2016. Clin Pediatr Endocrinol. 2017;26(2):29-62.Full text  Abstract

86. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Thyroid disease: assessment and management. Nov 2019 [internet publication].Full text

87. Abraham-Nordling M, Torring O, Hamberger B, et al. Graves' disease: a long-term quality-of-life follow up of patients randomized to treatment with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine, or surgery. Thyroid. 2005 Nov;15(11):1279-86. Abstract

88. Abraham P, Avenell A, McGeoch SC, et al. Antithyroid drug regimen for treating Graves' hyperthyroidism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD003420.Full text  Abstract

89. Razvi S, Vaidya B, Perros P, et al. What is the evidence behind the evidence-base? The premature death of block-replace antithyroid drug regimens for Graves' disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006 Jun;154(6):783-6.Full text  Abstract

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99. Otsuka F, Noh JY, Chino T, et al. Hepatotoxicity and cutaneous reactions after antithyroid drug administration. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Aug;77(2):310-5. Abstract

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101. Robinson J, Richardson M, Hickey J, et al. Patient knowledge of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis. Eur Thyroid J. 2014 Dec;3(4):245-51.Full text  Abstract

102. Balavoine AS, Glinoer D, Dubucquoi S, et al. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive small-vessel vasculitis associated with antithyroid drug therapy: how significant is the clinical problem? Thyroid. 2015 Dec;25(12):1273-81. Abstract

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108. Li HX, Xiang N, Hu WK, et al. Relation between therapy options for Graves' disease and the course of Graves' ophthalmopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2016 Nov;39(11):1225-33. Abstract

109. Bartalena L. The dilemma of how to manage Graves' hyperthyroidism in patients with associated orbitopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar;96(3):592-9. Abstract

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116. Zhang Y, Dong Z, Li J, et al. Comparison of endoscopic and conventional open thyroidectomy for Graves' disease: a meta-analysis. Int J Surg. 2017 Apr;40:52-9. Abstract

117. Miccoli P, Fregoli L, Rossi L, et al. Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT). Gland Surg. 2020 Jan;9(suppl 1):S1-S5.Full text  Abstract

118. Stålberg P, Svensson A, Hessman O, et al. Surgical treatment of Graves' disease: evidence-based approach. World J Surg. 2008 Jul;32(7):1269-77. Abstract

119. Barczynski M, Konturek A, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, et al. Randomized clinical trial of bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy versus total thyroidectomy for Graves' disease with a 5-year follow-up. Br J Surg. 2012 Apr;99(4):515-22. Abstract

120. Wiersinga WM, Perros P, Kahaly GJ, et al; European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO). Clinical assessment of patients with Graves’ orbitopathy: the European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy recommendations to generalists, specialists and clinical researchers. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006 Sep;155(3):387-9. Abstract

121. Perros P, Dayan CM, Dickinson AJ, et al. Management of patients with Graves' orbitopathy: initial assessment, management outside specialised centres and referral pathways. Clin Med (Lond). 2015 Apr;15(2):173-8.Full text  Abstract

122. Marcocci C, Kahaly GJ, Krassas GE, et al. Selenium and the course of mild Graves' orbitopathy. N Engl J Med. 2011 May 19;364(20):1920-31.Full text  Abstract

123. Bednarczuk T, Schomburg L. Challenges and perspectives of selenium supplementation in Graves' disease and orbitopathy. Hormones (Athens). 2020 Mar;19(1):31-9.Full text  Abstract

124. Zang S, Ponto KA, Kahaly GJ. Clinical review: intravenous glucocorticoids for Graves' orbitopathy: efficacy and morbidity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb;96(2):320-32. Abstract

125. Bartalena L, Krassas GE, Wiersinga W, et al. Efficacy and safety of three different cumulative doses of intravenous methylprednisolone for moderate to severe and active Graves' orbitopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;97(12):4454-63.Full text  Abstract

126. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Thyroid Eye Disease. July 2021 [internet publication].Full text

127. Men CJ, Kossler AL, Wester ST. Updates on the understanding and management of thyroid eye disease. Ther Adv Ophthalmol. 2021 Jan-Dec;13:25158414211027760.Full text  Abstract

128. Chundury RV, Weber AC, Perry JD. Orbital radiation therapy in thyroid eye disease. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Mar-Apr;32(2):83-9. Abstract

129. Rajendram R, Bunce C, Lee RW, et al. Orbital radiotherapy for adult thyroid eye disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jul 11;(7):CD007114.Full text  Abstract

130. Tanda ML, Bartalena L. Efficacy and safety of orbital radiotherapy for Graves' orbitopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Nov;97(11):3857-65. Abstract

131. Boboridis KG, Bunce C. Surgical orbital decompression for thyroid eye disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Dec 7;(12):CD007630.Full text  Abstract

132. Szczapa-Jagustyn J, Gotz-Więckowska A, Kocięcki J. An update on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Oct 1;29(10):1115-22.Full text  Abstract

133. Vannucchi G, Campi I, Covelli D, et al. Treatment of pretibial myxedema with dexamethazone injected subcutaneously by mesotherapy needles. Thyroid. 2013 May;23(5):626-32. Abstract

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