Assessment of visible haematuria

References

Key articles

Morey AF, Broghammer JA, Hollowell CMP, et al. Urotrauma guideline 2020: AUA guideline. J Urol. 2021 Jan;205(1):30-5.Full text  Abstract

European Association of Urology. EAU guidelines on urological trauma. Mar 2022 [internet publication].Full text

Barocas DA, Boorjian SA, Alvarez RD, et al. Microhematuria: AUA/SUFU guideline. J Urol. 2020 Oct;204(4):778-86.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Nielsen M, Qaseem A. Hematuria as a marker of occult urinary tract cancer: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2016 Apr 5;164(7):488-97.Full text  Abstract

2. Kaag MG, Raman JD. Clinical guidelines: Clearing murky water - a guideline-based approach to haematuria. Nat Rev Urol. 2016 Apr 13;13(5):243-4. Abstract

3. Loo RK, Lieberman SF, Slezak JM, et al. Stratifying risk of urinary tract malignant tumors in patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Jan 9;88(2):129-38. Abstract

4. Edwards TJ, Dickinson AJ, Natale S, et al. A prospective analysis of the diagnostic yield resulting from 4020 patients at a protocol-driven haematuria clinic. BJU Int. 2006 Feb;97(2):301-5. Abstract

5. Buntinx F, Wauters H. The diagnostic value of macroscopic haematuria in diagnosing urological cancers: a meta-analysis. Fam Pract. 1997 Feb;14(1):63-8.Full text  Abstract

6. Hicks D, Li CY. Management of macroscopic haematuria in the emergency department. Postgrad Med J. 2008 Oct;84(996):539-44. Abstract

7. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Suspected cancer: recognition and referral. December 2021 [internet publication].Full text

8. Dulku G, Shivananda A, Chakera A, et al. Painless Visible Haematuria in Adults: An Algorithmic Approach Guiding Management. Cureus. 2019 Nov 13;11(11):e6140.Full text  Abstract

9. Jefferies ER, Brewster SF, BAUS Section on Oncology. Urological recommendations from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guideline, June 2015: Suspected cancer: recognition and referral. BJU Int. 2015 Nov 14;117(6):857-60.Full text  Abstract

10. Tanagho EA, McAninch JW. Smith's general urology, 16th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2003.

11. Morey AF, Broghammer JA, Hollowell CMP, et al. Urotrauma guideline 2020: AUA guideline. J Urol. 2021 Jan;205(1):30-5.Full text  Abstract

12. Avey G, Blackmore CC, Wessells H, et al. Radiographic and clinical predictors of bladder rupture in blunt trauma patients with pelvic fracture. Acad Radiol. 2006 May;13(5):573-9. Abstract

13. Velazquez N, Fantus RJ, Fantus RJ, et al. Blunt trauma pelvic fracture-associated genitourinary and concomitant lower gastrointestinal injury: incidence, morbidity, and mortality. World J Urol. 2020 Jan;38(1):231-8. Abstract

14. European Association of Urology. EAU guidelines on urological trauma. Mar 2022 [internet publication].Full text

15. Macey MR, Raynor MC. Medical and surgical treatment modalities for lower urinary tract symptoms in the male patient secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia: a review. Semin Intervent Radiol. 2016 Sep;33(3):217-23.Full text  Abstract

16. Foley SJ, Soloman LZ, Wedderburn AW, et al. A prospective study of the natural history of hematuria associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia and the effect of finasteride. J Urol. 2000 Feb;163(2):496-8. Abstract

17. Nyman MA, Schwenk NM, Silverstein MD. Management of urinary retention: rapid versus gradual decompression and risk of complications. Mayo Clin Proc. 1997 Oct;72(10):951-6. Abstract

18. Subiela JD, Balla A, Bollo J, et al. Endovascular management of ureteroarterial fistula: single institution experience and systematic literature review. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2018 Feb 26;52(4):275-86. Abstract

19. Jiang S, Wang Y, Zhang Z, et al. Accuracy of hematuria for predicting non-diabetic renal disease in patients with diabetes and kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2018 Sep;143:288-300. Abstract

20. De Costa C, McLaughlin K, Noseworthy TW. Criteria for referring patients with renal disease for nephrology consultation: a review of the literature. J Nephrol. 2010 Jul-Aug;23(4):399-407. Abstract

21. Bhatt NR, Davis NF, Nolan WJ, et al. Incidence of visible hematuria among antithrombotic agents: a systematic review of over 175,000 patients. Urology. 2018 Apr;114:27-32. Abstract

22. Mariani AJ. The evaluation of adult hematuria: a clinical update. In: AUA update series 1998; volume XVII, lesson 24. Houston, TX: AUA Office of Education; 1998:185-92.

23. Leapman MS, Hall SJ, Stone NN, et al. Haematuria after prostate brachytherapy. BJU Int. 2013 Jan 29;111(8):E319-24.Full text  Abstract

24. Barnes H, Holland AE, Westall GP, et al. Cyclophosphamide for connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jan 3;(1):CD010908.Full text  Abstract

25. Moharamzadeh P, Ojaghihaghighi S, Amjadi M, et al. Effect of tranexamic acid on gross hematuria: a pilot randomized clinical trial study. Am J Emerg Med. 2017 Sep 9;35(12):1922-5. Abstract

26. Lucca I, Klatte T, Fajkovic H, et al. Gender differences in incidence and outcomes of urothelial and kidney cancer. Nat Rev Urol. 2015 Oct;12(10):585-92. Abstract

27. Yeoh M, Lai NK, Anderson D, et al. Macroscopic haematuria - a urological approach. Aust Fam Physician. 2013 Mar;42(3):123-6.Full text  Abstract

28. Moloney F, Murphy KP, Twomey M, et al. Haematuria: an imaging guide. Adv Urol. 2014;2014:414125.Full text  Abstract

29. Luciano RL, Perazella MA. Aristolochic acid nephropathy: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment. Drug Saf. 2015 Jan;38(1):55-64.Full text  Abstract

30. Sing RI, Singal RK. What is significant hematuria for the primary care physician? Can J Urol. 2012 Oct;19(suppl 1):36-41.Full text  Abstract

31. Bagnall P. Haematuria: classification, causes and investigations. Br J Nurs. 2014 Nov 6-26;23(20):1074-8. Abstract

32. Tasian GE, Jemielita T, Goldfarb DS, et al. Oral antibiotic exposure and kidney stone disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018 May 10;29(6):1731-40. Abstract

33. Barocas DA, Boorjian SA, Alvarez RD, et al. Microhematuria: AUA/SUFU guideline. J Urol. 2020 Oct;204(4):778-86.Full text  Abstract

34. Grossfeld GD, Litwin MS, Wolf JS, et al. Evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in adults: the American Urological Association best practice policy - part II: patient evaluation, cytology, voided markers, imaging, cystoscopy, nephrology evaluation, and follow-up. Urology. 2001 Apr;57(4):604-10. Abstract

35. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: hematuria. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

36. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Renal and ureteric stones: assessment and management. Jan 2019 [internet publication].Full text

37. Kravchick S, Cherniavsky E, Verchovsky G, et al. Multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU): its practical role in diagnosis of upper tract urothelial cancer in patients 50 years and older with different types of hematuria. Pathol Oncol Res. 2019 Jan;25(1):249-54. Abstract

38. Chlapoutakis K, Theocharopoulos N, Yarmenitis S, et al. Performance of computed tomographic urography in diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma, in patients presenting with hematuria: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Radiol. 2010 Feb;73(2):334-8. Abstract

39. Wang LJ, Wong YC, Huang CC, et al. Multidetector computerized tomography urography is more accurate than excretory urography for diagnosing transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract in adults with hematuria. J Urol. 2010 Jan;183(1):48-55. Abstract

40. Van Der Molen AJ, Cowan NC, Mueller-Lisse UG, et al; CT Urography Working Group of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR). CT urography: definition, indications and techniques: a guideline for clinical practice. Eur Radiol. 2008 Jan;18(1):4-17. Abstract

41. Mehran R, Nikolsky E. Contrast-induced nephropathy: definition, epidemiology, and patients at risk. Kidney Int Suppl. 2006 Apr;(100):S11-5. Abstract

42. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: hematuria - child. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

43. Paner GP, Zehnder P, Amin AM, et al. Urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder occurring in young adult and pediatric patients: a comprehensive review of literature with implications for patient management. Adv Anat Pathol. 2011 Jan;18(1):79-89. Abstract

44. Silverman SG, Leyendecker JR, Amis ES Jr. What is the current role of CT urography and MR urography in the evaluation of the urinary tract? Radiology. 2009 Feb;250(2):309-23.Full text  Abstract

45. Yecies T, Bandari J, Macleod L, et al. Evaluation of the Risks and Benefits of Computed Tomography Urography for Assessment of Gross Hematuria. Urology. 2019 Nov;133:40-45.Full text  Abstract

46. Sourtzis S, Thibeau JF, Damry N, et al. Radiologic investigation of renal colic: unenhanced helical CT compared with excretory urography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999 Jun;172(6):1491-4. Abstract

47. Willis SR, Ahmed HU, Moore CM, et al. Multiparametric MRI followed by targeted prostate biopsy for men with suspected prostate cancer: a clinical decision analysis. BMJ Open. 2014 Jun 15;4(6):e004895.Full text  Abstract

48. Drost FH, Osses DF, Nieboer D, et al. Prostate MRI, with or without MRI-targeted biopsy, and systematic biopsy for detecting prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Apr 25;(4):CD012663.Full text  Abstract

49. Ngo B, Papa N, Perera M, et al. Bladder cancer diagnosis during haematuria investigation - implications for practice guidelines. BJU Int. 2017 May;119 Suppl 5:53-4.Full text  Abstract

50. Escudier B, Porta C, Schmidinger M, et al. Renal cell carcinoma: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 2019 May 1;30(5):706-20.Full text  Abstract

51. Pappas PG. Laboratory in the diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections. Med Clin North Am. 1991 Mar;75(2):313-25. Abstract

52. Bellmunt J, Orsola A, Leow JJ, et al. Bladder cancer: ESMO Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 2014 Sep;25 Suppl 3:iii40-8.Full text  Abstract

53. Maier U, Simak R, Neuhold N. The clinical value of urinary cytology: 12 years of experience with 615 patients. J Clin Pathol. 1995 Apr;48(4):314-7. Abstract

54. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate cancer: diagnosis and management. December 2021 [internet publication].Full text

55. Harada T, Abe T, Kato F, et al. Five-point Likert scaling on MRI predicts clinically significant prostate carcinoma. BMC Urol. 2015 Sep 4;15:91.Full text  Abstract

56. Morey AF, McAninch JW, Tiller BK, et al. Single shot intraoperative excretory urography for the immediate evaluation of renal trauma. J Urol. 1999 Apr;161(4):1088-92. Abstract

57. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: penetrating trauma – lower abdomen and pelvis. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

58. Colville DJ, Savige J. Alport syndrome. A review of the ocular manifestations. Ophthalmic Genet. 1997 Dec;18(4):161-73. Abstract

59. World Health Organization. WHO consolidated guidelines on tuberculosis Module 3: Diagnosis - Rapid diagnostics for tuberculosis detection. Jun 2020 [internet publication].Full text

60. Lewinsohn DM, Leonard MK, LoBue PA, et al. Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Jan 15;64(2):111-115.Full text  Abstract

61. Warshauer DM, McCarthy SM, Street L, et al. Detection of renal masses: sensitivities and specificities of excretory urography/linear tomography, US, and CT. Radiology. 1988 Nov;169(2):363-5. Abstract

62. Dong XQ, Shen Y, Xu LW, et al. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for detection and diagnosis of renal clear cell carcinoma. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009 May 20;122(10):1179-83. Abstract

63. Heidenreich A, Ravery V; European Society of Oncological Urology. Preoperative imaging in renal cell cancer. World J Urol. 2004 Nov;22(5):307-15. Abstract

64. Silverman SG, Israel GM, Herts BR, et al. Management of the incidental renal mass. Radiology. 2008 Oct;249(1):16-31. Abstract

65. Swartz MA, Porter MP, Lin DW, et al. Incidence of primary urethral carcinoma in the United States. Urology. 2006 Dec 4;68(6):1164-8. Abstract

66. Grellety T, Houédé N, Hoepffner JL, et al. Hemorrhagic cystitis in patients treated with cabazitaxel: a radiation recall syndrome? Ann Oncol. 2014 Apr 1;25(6):1248-9.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer