Wrist fractures

References

Key articles

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (non-complex): assessment and management. February 2016 [internet publication].Full text

British Society for Surgery of the Hand; British Orthopaedic Association. Best practice for management of distal radius fracture. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

British Orthopaedic Association. British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST): the management of distal radial fractures. December 2017 [internet publication].Full text

British Orthopaedic Association. British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST): early management of the paediatric forearm fracture. May 2021 [internet publication].Full text

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (complex): assessment and management. November 2017 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

1. Chen NC, Jupiter JB. Management of distal radial fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Sep;89(9):2051-62. Abstract

2. Rutgers M, Mudgal CS, Shin R. Combined fractures of the distal radius and scaphoid. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2008 Aug;33(4):478-83. Abstract

3. Muller ME, Nazarian S, Koch P. AO classification of fractures. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987.

4. Jayakumar P, Teunis T, Giménez BB, et al. AO distal radius fracture classification: global perspective on observer agreement. J Wrist Surg. 2017 Feb;6(1):46-53.Full text  Abstract

5. Wæver D, Madsen ML, Rölfing JHD, et al. Distal radius fractures are difficult to classify. Injury. 2018 Jun;49(suppl 1):S29-32. Abstract

6. Mudgal CS, Psenica J, Jupiter JB. Radiocarpal fracture-dislocation. J Hand Surg Br. 1999 Feb;24(1):92-8. Abstract

7. O'Neill TW, Cooper C, Finn JD, et al; UK Colles' Fracture Study Group. Incidence of distal forearm fracture in British men and women. Osteoporos Int. 2001;12(7):555-8. Abstract

8. Stirling ERB, Johnson NA, Dias JJ. Epidemiology of distal radius fractures in a geographically defined adult population. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2018 Nov;43(9):974-82. Abstract

9. Court-Brown CM, Caesar B. Epidemiology of adult fractures: a review. Injury. 2006 Aug;37(8):691-7. Abstract

10. Ring D, Jupiter JB. Treatment of osteoporotic distal radius fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Mar;16(suppl 2):S80-4. Abstract

11. Jupiter JB. Complex articular fractures of the distal radius: classification and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1997 May;5(3):119-29. Abstract

12. Nellans KW, Kowalski E, Chung KC. The epidemiology of distal radius fractures. Hand Clin. 2012 May;28(2):113-25.Full text  Abstract

13. MacIntyre NJ, Dewan N. Epidemiology of distal radius fractures and factors predicting risk and prognosis. J Hand Ther. 2016 Apr-Jun;29(2):136-45. Abstract

14. Schoenborn CA. Health habits of U.S. adults, 1985: the "Alameda 7" revisited. Public Health Rep. 1986 Nov-Dec;101(6):571-80.Full text  Abstract

15. Bureau USC. Statistical abstracts of the United States, 1999. Washington D.C.; 1999.

16. Rowe JW, Kahn RL. Successful aging. New York, NY: Pantheon Books; 1998.

17. Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, et al. Risk factors for hip fracture in white women: study of osteoporotic fractures research group. N Engl J Med. 1995 Mar 23;332(12):767-73.Full text  Abstract

18. Schousboe JT, Fink HA, Taylor BC, et al. Association between self-reported prior wrist fractures and risk of subsequent hip and radiographic vertebral fractures in older women: a prospective study. J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Jan;20(1):100-6.Full text  Abstract

19. Jaglal SB, Weller I, Mamdani M, et al. Population trends in BMD testing, treatment, and hip and wrist fracture rates: are the hip fracture projections wrong? J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Jun;20(6):898-905.Full text  Abstract

20. Russell K, Hagel B, Francescutti LH. The effect of wrist guards on wrist and arm injuries among snowboarders: a systematic review. Clin J Sport Med. 2007 Mar;17(2):145-5. Abstract

21. Staebler MP, Moore DC, Akelman E, et al. The effect of wrist guards on bone strain in the distal forearm. Am J Sports Med. 1999 Jul-Aug;27(4):500-6. Abstract

22. Resuscitation Council UK. The ABCDE approach. May 2021 [internet publication].Full text

23. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (non-complex): assessment and management. February 2016 [internet publication].Full text

24. British Society for Surgery of the Hand; British Orthopaedic Association. Best practice for management of distal radius fracture. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

25. British Orthopaedic Association. British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST): the management of distal radial fractures. December 2017 [internet publication].Full text

26. British Orthopaedic Association. British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST): early management of the paediatric forearm fracture. May 2021 [internet publication].Full text

27. British Orthopaedic Association & British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Audit Standards for Trauma. Open fractures. December 2017 [internet publication].Full text

28. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (complex): assessment and management. November 2017 [internet publication].Full text

29. British Orthopaedic Association. British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST): diagnosis and management of compartment syndrome of the limbs. July 2014 [internet publication].Full text

30. British Orthopaedic Association. British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST): diagnosis & management of arterial injuries associated with extremity fractures and dislocations. December 2020 [internet publication].Full text

31. Rua T, Malhotra B, Vijayanathan S, et al. Clinical and cost implications of using immediate MRI in the management of patients with a suspected scaphoid fracture and negative radiographs results from the SMaRT trial. Bone Joint J. 2019 Aug;101-B(8):984-94.Full text  Abstract

32. Dean BJF, Little C, Riley ND, et al. Suspected scaphoid injuries managed by MRI direct from the emergency department: a single-centre prospective cohort study. Bone Jt Open. 2021 Jun;2(6):447-53.Full text  Abstract

33. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Guideline on the treatment of distal radius fractures. December 2020 [internet publication].Full text

34. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: acute hand and wrist trauma. J Am Coll Radiol. 2019 May;16(5s):S7-17.Full text  Abstract

35. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: chronic wrist pain. J Am Coll Radiol. 2018 May;15(5S):S39-55.Full text  Abstract

36. Yin ZG, Zhang JB, Kan SL, et al. Diagnosing suspected scaphoid fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010 Mar;468(3):723-34.Full text  Abstract

37. Sulkers GS, Schep NW, Maas M, et al. The diagnostic accuracy of wrist cineradiography in diagnosing scapholunate dissociation. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2014 Mar;39(3):263-71. Abstract

38. Lafontaine M, Hardy D, Delince P. Stability assessment of distal radius fractures. Injury. 1989 Jul;20(4):208-10. Abstract

39. Walenkamp MM, Aydin S, Mulders MA, et al. Predictors of unstable distal radius fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2016 Jun;41(5):501-15. Abstract

40. Chang Y, Bhandari M, Zhu KL, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis in the management of open fractures: a systematic survey of current practice and recommendations. JBJS Rev. 2019 Feb;7(2):e1. Abstract

41. Rozental TD, Makhni EC, Day CS, et al. Improving evaluation and treatment for osteoporosis following distal radial fractures: a prospective randomized intervention. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 May;90(5):953-61. Abstract

42. Public Health England. Tetanus: the green book, chapter 30. January 2020 [internet publication].Full text

43. Iorio ML, Harper CM, Rozental TD. Open distal radius fractures: timing and strategies for surgical management. Hand Clin. 2018 Feb;34(1):33-40. Abstract

44. Duckworth AD, Mitchell SE, Molyneux SG, et al. Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 May 16;94(10):e63. Abstract

45. Ker K, Roberts I, Shakur H, et al. Antifibrinolytic drugs for acute traumatic injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 May 9;(5):CD004896.Full text  Abstract

46. CRASH-2 collaborators., Roberts I, Shakur H, et al. The importance of early treatment with tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma patients: an exploratory analysis of the CRASH-2 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011 Mar 26;377(9771):1096-101, 1101.e1-2. Abstract

47. Gayet-Ageron A, Prieto-Merino D, Ker K, et al. Effect of treatment delay on the effectiveness and safety of antifibrinolytics in acute severe haemorrhage: a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data from 40 138 bleeding patients. Lancet. 2018 Jan 13;391(10116):125-32.Full text  Abstract

48. Mullett H, O’Connor D, Doyle M, et al. Plaster cast vs futura splint: a prospective randomised trial in the treatment of distal radial fractures. Orthopaedic Proceedings. 2018 Feb 21;84-B(suppl 1).Full text

49. Delft EAKV, Gelder TGV, Vries R, et al. Duration of cast immobilization in distal radial fractures: a systematic review. J Wrist Surg. 2019 Oct;8(5):430-8. Abstract

50. Roth KM, Blazar PE, Earp BE, et al. Incidence of extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture after nondisplaced distal radius fractures. J Hand Surg Am. 2012 May;37(5):942-7. Abstract

51. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (non-complex): assessment and management. Fractures: diagnosis, management and follow-up of fractures. NICE guideline NG38: methods, evidence and recommendations. February 2016 [internet publication].Full text

52. Handoll HH, Elliott J, Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, et al. Interventions for treating wrist fractures in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 19;12:CD012470.Full text  Abstract

53. Lawson A, Na M, Naylor JM, et al. Volar locking plate fixation versus closed reduction for distal radial fractures in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JBJS Rev. 2021 Jan 20;9(1):e20.00022.Full text  Abstract

54. Poiset S, Abboudi J, Gallant G, et al. Splinting after distal radius fracture fixation: a prospective cohort analysis of postoperative plaster splint versus soft dressing. J Wrist Surg. 2019 Dec;8(6):452-5. Abstract

55. Watson N, Haines T, Tran P, et al. A comparison of the effect of one, three, or six weeks of immobilization on function and pain after open reduction and internal fixation of distal radial fractures in adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2018 Jul 5;100(13):1118-25. Abstract

56. Clementson M, Jørgsholm P, Besjakov J, et al. Conservative treatment versus arthroscopic-assisted screw fixation of scaphoid waist fractures - a randomized trial with minimum 4-year follow-up. J Hand Surg Am. 2015 Jul;40(7):1341-8. Abstract

57. Fowler JR, Hughes TB. Scaphoid fractures. Clin Sports Med. 2015 Jan;34(1):37-50. Abstract

58. Buijze GA, Goslings JC, Rhemrev SJ, et al; CAST Trial Collaboration. Cast immobilization with and without immobilization of the thumb for nondisplaced and minimally displaced scaphoid waist fractures: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. J Hand Surg Am. 2014 Apr;39(4):621-7.Full text  Abstract

59. Shen L, Tang J, Luo C, et al. Comparison of operative and non-operative treatment of acute undisplaced or minimally-displaced scaphoid fractures: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0125247.Full text  Abstract

60. Alnaeem H, Aldekhayel S, Kanevsky J, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis examining the differences between nonsurgical management and percutaneous fixation of minimally and nondisplaced scaphoid fractures. J Hand Surg Am. 2016 Dec;41(12):1135-44;e1. Abstract

61. Dias JJ, Brealey SD, Fairhurst C, et al. Surgery versus cast immobilisation for adults with a bicortical fracture of the scaphoid waist (SWIFFT): a pragmatic, multicentre, open-label, randomised superiority trial. Lancet. 2020 Aug 8;396(10248):390-401. Abstract

62. Mulders MAM, Walenkamp MMJ, van Dieren S, et al. Volar plate fixation versus plaster immobilization in acceptably reduced extra-articular distal radial fractures: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2019 May 1;101(9):787-96. Abstract

63. Gutierrez Olivera N, Ruchelli L, Iglesias S, et al. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in distal radius fractures with metaphyseal extension: a series of 13 cases. Chir Main. 2015 Oct;34(5):227-33. Abstract

64. Figl M, Weninger P, Liska M, et al. Volar fixed-angle plate osteosynthesis of unstable distal radius fractures: 12 months results. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2009 May;129(5):661-9. Abstract

65. Miller LK, Jerosch-Herold C, Shepstone L. Effectiveness of edema management techniques for subacute hand edema: a systematic review. J Hand Ther. 2017 Oct-Dec;30(4):432-46.Full text  Abstract

66. Itoi E, Arce G, Bain GI, et al. Shoulder stiffness: current concepts and concerns. Arthroscopy. 2016 Jul;32(7):1402-14. Abstract

67. Davison SN. Clinical pharmacology considerations in pain management in patients with advanced kidney failure. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2019 Jun 7;14(6):917-31Full text  Abstract

68. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acute kidney injury: prevention, detection and management. December 2019 [internet publication]Full text

69. Global Initiative for Asthma. Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. 2022 [internet publication]Full text

70. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (non-complex): assessment and management. February 2016 [internet publication]Full text

71. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Patient experience in adult NHS services: improving the experience of care for people using adult NHS services. June 2021 [internet publication]Full text

72. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Major trauma: assessment and initial management. February 2016 [internet publication]Full text

73. British Orthopaedic Association. British Orthopaedic Association standards for trauma: the management of blunt chest wall trauma. April 2016 [internet publication]Full text

74. Nickel C, Arendts G, Lucke J, et al; British Geriatrics Society. Silver book II: geriatric syndromes. February 2021 [internet publication]Full text

75. Ferreira-Valente MA, Pais-Ribeiro JL, Jensen MP. Validity of four pain intensity rating scales. Pain. 2011 Oct;152(10):2399-404 Abstract

76. Herr KA, Mobily PR, Kohout FJ, et al. Evaluation of the Faces Pain Scale for use with the elderly. Clin J Pain. 1998 Mar;14(1):29-38 Abstract

77. Warden V, Hurley AC, Volicer L. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) scale. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2003 Jan-Feb;4(1):9-15 Abstract

78. Chan S, Hadjistavropoulos T, Williams J, et al. Evidence-based development and initial validation of the pain assessment checklist for seniors with limited ability to communicate-II (PACSLAC-II). Clin J Pain. 2014 Sep;30(9):816-24 Abstract

79. Abbey J, Piller N, De Bellis A, et al. The Abbey pain scale: a 1-minute numerical indicator for people with end-stage dementia. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2004 Jan;10(1):6-13 Abstract

80. World Health Organization. WHO global report on falls prevention in older age. March 2008 [internet publication]Full text

81. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001 Sep;16(9):606-13 Abstract

82. Boden JM, Fergusson DM. Alcohol and depression. Addiction. 2011 Mar 7;106(5):906-14Full text  Abstract

83. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Liaison psychiatry. In: Emergency acute medical care in over 16s: service delivery and organisation. March 2018 [internet publication]Full text

84. National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD). Treat as one. Bridging the gap between mental and physical healthcare in general hospitals. 2017 [internet publication]Full text

85. NHS Specialised Clinical Frailty Network. Clinical frailty scale. 2018 [internet publication]Full text

86. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (complex): assessment and management. November 2017 [internet publication]Full text

87. British Orthopaedic Association Audit Standards for Trauma. The management of distal radial fractures. December 2017 [internet publication]Full text

88. Winstein CJ, Stein J, Arena R, et al. Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2016 May 4;47(6):e98-169Full text  Abstract

89. Goto NA, Weststrate ACG, Oosterlaan FM, et al. The association between chronic kidney disease, falls, and fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2020 Jan;31(1):13-29Full text  Abstract

90. Hofbauer LC, Busse B, Eastell R, et al. Bone fragility in diabetes: novel concepts and clinical implications. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2022 Jan 29 [online ahead of print].Full text

91. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Antidepressants: risk of fractures. December 2014 [internet publication]Full text

92. Kang S, Han M, Park CI, et al. Use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of subsequent bone loss in a nationwide population-based cohort study. Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 29;11(1):13461Full text  Abstract

93. Fritz Z, Slowther AM, Perkins GD. Resuscitation policy should focus on the patient, not the decision. BMJ. 2017 Feb 28;356:j813Full text  Abstract

94. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Decision making and mental capacity. October 2018 [internet publication]Full text

95. Department of Health. Mental Capacity Act 2005 [internet publication]Full text

96. Social Care Institute for Excellence. Independent mental capacity advocate (IMCA). 2011 [internet publication]Full text

97. Chowdhury TA, Cheston H, Claydon A. Managing adults with diabetes in hospital during an acute illness. BMJ. 2017 Jun 22;357:j2551 Abstract

98. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Self-management of diabetes in hospital. August 2021 [internet publication]Full text

99. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Glycaemic management during the inpatient enteral feeding of stroke patients with diabetes. November 2019 [internet publication]Full text

100. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The use of variable rate intravenous insulin infusion (VRIII) in medical inpatients. October 2014 [internet publication]Full text

101. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. A good inpatient diabetes service. July 2019 [internet publication]Full text

102. Centre for Perioperative Care. Guideline for perioperative care for people with diabetes mellitus undergoing elective and emergency surgery. March 2021 [internet publication]Full text

103. Pasquel FJ, Lansang MC, Dhatariya K, et al. Management of diabetes and hyperglycaemia in the hospital. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2021 Mar;9(3):174-88Full text  Abstract

104. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. SGLT2 inhibitors: monitor ketones in blood during treatment interruption for surgical procedures or acute serious medical illness. March 2020 [internet publication]Full text

105. Peters AL, Buschur EO, Buse JB, et al. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: a potential complication of treatment with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition. Diabetes Care. 2015 Jun 15;38(9):1687-93 Abstract

106. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. June 2021 [internet publication]Full text

107. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The management of the hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) in adults. February 2022 [internet publication]Full text

108. American Diabetes Association. 16. Diabetes care in the hospital: standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes Care. 2022 Jan 1;45(suppl 1):S244-S253.Full text  Abstract

109. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. A good inpatient diabetes service. July 2019 [internet publication]Full text

110. Pendlebury ST, Klaus SP, Mather M, et al. Routine cognitive screening in older patients admitted to acute medicine: abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) and subjective memory complaint versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment and IQCODE. Age Ageing. 2015 Oct 13;44(6):1000-5Full text  Abstract

111. Hodkinson HM. Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Age Ageing. 1972 Nov;1(4):233-8 Abstract

112. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Delirium: diagnosis, prevention and management. March 2019 [internet publication]Full text

113. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Dementia: assessment, management and support for people living with dementia and their carers. June 2018 [internet publication]Full text

114. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Risk reduction and management of delirium. March 2019 [internet publication]Full text

115. Nova Scotia Health Authority. This is not my Mom. 2012 [internet publication]Full text

116. Inouye SK, Schlesinger MJ, Lydon TJ. Delirium: a symptom of how hospital care is failing older persons and a window to improve quality of hospital care. Am J Med. 1999 May;106(5):565-73 Abstract

117. Bellelli G, Morandi A, Davis DH, et al. Validation of the 4AT, a new instrument for rapid delirium screening: a study in 234 hospitalised older people. Age Ageing. 2014 Mar 2;43(4):496-502Full text  Abstract

118. MacLullich AM, Shenkin SD, Goodacre S, et al. The 4 'A's test for detecting delirium in acute medical patients: a diagnostic accuracy study. Health Technol Assess. 2019 Aug;23(40):1-194Full text  Abstract

119. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management. March 2022 [internet publication]Full text

120. Rehman A, Setter SM, Vue MH. Drug-induced glucose alterations part 2: drug-Induced hyperglycemia. Diabetes Spect. 2011 Nov;24(4):234-8Full text

121. NHS Digital. National Diabetes Inpatient Audit (NaDIA) - 2019. Nov 2020 [internet publication]Full text

122. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The hospital management of hypoglycaemia in adults with diabetes mellitus. March 2022 [internet publication]Full text

123. Kerry C, Mitchell S, Sharma S, et al. Diurnal temporal patterns of hypoglycaemia in hospitalized people with diabetes may reveal potentially correctable factors. Diabet Med. 2013 Dec;30(12):1403-6 Abstract

124. Rajendran R, Kerry C, Rayman G, et al. Temporal patterns of hypoglycaemia and burden of sulfonylurea-related hypoglycaemia in UK hospitals: a retrospective multicentre audit of hospitalised patients with diabetes. BMJ Open. 2014 Jul 9;4(7):e005165Full text  Abstract

125. White S, Griffiths R, Baxter M, et al. Guidelines for the peri-operative care of people with dementia: guidelines from the Association of Anaesthetists. Anaesthesia. 2019 Jan 11;74(3):357-72Full text  Abstract

126. Public Health England. Urinary tract infection: diagnostic tools for primary care. October 2020 [internet publication]Full text

127. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Haloperidol (haldol): reminder of risks when used in elderly patients for the acute treatment of delirium. 2021 [internet publication]Full text

128. Ma H, Huang Y, Cong Z, et al. The efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of dementia: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;42(3):915-37 Abstract

129. Huybrechts KF, Gerhard T, Crystal S, et al. Differential risk of death in older residents in nursing homes prescribed specific antipsychotic drugs: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2012 Feb 23;344:e977Full text  Abstract

130. Van Leeuwen E, Petrovic M, van Driel ML, et al. Withdrawal versus continuation of long-term antipsychotic drug use for behavioural and psychological symptoms in older people with dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 30;3:CD007726Full text  Abstract

131. British Thoracic Society; Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma: a national clinical guideline. July 2019 [internet publication].Full text

132. Salpeter SR, Ormiston TM, Salpeter EE. Cardiovascular effects of beta-agonists in patients with asthma and COPD: a meta-analysis. Chest. 2004 Jun;125(6):2309-21Full text  Abstract

133. Au DH, Curtis JR, Every NR, et al. Association between inhaled beta-agonists and the risk of unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Chest. 2002 Mar;121(3):846-51Full text  Abstract

134. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2020 [internet publication]Full text

135. Walters JA, Tan DJ, White CJ, et al. Different durations of corticosteroid therapy for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 19;3:CD006897Full text  Abstract

136. Cleare A, Pariante CM, Young AH, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: A revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. J Psychopharmacol. 2015 May 12;29(5):459-525Full text  Abstract

137. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem: recognition and management. October 2009 [internet publication]Full text

138. Taylor DM, Barnes TRE, Young AH. The Maudsley prescribing guidelines in psychiatry. 14th edition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2021

139. Flowers L. Nicotine replacement therapy. Am J Psychiatry Resid. 2016 Jun;11(6)4-7Full text

140. Desai HD, Seabolt J, Jann MW. Smoking in patients receiving psychotropic medications: a pharmacokinetic perspective. CNS Drugs. 2001;15(6):469-94

141. Oliveira P, Ribeiro J, Donato H, Madeira N. Smoking and antidepressants pharmacokinetics: a systematic review. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2017;16:17Full text  Abstract

142. National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training. Smoking cessation and mental health. 2014 [internet publication]Full text

143. Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 17;352(11):1112-20 Abstract

144. Dalton SO, Sørensen HT, Johansen C. SSRIs and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: what is known and how should it influence prescribing? CNS Drugs. 2006;20(2):143-51 Abstract

145. Dalton SO, Johansen C, Mellemkjaer L, et al. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding: a population-based cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jan 13;163(1):59-64Full text  Abstract

146. Cheng YL, Hu HY, Lin XH, et al. Use of SSRI, but not SNRI, increased upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Nov;94(46):e2022Full text  Abstract

147. Loke YK, Trivedi AN, Singh S. Meta-analysis: gastrointestinal bleeding due to interaction between selective serotonin uptake inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Jan 1;27(1):31-40Full text  Abstract

148. Paton C, Ferrier IN. SSRIs and gastrointestinal bleeding. BMJ. 2005 Sep 10;331(7516):529-30Full text  Abstract

149. Auerbach AD, Vittinghoff E, Maselli J, et al. Perioperative use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risks for adverse outcomes of surgery. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jun 24;173(12):1075-81Full text  Abstract

150. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management. October 2019 [internet publication]Full text

151. Rayman G, Vas PR, Baker N, et al. The Ipswich Touch Test: a simple and novel method to identify inpatients with diabetes at risk of foot ulceration. Diabetes Care. 2011 May 18;34(7):1517-8Full text  Abstract

152. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Tobacco: preventing uptake, promoting quitting and treating dependence. Nov 2021 [internet publication]Full text

153. Zollinger PE, Tuinebreijer WE, Breederveld RS, et al. Can vitamin C prevent complex regional pain syndrome in patients with wrist fractures? A randomized, controlled, multicenter dose-response study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Jul;89(7):1424-31. Abstract

154. Ekrol I, Duckworth AD, Ralston SH, et al. The influence of vitamin C on the outcome of distal radial fractures: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Sep 3;96(17):1451-9. Abstract

155. Vannabouathong C, Hussain N, Guerra-Farfan E, et al. Interventions for distal radius fractures: a network meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2019 Jul 1;27(13):e596-605. Abstract

156. Fernandez DL, Jupiter JB. Fractures of the distal radius. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 2002:41-7.

157. Young BT, Rayan GM. Outcome following nonoperative treatment of displaced distal radius fractures in low-demand patients older than 60 years. J Hand Surg Am. 2000 Jan;25(1):19-28. Abstract

158. Mrkonjic A, Lindau T, Geijer M, et al. Arthroscopically diagnosed scapholunate ligament injuries associated with distal radial fractures: a 13- to 15-year follow-up. J Hand Surg Am. 2015 Jun;40(6):1077-82. Abstract

159. Mrkonjic A, Geijer M, Lindau T, et al. The natural course of traumatic triangular fibrocartilage complex tears in distal radial fractures: a 13-15 year follow-up of arthroscopically diagnosed but untreated injuries. J Hand Surg Am. 2012 Aug;37(8):1555-60. Abstract

160. Selles CA, Mulders MAM, Colaris JW, et al. Arthroscopic debridement does not enhance surgical treatment of intra-articular distal radius fractures: a randomized controlled trial. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2020 May;45(4):327-32. Abstract

161. Hudak PL, Amadio PC, Bombardier C. Development of an upper extremity outcome measure: The DASH (disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand)(corrected). The Upper Extremity Collaborative Group (UECG). Am J Ind Med. 1996 Jun;29(6):602-8. Abstract

162. MacDermid JC, Turgeon T, Richards RS, et al. Patient rating of wrist pain and disability: a reliable and valid measurement tool. J Orthop Trauma. 1998 Nov-Dec;12(8):577-86. Abstract

163. Earp BE, Mora AN, Emerson Floyd IV W, et al. Predictors of acute carpal tunnel syndrome following ORIF of distal radius fractures: a matched case-control study. Journal of Hand Surgery Global Online. 2019 January;1(1):6-9.Full text

164. Jupiter JB, Fernandez DL. Complications following distal radial fractures. Instr Course Lect. 2002;51:203-19. Abstract

165. McKee MD, Waddell JP, Yoo D, et al. Nonunion of distal radius fractures associated with distal ulnar shaft fractures: a report of four cases. J Orthop Trauma. 1997 Jan;11(1):49-53. Abstract

166. Mulders MAM, Fuhri Snethlage LJ, de Muinck Keizer RO, et al. Functional outcomes of distal radius fractures with and without ulnar styloid fractures: a meta-analysis. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2018 Feb;43(2):150-7.Full text  Abstract

167. National Osteoporosis Guideline Group. NOGG 2017: clinical guideline for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. July 2019 [internet publication].Full text

168. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Osteoporosis: assessing the risk of fragility fracture. February 2017 [internet publication].Full text

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer