Acute aspiration


Key articles

Marik PE. Aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2001 Mar 1;344(9):665-71. Abstract

Franquet T, Gimenez A, Roson N, et al. Aspiration diseases: findings, pitfalls, and differential diagnosis. Radiographics. May-Jun 2000;20(3):673-85.Full text  Abstract

Australian and New Zealand Society for Geriatric Medicine. Position statement 12: dysphagia and aspiration in older people. 2017 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

1. Raghavendran K, Nemzek J, Napolitano LM, et al. Aspiration-induced lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2011 Apr;39(4):818-26.Full text  Abstract

2. Marik PE. Aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2001 Mar 1;344(9):665-71. Abstract

3. Ng A, Smith G. Gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration of gastric contents in anesthetic practice. Anesth Analg. 2001 Aug;93(2):494-513.Full text  Abstract

4. Mullan H, Roubenoff RA, Roubenoff R. Risk of pulmonary aspiration among patients receiving enteral nutrition support. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. Mar-Apr 1992;16(2):160-4. Abstract

5. Metheny NA, Clouse RE, Chang YH, et al. Tracheobronchial aspiration of gastric contents in critically ill tube-fed patients: frequency, outcomes, and risk factors. Crit Care Med. 2006 Apr;34(4):1007-15.Full text  Abstract

6. Lockey DJ, Coats T, Parr MJ. Aspiration in severe trauma: a prospective study. Anaesthesia. 1999 Nov;54(11):1097-8.Full text  Abstract

7. Fung KP, Seagram G, Pasieka J, et al. Investigation and outcome of 121 infants and children requiring Nissen fundoplication for the management of gastroesophageal reflux. Clin Invest Med. 1990 Oct;13(5):237-46. Abstract

8. Gray C, Sivaloganathan S, Simpkins KC. Aspiration of high-density barium contrast medium causing acute pulmonary inflammation: report of two fatal cases in elderly women with disordered swallowing. 1989 Jul;40(4):397-400. Abstract

9. Tamm I, Kortsik C. Severe barium sulfate aspiration into the lung: clinical presentation, prognosis and therapy. Respiration. 1999;66(1):81-4. Abstract

10. Ansell G. Alimentary tract. In: Ansell G, Bettmann MA, Kaufman JA, et al, eds. Complications in diagnostic imaging and interventional radiology. 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific; 1987:218-9.

11. Vaughan GG, Grycko RJ, Montgomery MT. The prevention and treatment of aspiration of vomitus during pharmacosedation and general anesthesia. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992 Aug;50(8):874-9. Abstract

12. Green SM, Krauss B. Pulmonary aspiration risk during emergency department procedural sedation: an examination of the role of fasting and sedation depth. Acad Emerg Med. 2002 Jan;9(1):35-42. Abstract

13. Okazaki T, Ebihara S, Mori T, et al. Association between sarcopenia and pneumonia in older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2020 Jan;20(1):7-13.Full text  Abstract

14. Smithard DG, Shazra M, Hansjee D, et al. Frailty, swallowing and dysphagia. Curr Phys Med Rehab Rep. 2018 Jul 27;6:192-6.Full text

15. McClave SA, Lukan JK, Stefater JA, et al. Poor validity of residual volumes as a marker for risk of aspiration in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2005 Feb;33(2):324-30. Abstract

16. Boyd M, Chatterjee A, Chiles C, et al. Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in adults. South Med J. 2009 Feb;102(2):171-4. Abstract

17. Shaker R, Li Q, Ren J, et al. Coordination of deglutition and phases of respiration: effect of aging, tachypnea, bolus volume, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Physiol. 1992 Nov;263(5 Pt 1):G750-5. Abstract

18. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Maternal collapse in pregnancy and the puerperium: green-top guideline no. 56. December 2019 [internet publication].Full text

19. Abou Jaoude P, Knight PR, Ohtake P, et al. Biomarkers in the diagnosis of aspiration syndromes. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2010 Apr;10(3):309-19.Full text  Abstract

20. Smith Hammond CA, Goldstein LB. Cough and aspiration of food and liquids due to oral-pharyngeal dysphagia: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2006 Jan;129(1 suppl):154S-68S.Full text  Abstract

21. Lundy DS, Smith C, Colangelo L, et al. Aspiration: cause and implications. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999 Apr;120(4):474-8. Abstract

22. Daniels SK, Brailey K, Priestly DH, et al. Aspiration in patients with acute stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998 Jan;79(1):14-9.Full text  Abstract

23. Warner MA, Warner ME, Weber JG. Clinical significance of pulmonary aspiration during the perioperative period. Anesthesiology. 1993 Jan;78(1):56-62. Abstract

24. Olsson GL, Hallen B, Hambraeus-Jonzon K. Aspiration during anaesthesia: a computer-aided study of 185,358 anaesthetics. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1986 Jan;30(1):84-92. Abstract

25. Elpern EH, Scott MG, Petro L, et al. Pulmonary aspiration in mechanically ventilated patients with tracheostomies. Chest. 1994 Feb;105(2):563-6. Abstract

26. Elpern EH, Jacobs ER, Bone RC. Incidence of aspiration in tracheally intubated adults. Heart Lung. 1987 Sep;16(5):527-31. Abstract

27. Paintal HS, Kuschner WG. Aspiration syndromes: 10 clinical pearls every physician should know. Int J Clin Pract. 2007 May;61(5):846-52. Abstract

28. Fernández-Carmona A, Peñas-Maldonado L, Yuste-Osorio E, et al. Exploration and approach to artificial airway dysphagia. Med Intensiva. Aug-Sep 2012;36(6):423-33. Abstract

29. Leder SB, Cohn SM, Moller BA. Fiberoptic endoscopic documentation of the high incidence of aspiration following extubation in critically ill trauma patients. Dysphagia. Fall 1998;13(4):208-12.Full text  Abstract

30. American Society of Anesthesiologists. Practice guidelines for preoperative fasting and the use of pharmacologic agents to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration: application to healthy patients undergoing elective procedures – an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on preoperative fasting and the use of pharmacologic agents to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration. Anesthesiology. 2017 Mar;126(3):376-93.Full text  Abstract

31. Wick R, Gilbert JD, Byard RW. Café coronary syndrome - fatal choking on food: an autopsy approach. J Clin Forensic Med. 2006 Apr;13(3):135-8. Abstract

32. Langmore SE, Terpenning MS, Schork A, et al. Predictors of aspiration pneumonia: how important is dysphagia? Dysphagia. Spring 1998;13(2):69-81. Abstract

33. Mizock BA. Risk of aspiration in patients on enteral nutrition: frequency, relevance, relation to pneumonia, risk factors, and strategies for risk reduction. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2007 Aug;9(4):338-44. Abstract

34. Soreide E, Eriksson LI, Hirlekar G, et al. Pre-operative fasting guidelines: an update. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2005 Sep;49(8):1041-7.Full text  Abstract

35. Sarin J, Balasubramaniam R, Corcoran AM, et al. Reducing the risk of aspiration pneumonia among elderly patients in long-term care facilities through oral health interventions. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2008 Feb;9(2):128-35. Abstract

36. Smith I, Kranke P, Murat I, et al. Perioperative fasting in adults and children: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011 Aug;28(8):556-69.Full text  Abstract

37. Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US). Guidelines for preventing health-care-associated pneumonia, 2003 recommendations of the CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Respir Care. 2004 Aug;49(8):926-39.Full text  Abstract

38. Chiu CY, Wong KS, Tsai MH. Massive aspiration of barium sulfate during an upper gastrointestinal examination in a child with dysphagia. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2005 Apr;69(4):541-4. Abstract

39. Basu S, Kumar A, Das BK. Accidental aspiration of barium sulphate in an infant. Pediatr Radiol. 2009 Jul;39(7):762. Abstract

40. Franquet T, Gimenez A, Roson N, et al. Aspiration diseases: findings, pitfalls, and differential diagnosis. Radiographics. May-Jun 2000;20(3):673-85.Full text  Abstract

41. Schwarz MI, Albert RK. "Imitators" of the ARDS: implications for diagnosis and treatment. Chest. 2004 Apr;125(4):1530-5. Abstract

42. Bynum LJ, Pierce AK. Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1976 Dec;114(6):1129-36. Abstract

43. Bernard GR. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: a historical perspective. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Oct 1;172(7):798-806.Full text  Abstract

44. Martinati LC, Boner AL. Clinical diagnosis of wheezing in early childhood. Allergy. 1995 Sep;50(9):701-10. Abstract

45. Davie AP, Francis CM, Caruana L, et al. Assessing diagnosis in heart failure: which features are any use? QJM. 1997 May;90(5):335-9.Full text  Abstract

46. Marcus GM, Gerber IL, McKeown BH, et al. Association between phonocardiographic third and fourth heart sounds and objective measures of left ventricular function. JAMA. 2005 May 11;293(18):2238-44.Full text  Abstract

47. Fireman P. The wheezing infant. Pediatr Rev. 1986 Feb;7(8):247-54. Abstract

48. National Safety Council. Leading causes of death: an excerpt of injury facts. Itasca, IL: National Safety Council Press; 2003:10-15.

49. Colice GL, Matthay MA, Bass E, et al. Neurogenic pulmonary edema. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1984 Nov;130(5):941-8. Abstract

50. Australian and New Zealand Society for Geriatric Medicine. Position statement 12: dysphagia and aspiration in older people. 2017 [internet publication].Full text

51. Royal College of Speech and Language Therapy. Guidance on the management of dysphagia in care homes. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

52. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Stroke and transient ischaemic attack in over 16s: diagnosis and initial management. May 2019 [internet publication].Full text

53. Boaden E, Burnell J, Hives L, et al. Screening for aspiration risk associated with dysphagia in acute stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Oct 18;(10):CD012679.Full text  Abstract

54. Tsang K, Lau ES, Shazra M, et al. A new simple screening tool-4QT: can it identify those with swallowing problems? A pilot study. Geriatrics (Basel). 2020 Feb 27;5(1):11.Full text  Abstract

55. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: dysphagia. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

56. Chu DK, Kim LH, Young PJ, et al. Mortality and morbidity in acutely ill adults treated with liberal versus conservative oxygen therapy (IOTA): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018 Apr 28;391(10131):1693-705. Abstract

57. O'Driscoll BR, Howard LS, Earis J, et al. BTS guideline for oxygen use in adults in healthcare and emergency settings. Thorax. 2017 Jun;72(suppl 1):ii1-90.Full text  Abstract

58. Beasley R, Chien J, Douglas J, et al. Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand oxygen guidelines for acute oxygen use in adults: 'Swimming between the flags'. Respirology. 2015 Nov;20(8):1182-91.Full text  Abstract

59. Siemieniuk RAC, Chu DK, Kim LH, et al. Oxygen therapy for acutely ill medical patients: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2018 Oct 24;363:k4169. Abstract

60. British Thoracic Society. BTS guideline for oxygen use in healthcare and emergency settings. December 2019 [internet publication].Full text

61. Barbateskovic M, Schjørring OL, Russo Krauss S, et al. Higher versus lower fraction of inspired oxygen or targets of arterial oxygenation for adults admitted to the intensive care unit. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Nov 27;2019(11):CD012631.Full text  Abstract

62. ICU-ROX Investigators and the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group; Mackle D, Bellomo R, Bailey M, et al. Conservative oxygen therapy during mechanical ventilation in the ICU. N Engl J Med. 2020 Mar 12;382(11):989-98.Full text  Abstract

63. Cumpstey AF, Oldman AH, Smith AF, et al. Oxygen targets in the intensive care unit during mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome: a rapid review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Sep 1;(9):CD013708.Full text  Abstract

64. Wolfe JE, Bone RC, Ruth WE. Effects of corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with gastric aspiration. Am J Med. 1977 Nov;63(5):719-22. Abstract

65. Sukumaran M, Granada MJ, Berger HW, et al. Evaluation of corticosteroid treatment in aspiration of gastric contents: a controlled clinical trial. Mt Sinai J Med. Jul-Aug 1980;47(4):335-40. Abstract

66. Lee M, Sukumaran M, Berger HW, et al. Influence of corticosteroid treatment on pulmonary function after recovery from aspiration of gastric contents. Mt Sinai J Med. Jul-Aug 1980;47(4):341-6. Abstract

67. Dines DE, Titus JL, Sessler AD. Aspiration pneumonitis. Mayo Clin Proc. 1970 May;45(5):347-60. Abstract

68. Hansjee D. An acute model of care to guide eating & drinking decisions in the frail elderly with dementia and dysphagia. Geriatrics (Basel). 2018 Oct 2;3(4):65.Full text  Abstract

69. Cichero JA. Thickening agents used for dysphagia management: effect on bioavailability of water, medication and feelings of satiety. Nutr J. 2013 May 1;12:54.Full text  Abstract

70. Paranjothy S, Griffiths JD, Broughton HK, et al. Interventions at caesarean section for reducing the risk of aspiration pneumonitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Feb 5;(2):CD004943.Full text  Abstract

71. Gyte GM, Richens Y. Routine prophylactic drugs in normal labour for reducing gastric aspiration and its effects. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;(3):CD005298.Full text  Abstract

72. Alagiakrishnan K, Bhanji RA, Kurian M. Evaluation and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia in different types of dementia: a systematic review. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2013 Jan-Feb;56(1):1-9 Abstract

73. Won HK, Yoon SJ, Song WJ. The double-sidedness of cough in the elderly. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2018 Nov;257:65-9 Abstract

74. Daniels SK, Brailey K, Priestly DH, et al. Aspiration in patients with acute stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998 Jan;79(1):14-9Full text  Abstract

75. O'Driscoll BR, Howard LS, Earis J, et al; British Thoracic Society Emergency Oxygen Guideline Group; BTS Emergency Oxygen Guideline Development Group. BTS guideline for oxygen use in adults in healthcare and emergency settings. Thorax. 2017 Jun;72(suppl 1):ii1-90 Abstract

76. British Thoracic Society; Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma: a national clinical guideline. July 2019 [internet publication].Full text

77. Chu DK, Kim LH, Young PJ, et al. Mortality and morbidity in acutely ill adults treated with liberal versus conservative oxygen therapy (IOTA): systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018 Apr 26;391(10131):1693-705 Abstract

78. Siemieniuk RAC, Chu DK, Kim LH, et al. Oxygen therapy for acutely ill medical patients: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2018 Oct 24;363:k4169Full text  Abstract

79. Fritz Z, Slowther AM, Perkins GD. Resuscitation policy should focus on the patient, not the decision. BMJ. 2017 Feb 28;356:j813Full text  Abstract

80. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Decision making and mental capacity. October 2018 [internet publication]Full text

81. Department of Health. Mental Capacity Act 2005 [internet publication]Full text

82. Social Care Institute for Excellence. Independent mental capacity advocate (IMCA). 2011 [internet publication]Full text

83. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. June 2021 [internet publication]Full text

84. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The management of the hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) in adults. February 2022 [internet publication]Full text

85. Chowdhury TA, Cheston H, Claydon A. Managing adults with diabetes in hospital during an acute illness. BMJ. 2017 Jun 22;357:j2551 Abstract

86. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Self-management of diabetes in hospital. August 2021 [internet publication]Full text

87. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Glycaemic management during the inpatient enteral feeding of stroke patients with diabetes. November 2019 [internet publication]Full text

88. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The use of variable rate intravenous insulin infusion (VRIII) in medical inpatients. October 2014 [internet publication]Full text

89. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. A good inpatient diabetes service. July 2019 [internet publication]Full text

90. Centre for Perioperative Care. Guideline for perioperative care for people with diabetes mellitus undergoing elective and emergency surgery. March 2021 [internet publication]Full text

91. Pasquel FJ, Lansang MC, Dhatariya K, et al. Management of diabetes and hyperglycaemia in the hospital. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2021 Mar;9(3):174-88Full text  Abstract

92. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. SGLT2 inhibitors: monitor ketones in blood during treatment interruption for surgical procedures or acute serious medical illness. March 2020 [internet publication]Full text

93. Peters AL, Buschur EO, Buse JB, et al. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: a potential complication of treatment with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition. Diabetes Care. 2015 Jun 15;38(9):1687-93 Abstract

94. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acute kidney injury: prevention, detection and management. December 2019 [internet publication]Full text

95. Hsu CY, Ordoñez JD, Chertow GM, et al. The risk of acute renal failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2008 Apr 2;74(1):101-7Full text  Abstract

96. Grau AJ, Urbanek C, Palm F. Common infections and the risk of stroke. Nat Rev Neurol. 2010 Nov 9;6(12):681-94 Abstract

97. Eigenbrodt ML, Rose KM, Couper DJ, et al. Orthostatic hypotension as a risk factor for stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study, 1987-1996. Stroke. 2000 Oct;31(10):2307-13 Abstract

98. Winstein CJ, Stein J, Arena R, et al. Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2016 May 4;47(6):e98-e169Full text  Abstract

99. Pendlebury ST, Klaus SP, Mather M, et al. Routine cognitive screening in older patients admitted to acute medicine: abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) and subjective memory complaint versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment and IQCODE. Age Ageing. 2015 Oct 13;44(6):1000-5Full text  Abstract

100. Hodkinson HM. Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Age Ageing. 1972 Nov;1(4):233-8 Abstract

101. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Delirium: diagnosis, prevention and management. March 2019 [internet publication]Full text

102. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Dementia: assessment, management and support for people living with dementia and their carers. June 2018 [internet publication]Full text

103. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Risk reduction and management of delirium. March 2019 [internet publication]Full text

104. Nova Scotia Health Authority. This is not my Mom. 2012 [internet publication]Full text

105. Inouye SK, Schlesinger MJ, Lydon TJ. Delirium: a symptom of how hospital care is failing older persons and a window to improve quality of hospital care. Am J Med. 1999 May;106(5):565-73 Abstract

106. Bellelli G, Morandi A, Davis DH, et al. Validation of the 4AT, a new instrument for rapid delirium screening: a study in 234 hospitalised older people. Age Ageing. 2014 Mar 2;43(4):496-502Full text  Abstract

107. MacLullich AM, Shenkin SD, Goodacre S, et al. The 4 'A's test for detecting delirium in acute medical patients: a diagnostic accuracy study. Health Technol Assess. 2019 Aug;23(40):1-194Full text  Abstract

108. White S, Griffiths R, Baxter M, et al. Guidelines for the peri-operative care of people with dementia: guidelines from the Association of Anaesthetists. Anaesthesia. 2019 Jan 11;74(3):357-72Full text  Abstract

109. Siddiqi N, Harrison JK, Clegg A, et al. Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised non-ICU patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 11;3:CD005563Full text  Abstract

110. Martinez F, Tobar C, Hill N. Preventing delirium: should non-pharmacological, multicomponent interventions be used? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Age Ageing. 2014 Nov 25;44(2):196-204Full text  Abstract

111. Public Health England. Urinary tract infection: diagnostic tools for primary care. October 2020 [internet publication]Full text

112. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Haloperidol (haldol): reminder of risks when used in elderly patients for the acute treatment of delirium. 2021 [internet publication]Full text

113. Ma H, Huang Y, Cong Z, et al. The efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of dementia: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;42(3):915-37 Abstract

114. Huybrechts KF, Gerhard T, Crystal S, et al. Differential risk of death in older residents in nursing homes prescribed specific antipsychotic drugs: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2012 Feb 23;344:e977Full text  Abstract

115. Van Leeuwen E, Petrovic M, van Driel ML, et al. Withdrawal versus continuation of long-term antipsychotic drug use for behavioural and psychological symptoms in older people with dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 30;3:CD007726Full text  Abstract

116. American Diabetes Association. 16. Diabetes care in the hospital: standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes Care. 2022 Jan 1;45(suppl 1):S244-S253.Full text  Abstract

117. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. A good inpatient diabetes service. July 2019 [internet publication]Full text

118. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management. March 2022 [internet publication]Full text

119. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Inpatient care of the frail older adult with diabetes. 2019 [internet publication]Full text

120. van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1359-67Full text  Abstract

121. NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators; Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, et al. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13):1283-97.Full text  Abstract

122. Marik PE, Preiser JC. Toward understanding tight glycemic control in the ICU: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Chest. 2010 Mar;137(3):544-51Full text  Abstract

123. Rehman A, Setter SM, Vue MH. Drug-induced glucose alterations part 2: drug-Induced hyperglycemia. Diabetes Spect. 2011 Nov;24(4):234-8Full text

124. NHS Digital. National Diabetes Inpatient Audit (NaDIA) - 2019. Nov 2020 [internet publication]Full text

125. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The hospital management of hypoglycaemia in adults with diabetes mellitus. March 2022 [internet publication]Full text

126. TREND Diabetes. End of life guidance for diabetes care. November 2021 [internet publication]Full text

127. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management. October 2019 [internet publication]Full text

128. Rayman G, Vas PR, Baker N, et al. The Ipswich Touch Test: a simple and novel method to identify inpatients with diabetes at risk of foot ulceration. Diabetes Care. 2011 May 18;34(7):1517-8Full text  Abstract

129. Salpeter SR, Ormiston TM, Salpeter EE. Cardiovascular effects of beta-agonists in patients with asthma and COPD: a meta-analysis. Chest. 2004 Jun;125(6):2309-21Full text  Abstract

130. Au DH, Curtis JR, Every NR, et al. Association between inhaled beta-agonists and the risk of unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Chest. 2002 Mar;121(3):846-51Full text  Abstract

131. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2020 [internet publication]Full text

132. Walters JA, Tan DJ, White CJ, et al. Different durations of corticosteroid therapy for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 19;3:CD006897Full text  Abstract

133. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001 Sep;16(9):606-13 Abstract

134. Boden JM, Fergusson DM. Alcohol and depression. Addiction. 2011 Mar 7;106(5):906-14Full text  Abstract

135. Cleare A, Pariante CM, Young AH, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: A revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. J Psychopharmacol. 2015 May 12;29(5):459-525Full text  Abstract

136. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem: recognition and management. October 2009 [internet publication]Full text

137. Taylor DM, Barnes TRE, Young AH. The Maudsley prescribing guidelines in psychiatry. 13th edition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2018

138. Flowers L. Nicotine replacement therapy. Am J Psychiatry Resid. 2016 Jun;11(6)4-7Full text

139. Desai HD, Seabolt J, Jann MW. Smoking in patients receiving psychotropic medications: a pharmacokinetic perspective. CNS Drugs. 2001;15(6):469-94

140. Oliveira P, Ribeiro J, Donato H, Madeira N. Smoking and antidepressants pharmacokinetics: a systematic review. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2017;16:17Full text  Abstract

141. National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training. Smoking cessation and mental health. 2014 [internet publication]Full text

142. Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 17;352(11):1112-20 Abstract

143. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Liaison psychiatry. In: Emergency acute medical care in over 16s: service delivery and organisation. March 2018 [internet publication]Full text

144. National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD). Treat as one. Bridging the gap between mental and physical healthcare in general hospitals. 2017 [internet publication]Full text

145. DiMatteo MR, Lepper HS, Croghan TW. Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Jul 24;160(14):2101-7 Abstract

146. Clarke DM, Currie KC. Depression, anxiety and their relationship with chronic diseases: a review of the epidemiology, risk and treatment evidence. Med J Aust. 2009 Apr 6;190(7 suppl):S54-60 Abstract

147. Prina AM, Cosco TD, Dening T, et al. The association between depressive symptoms in the community, non-psychiatric hospital admission and hospital outcomes: a systematic review. J Psychosom Res. 2014 Nov 8;78(1):25-33Full text  Abstract

148. World Health Organization. Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders. 2016 [internet publication]Full text

149. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Tobacco: preventing uptake, promoting quitting and treating dependence. Nov 2021 [internet publication]Full text

150. Voloudaki A, Ergazakis N, Gourtsoyiannis N. Late changes in barium sulfate aspiration: HRCT features. Eur Radiol. 2003 Sep;13(9):2226-9. Abstract

151. McClave SA, Snider HL. Clinical use of gastric residual volumes as a monitor for patients on enteral tube feeding. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. Nov-Dec 2002;26(6 suppl):S43-8;discussion S49-50. Abstract

152. Brady M, Kinn S, Stuart P, et al. Preoperative fasting for adults to prevent perioperative complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003 Oct 20;(4):CD004423.Full text  Abstract

153. Dennis MS, Lewis SC, Warlow C; FOOD Trial Collaboration. Routine oral nutritional supplementation for stroke patients in hospital (FOOD): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 Feb 26-Mar 4;365(9461):755-63. Abstract

154. Dennis MS, Lewis SC, Warlow C; FOOD Trial Collaboration. Effect of timing and method of enteral tube feeding for dysphagic stroke patients (FOOD): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 Feb 26-Mar 4;365(9461):764-72. Abstract

155. Wang D, Zheng SQ, Chen XC, et al. Comparisons between small intestinal and gastric feeding in severe traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Neurosurg. 2015 Nov;123(5):1194-201.Full text  Abstract

156. Park RH, Allison MC, Lang J, et al. Randomised comparison of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and nasogastric tube feeding in patients with persisting neurological dysphagia. BMJ. 1992 May 30;304(6839):1406-9.Full text  Abstract

157. Strong RM, Condon SC, Solinger MR, et al. Equal aspiration rates from postpylorus and intragastric-placed small-bore nasoenteric feeding tubes: a randomized, prospective study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. Jan-Feb 1992;16(1):59-63. Abstract

158. Spain DA, DeWeese RC, Reynolds MA, et al. Transpyloric passage of feeding tubes in patients with head injuries does not decrease complications. J Trauma. 11995 Dec;39(6):1100-2. Abstract

159. Alkhawaja S, Martin C, Butler RJ, et al. Post-pyloric versus gastric tube feeding for preventing pneumonia and improving nutritional outcomes in critically ill adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Aug 4;(8):CD008875.Full text  Abstract

160. Thorpe RJ, Benger J. Pre-procedural fasting in emergency sedation. Emerg Med J. 2010 Apr;27(4):254-61. Abstract

161. Clark K, Lam LT, Gibson S, et al. The effect of ranitidine versus proton pump inhibitors on gastric secretions: a meta-analysis of randomised control trials. Anaesthesia. 2009 Jun;64(6):652-7.Full text  Abstract

162. Puig I, Calzado S, Suárez D, et al. Meta-analysis: comparative efficacy of H2-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors for reducing aspiration risk during anaesthesia depending on the administration route and schedule. Pharmacol Res. 2012 Apr;65(4):480-90. Abstract

163. van Nieuwenhoven CA, Vandenbroucke-Grauls C, van Tiel FH, et al. Feasibility and effects of the semirecumbent position to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia: a randomized study. Crit Care Med. 2006 Feb;34(2):396-402. Abstract

164. Warusevitane A, Karunatilake D, Sim J, et al. Safety and effect of metoclopramide to prevent pneumonia in patients with stroke fed via nasogastric tubes trial. Stroke. 2015 Feb;46(2):454-60.Full text  Abstract

165. Pace CC, McCullough GH. The association between oral microorganisms and aspiration pneumonia in the institutionalized elderly: review and recommendations. Dysphagia. 2010 Dec;25(4):307-22.Full text  Abstract

166. El Solh AA, Saliba R. Pharmacologic prevention of aspiration pneumonia: a systematic review. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2007 Dec;5(4):352-62. Abstract

167. Rasley A, Logemann JA, Kahrilas PJ, et al. Prevention of barium aspiration during videofluoroscopic swallowing studies: value of change in posture. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1993 May;160(5):1005-9.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer