Long bone fracture


Key articles

National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (non-complex): assessment and management. February 2016 [internet publication].Full text

National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (complex): assessment and management. November 2017 [internet publication].Full text

British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST). Open fractures. December 2017 [internet publication].Full text

British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST). Diagnosis and management of arterial injuries associated with extremity fractures and dislocations. Injury. 2021 Jul;52(7):1667-9.Full text  Abstract

British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST). Early management of the paediatric forearm fracture. May 2021 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

1. Rockwood CA Jr, Green DP, Bucholz RW, et al. Rockwood and Green's fractures in adults. Vol 1, 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven; 1996.

2. Neer CS 2nd. Displaced proximal humeral fractures: part I. Classification and evaluation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1970 Sep;52(6):1077-89.Full text

3. Tamai K, Hamada J, Ohno W, et al. Surgical anatomy of multipart fractures of the proximal humerus. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2002 Sep-Oct;11(5):421-7. Abstract

4. Mora Guix JM, Pedros JS, Serrano AC. Updated classification system for proximal humeral fractures. Clin Med Res. 2009 Jun;7(1-2):32-44.Full text  Abstract

5. Kellam JF, Audigé L; AO Foundation. Fracture classification [internet publication].Full text

6. AO Classification Supervisory Committee. Radius/Ulna. J Orthop Trauma. 2007 Nov-Dec;21(10):S19-S30.Full text

7. Winquist RA, Hansen ST Jr. Comminuted fractures of the femoral shaft treated by intramedullary nailing. Orthop Clin North Am. 1980 Jul;11(3):633-48. Abstract

8. Winquist RA, Hansen ST Jr, Clawson DK. Closed intramedullary nailing of femoral fractures: a report of five hundred and twenty cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984 Apr;66(4):529-39. Abstract

9. AO Foundation. AO surgery reference: tibia shaft - diagnosis. Version 2. May 2012 [internet publication].Full text

10. Kim PH, Leopold SS. In brief: Gustilo-Anderson classification. [corrected]. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012 Nov;470(11):3270-4.Full text  Abstract

11. AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF). J Orthop Trauma. 2018 Jan;32 Suppl 1:S117-S140. Abstract

12. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (non-complex): assessment and management. February 2016 [internet publication].Full text

13. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (complex): assessment and management. November 2017 [internet publication].Full text

14. Singer BR, McLauchlan GJ, Robinson CM, et al. Epidemiology of fractures in 15,000 adults: the influence of age and gender. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1998 Mar;80(2):243-8.Full text  Abstract

15. Kaneko TM, Foley RN, Gilbertson DT, et al. Clinical epidemiology of long-bone fractures in patients receiving hemodialysis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007 Apr;457:188-93. Abstract

16. Dennison E, Mohamed MA, Cooper C. Epidemiology of osteoporosis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2006 Nov;32(4):617-29. Abstract

17. Nguyen ND, Eisman JA, Center JR, et al. Risk factors for fracture in nonosteoporotic men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;92(3):955-62.Full text  Abstract

18. Koenig SJ, Toth AP, Bosco JA. Stress fractures and stress reactions of the diaphyseal femur in collegiate athletes: an analysis of 25 cases. Am J Orthop. 2008 Sep;37(9):476-80. Abstract

19. Tytherleigh-Strong G, Walls N, McQueen MM. The epidemiology of humeral shaft fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1998 Mar;80(2):249-53. Abstract

20. Tsai CH, Fong YC, Chen YH, et al. The epidemiology of traumatic humeral shaft fractures in Taiwan. Int Orthop. 2009 Apr;33(2):463-7.Full text  Abstract

21. Gregersen HN. Fractures of the humerus from muscular violence. Acta Orthop Scand. 1971;42(6):506-12. Abstract

22. Tellisi NK, Abusitta GR, Fernandes RJ. Bilateral posterior fracture dislocation of the shoulders following seizure. Saudi Med J. 2004 Nov;25(11):1727-9. Abstract

23. Lendemans S, Taeger G, Nast-Kolb D. Dislocation fractures of the forearm: Galeazzi, Monteggia, and Essex-Lopresti injuries. Unfallchirurg. 2008 Dec;111(12):1005-14. Abstract

24. Ahluwalia R, Datz FL, Morton KA, et al. Bilateral fatigue fractures of the radial shaft in a gymnast. Clin Nucl Med. 1994 Aug;19(8):665-7. Abstract

25. Hsu MC, Lue KH, Lin ZI, et al. Stress fracture at the junction of the middle and distal third of the ulnar diaphysis in a spinner bowler: a case report and a review of the literature. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2005 Sep;13(6):499-504. Abstract

26. French B, Tornetta P 3rd. High-energy tibial shaft fractures. Orthop Clin North Am. 2002 Jan;33(1):211-30, ix. Abstract

27. Iwamoto J, Takeda T. Stress fractures in athletes: review of 196 cases. J Orthop Sci. 2003;8(3):273-8. Abstract

28. Milgrom C, Giladi M, Kashtan H, et al. A prospective study of the effect of a shock-absorbing orthotic device on the incidence of stress fractures in military recruits. Foot Ankle. 1985 Oct;6(2):101-4. Abstract

29. Lyders EM, Whitlowa CT, Baker MD, et al. Imaging and treatment of sacral insufficiency fractures. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Feb;31(2):201-10.Full text  Abstract

30. Fayad LM, Kamel IR, Kawamoto S, et al. Distinguishing stress fractures from pathologic fractures: a multimodality approach. Skeletal Radiol. 2005 May;34(5):245-59. Abstract

31. Marsell R, Einhorn TA. The biology of fracture healing. Injury. 2011 Jun;42(6):551-5.Full text  Abstract

32. Mahabier KC, Vogels LM, Punt BJ, et al. Humeral shaft fractures: retrospective results of non-operative and operative treatment of 186 patients. Injury. 2013 Apr;44(4):427-30. Abstract

33. Kapil Mani KC, Gopal Sagar DC, Rijal L, et al. Study on outcome of fracture shaft of the humerus treated non-operatively with a functional brace. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 2013 Apr;23(3):323-8. Abstract

34. Ostrum RF, Agarwal A, Lakatos R, et al. Prospective comparison of retrograde and antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing. J Orthop Trauma. Sep-Oct 2000;14(7):496-501. Abstract

35. Gennari L, Bilezikian JP. Osteoporosis in men. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2007 Jun;36(2):399-419. Abstract

36. Gedmintas L, Solomon DH, Kim SC. Bisphosphonates and risk of subtrochanteric, femoral shaft, and atypical femur fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Aug;28(8):1729-37. Abstract

37. Gass M, Dawson-Hughes B. Preventing osteoporosis-related fractures: an overview. Am J Med. 2006 Apr;119(4 Suppl 1):S3-S11. Abstract

38. Collinge C, Favela J. Use of teriparatide in osteoporotic fracture patients. Injury. 2016 Jan;47 Suppl 1:S36-8. Abstract

39. Johansson T. PTH 1-34 (teriparatide) may not improve healing in proximal humerus fractures. A randomized, controlled study of 40 patients. Acta Orthop. 2016 Feb;87(1):79-82.Full text  Abstract

40. Resuscitation Council UK. The ABCDE approach [internet publication].Full text

41. British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST). Open fractures. December 2017 [internet publication].Full text

42. British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST). Diagnosis and management of arterial injuries associated with extremity fractures and dislocations. Injury. 2021 Jul;52(7):1667-9.Full text  Abstract

43. British Orthopaedic Association. British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST): diagnosis and management of compartment syndrome of the limbs. 2015 [internet publication].Full text

44. Resuscitation Council UK. Adult advanced life support guidelines. May 2021 [internet publication].Full text

45. European Resuscitation Council. Guidelines for resuscitation 2021. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

46. Ulmer T. The clinical diagnosis of compartment syndrome of the lower leg: are clinical findings predictive of the disorder? J Orthop Trauma. 2002 Sep;16(8):572-7. Abstract

47. Pehlivan O, Kiral A, Akmaz I, et al. Humeral shaft fractures secondary to throwing. Orthopedics. 2003 Nov;26(11):1139-41. Abstract

48. National Institute for Health and Care Exellence. Suspected cancer: recognition and referral. January 2021 [internet publication].Full text

49. Edelson G, Saffuri H, Obid E, et al. The three-dimensional anatomy of proximal humeral fractures. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. Jul-Aug 2009;18(4):535-44. Abstract

50. British Orthopaedic Association. British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST): the management of distal radial fractures.Full text

51. British Orthopaedic Association Standard for Trauma (BOAST). Early management of the paediatric forearm fracture. May 2021 [internet publication].Full text

52. Lieurance R, Benjamin JB, Rappaport WD. Blood loss and transfusion in patients with isolated femur fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 1992;6(2):175-9. Abstract

53. Schmidt AH, Finkemeier CG, Tornetta P 3rd. Treatment of closed tibial fractures. Instr Course Lect. 2003;52:607-22. Abstract

54. Bucholz RW, Heckman JD, Court-Brown C, eds. Rockwood and Green's fractures in adults. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:163.

55. Sabick MB, Torry MR, Kim YK, et al. Humeral torque in professional baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med. 2004 Jun;32(4):892-8. Abstract

56. Curtin P, Taylor C, Rice J. Thrower's fracture of the humerus with radial nerve palsy: an unfamiliar softball injury. Br J Sports Med. 2005 Nov;39(11):e40.Full text  Abstract

57. Schilcher J, Aspenberg P. Incidence of stress fractures of the femoral shaft in women treated with bisphosphonate. Acta Orthop. 2009 Aug;80(4):413-5.Full text  Abstract

58. Neviaser AS, Lane JM, Lenart BA, et al. Low-energy femoral shaft fractures associated with alendronate use. J Orthop Trauma. 2008 May-Jun;22(5):346-50. Abstract

59. Maitra RS, Johnson DL. Stress fractures: clinical history and physical examination. Clin Sports Med. 1997 Apr;16(2):259-74. Abstract

60. Kaeding CC, Yu JR, Wright R, et al. Management and return to play of stress fractures. Clin J Sport Med. 2005 Nov;15(6):442-7. Abstract

61. Moran DS, Evans RK, Hadad E. Imaging of lower extremity stress fracture injuries. Sports Med. 2008;38(4):345-56. Abstract

62. Varner KE, Younas SA, Lintner DM, et al. Chronic anterior midtibial stress fractures in athletes treated with reamed intramedullary nailing. Am J Sports Med. 2005 Jul;33(7):1071-6. Abstract

63. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Major trauma: assessment and initial management. February 2016 [internet publication].Full text

64. Hunt BJ, Allard S, Keeling D, et al. A practical guideline for the haematological management of major haemorrhage. Br J Haematol. 2015 Sep;170(6):788-803.Full text  Abstract

65. Chang Y, Bhandari M, Zhu KL, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis in the management of open fractures: a systematic survey of current practice and recommendations. JBJS Rev. 2019 Feb;7(2):e1. Abstract

66. Falck-Ytter Y, Francis CW, Johanson NA, et al ; American College of Chest Physicians. Prevention of VTE in orthopedic surgery patients: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 Suppl):e278S-e325S.Full text  Abstract

67. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Child maltreatment: when to suspect maltreatment in under 18s. October 2017 [internet publication].Full text

68. Newman B, McCarthy L, Thomas PW, et al. A comparison of pre-operative nerve stimulator-guided femoral nerve block and fascia iliaca compartment block in patients with a femoral neck fracture. Anaesthesia. 2013 Sep;68(9):899-903. Abstract

69. Beaudoin FL, Haran JP, Liebmann O. A comparison of ultrasound-guided three-in-one femoral nerve block versus parenteral opioids alone for analgesia in emergency department patients with hip fractures: a randomized controlled trial. Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Jun;20(6):584-91. Abstract

70. Sia S, Pelusio F, Barbagli R, et al. Analgesia before performing a spinal block in the sitting position in patients with femoral shaft fracture: a comparison between femoral nerve block and intravenous fentanyl. Anesth Analg. 2004 Oct;99(4):1221-4. Abstract

71. Karagiannis G, Hardern R. Best evidence topic report. No evidence found that a femoral nerve block in cases of femoral shaft fractures can delay the diagnosis of compartment syndrome of the thigh. Emerg Med J. 2005 Nov;22(11):814.Full text  Abstract

72. Public Health England. Tetanus: the green book, chapter 30. January 2020 [internet publication].Full text

73. Ker K, Roberts I, Shakur H, et al. Antifibrinolytic drugs for acute traumatic injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 May 9;(5):CD004896.Full text  Abstract

74. CRASH-2 collaborators., Roberts I, Shakur H, et al. The importance of early treatment with tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma patients: an exploratory analysis of the CRASH-2 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011 Mar 26;377(9771):1096-101, 1101.e1-2.Full text  Abstract

75. Gayet-Ageron A, Prieto-Merino D, Ker K, et al. Effect of treatment delay on the effectiveness and safety of antifibrinolytics in acute severe haemorrhage: a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data from 40 138 bleeding patients. Lancet. 2018 Jan 13;391(10116):125-32.Full text  Abstract

76. Launonen AP, Lepola V, Flinkkilä T, et al. Treatment of proximal humerus fractures in the elderly: a systemic review of 409 patients. Acta Orthop. 2015 Jun;86(3):280-5.Full text  Abstract

77. Olerud P, Ahrengart L, Ponzer S, et al. Hemiarthroplasty versus nonoperative treatment of displaced 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011 Oct;20(7):1025-33. Abstract

78. Rangan A, Handoll H, Brealey S, et al. Surgical vs nonsurgical treatment of adults with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus: the PROFHER randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 Mar 10;313(10):1037-47.Full text  Abstract

79. Handoll HH, Keding A, Corbacho B, et al. Five-year follow-up results of the PROFHER trial comparing operative and non-operative treatment of adults with a displaced fracture of the proximal humerus. Bone Joint J. 2017 Mar;99-B(3):383-92.Full text  Abstract

80. Eathiraju S, Mudgal CS, Jupiter JB. Monteggia fracture-dislocations. Hand Clin. 2007 May;23(2):165-77, v. Abstract

81. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (non-complex): assessment and management. Fractures: diagnosis, management and follow-up of fractures. NICE guideline NG38: methods, evidence and recommendations. February 2016 [internet publication].Full text

82. Bhandari M, Guyatt G, Tornetta P 3rd, et al. Randomized trial of reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 Dec;90(12):2567-78.Full text  Abstract

83. Wheeless CR III. Wheeless' textbook of orthopaedics: adult both bone forearm Frx. August 2012 [internet publication].Full text

84. Bara T, Sibinski M, Synder M. Own clinical experience with functional bracing for treatment of pseudarthrosis and delayed union of the tibia. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2007 May-Jun;9(3):259-63. Abstract

85. Sarmiento A, Latta LL. 450 closed fractures of the distal third of the tibia treated with a functional brace. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004 Nov;(428):261-71. Abstract

86. Costa ML, Achten J, Griffin J, et al. Effect of locking plate fixation vs intramedullary nail fixation on 6-month disability among adults with displaced fracture of the distal tibia: the UK FixDT randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017 Nov 14;318(18):1767-76.Full text  Abstract

87. Dickson TB Jr, Kichline PD. Functional management of stress fractures in female athletes using a pneumatic leg brace. Am J Sports Med. 1987 Jan-Feb;15(1):86-9. Abstract

88. Swenson EJ Jr, DeHaven KE, Sebastianelli WJ, et al. The effect of a pneumatic leg brace on return to play in athletes with tibial stress fractures. Am J Sports Med. 1997 May-Jun;25(3):322-8. Abstract

89. Monteleone GP Jr. Stress fractures in the athlete. Orthop Clin North Am. 1995 Jul;26(3):423-32. Abstract

90. O'Driscoll BR, Howard LS, Earis J, et al; British Thoracic Society Emergency Oxygen Guideline Group; BTS Emergency Oxygen Guideline Development Group. BTS guideline for oxygen use in adults in healthcare and emergency settings. Thorax. 2017 Jun;72(suppl 1):ii1-90 Abstract

91. British Thoracic Society; Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma: a national clinical guideline. July 2019 [internet publication].Full text

92. Chu DK, Kim LH, Young PJ, et al. Mortality and morbidity in acutely ill adults treated with liberal versus conservative oxygen therapy (IOTA): systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018 Apr 26;391(10131):1693-705 Abstract

93. Siemieniuk RAC, Chu DK, Kim LH, et al. Oxygen therapy for acutely ill medical patients: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2018 Oct 24;363:k4169Full text  Abstract

94. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Intravenous fluid therapy in adults in hospital. Clinical guideline CG174. May 2017 [internet publication]Full text

95. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acute kidney injury: prevention, detection and management. December 2019 [internet publication]Full text

96. Hsu CY, Ordoñez JD, Chertow GM, et al. The risk of acute renal failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2008 Apr 2;74(1):101-7Full text  Abstract

97. The Trauma Audit & Research Network. Major trauma in older people. 2017 [internet publication]Full text

98. Nickel C, Arendts G, Lucke J, et al; British Geriatrics Society. Silver book II: geriatric syndromes. February 2021 [internet publication]Full text

99. British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Standards for the management of open fractures of the lower limb. 2009 [internet publication].Full text

100. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (non-complex): assessment and management. February 2016 [internet publication]Full text

101. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Patient experience in adult NHS services: improving the experience of care for people using adult NHS services. June 2021 [internet publication]Full text

102. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Major trauma: assessment and initial management. February 2016 [internet publication]Full text

103. British Orthopaedic Association. British Orthopaedic Association standards for trauma: the management of blunt chest wall trauma. April 2016 [internet publication]Full text

104. Ferreira-Valente MA, Pais-Ribeiro JL, Jensen MP. Validity of four pain intensity rating scales. Pain. 2011 Oct;152(10):2399-404 Abstract

105. Herr KA, Mobily PR, Kohout FJ, et al. Evaluation of the Faces Pain Scale for use with the elderly. Clin J Pain. 1998 Mar;14(1):29-38 Abstract

106. Warden V, Hurley AC, Volicer L. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) scale. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2003 Jan-Feb;4(1):9-15 Abstract

107. Chan S, Hadjistavropoulos T, Williams J, et al. Evidence-based development and initial validation of the pain assessment checklist for seniors with limited ability to communicate-II (PACSLAC-II). Clin J Pain. 2014 Sep;30(9):816-24 Abstract

108. Abbey J, Piller N, De Bellis A, et al. The Abbey pain scale: a 1-minute numerical indicator for people with end-stage dementia. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2004 Jan;10(1):6-13 Abstract

109. Davison SN. Clinical pharmacology considerations in pain management in patients with advanced kidney failure. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2019 Jun 7;14(6):917-31Full text  Abstract

110. Global Initiative for Asthma. Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. 2022 [internet publication]Full text

111. Freeman R, Wieling W, Axelrod FB, et al. Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome. Clin Auton Res. 2011 Apr;21(2):69-72 Abstract

112. Chowdhury TA, Cheston H, Claydon A. Managing adults with diabetes in hospital during an acute illness. BMJ. 2017 Jun 22;357:j2551 Abstract

113. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Self-management of diabetes in hospital. August 2021 [internet publication]Full text

114. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Glycaemic management during the inpatient enteral feeding of stroke patients with diabetes. November 2019 [internet publication]Full text

115. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The use of variable rate intravenous insulin infusion (VRIII) in medical inpatients. October 2014 [internet publication]Full text

116. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. A good inpatient diabetes service. July 2019 [internet publication]Full text

117. Centre for Perioperative Care. Guideline for perioperative care for people with diabetes mellitus undergoing elective and emergency surgery. March 2021 [internet publication]Full text

118. Pasquel FJ, Lansang MC, Dhatariya K, et al. Management of diabetes and hyperglycaemia in the hospital. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2021 Mar;9(3):174-88Full text  Abstract

119. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. SGLT2 inhibitors: monitor ketones in blood during treatment interruption for surgical procedures or acute serious medical illness. March 2020 [internet publication]Full text

120. Peters AL, Buschur EO, Buse JB, et al. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: a potential complication of treatment with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition. Diabetes Care. 2015 Jun 15;38(9):1687-93 Abstract

121. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. June 2021 [internet publication]Full text

122. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The management of the hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) in adults. February 2022 [internet publication]Full text

123. American Diabetes Association. 16. Diabetes care in the hospital: standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes Care. 2022 Jan 1;45(suppl 1):S244-S253.Full text  Abstract

124. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. A good inpatient diabetes service. July 2019 [internet publication]Full text

125. Fritz Z, Slowther AM, Perkins GD. Resuscitation policy should focus on the patient, not the decision. BMJ. 2017 Feb 28;356:j813Full text  Abstract

126. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Decision making and mental capacity. October 2018 [internet publication]Full text

127. Department of Health. Mental Capacity Act 2005 [internet publication]Full text

128. Social Care Institute for Excellence. Independent mental capacity advocate (IMCA). 2011 [internet publication]Full text

129. Handoll HH, Brorson S. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 11;(11):CD000434.Full text  Abstract

130. NHS Specialised Clinical Frailty Network. Clinical frailty scale. 2018 [internet publication]Full text

131. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fractures (complex): assessment and management. November 2017 [internet publication]Full text

132. Pendlebury ST, Klaus SP, Mather M, et al. Routine cognitive screening in older patients admitted to acute medicine: abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) and subjective memory complaint versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment and IQCODE. Age Ageing. 2015 Oct 13;44(6):1000-5Full text  Abstract

133. Hodkinson HM. Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Age Ageing. 1972 Nov;1(4):233-8 Abstract

134. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Delirium: diagnosis, prevention and management. March 2019 [internet publication]Full text

135. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Dementia: assessment, management and support for people living with dementia and their carers. June 2018 [internet publication]Full text

136. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Risk reduction and management of delirium. March 2019 [internet publication]Full text

137. Bellelli G, Morandi A, Davis DH, et al. Validation of the 4AT, a new instrument for rapid delirium screening: a study in 234 hospitalised older people. Age Ageing. 2014 Mar 2;43(4):496-502Full text  Abstract

138. MacLullich AM, Shenkin SD, Goodacre S, et al. The 4 'A's test for detecting delirium in acute medical patients: a diagnostic accuracy study. Health Technol Assess. 2019 Aug;23(40):1-194Full text  Abstract

139. Winstein CJ, Stein J, Arena R, et al. Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2016 May 4;47(6):e98-e169Full text  Abstract

140. Verbrugge FH, Grieten L, Mullens W. Management of the cardiorenal syndrome in decompensated heart failure. Cardiorenal Med. 2014 Dec;4(3-4):176-88Full text  Abstract

141. White S, Griffiths R, Baxter M, et al. Guidelines for the peri-operative care of people with dementia: guidelines from the Association of Anaesthetists. Anaesthesia. 2019 Jan 11;74(3):357-72Full text  Abstract

142. Nova Scotia Health Authority. This is not my Mom. 2012 [internet publication]Full text

143. Inouye SK, Schlesinger MJ, Lydon TJ. Delirium: a symptom of how hospital care is failing older persons and a window to improve quality of hospital care. Am J Med. 1999 May;106(5):565-73 Abstract

144. Siddiqi N, Harrison JK, Clegg A, et al. Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised non-ICU patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 11;3:CD005563Full text  Abstract

145. Martinez F, Tobar C, Hill N. Preventing delirium: should non-pharmacological, multicomponent interventions be used? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Age Ageing. 2014 Nov 25;44(2):196-204Full text  Abstract

146. Public Health England. Urinary tract infection: diagnostic tools for primary care. October 2020 [internet publication]Full text

147. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management. March 2022 [internet publication]Full text

148. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Inpatient care of the frail older adult with diabetes. 2019 [internet publication]Full text

149. van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1359-67Full text  Abstract

150. NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators; Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, et al. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13):1283-97.Full text  Abstract

151. Marik PE, Preiser JC. Toward understanding tight glycemic control in the ICU: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Chest. 2010 Mar;137(3):544-51Full text  Abstract

152. Rehman A, Setter SM, Vue MH. Drug-induced glucose alterations part 2: drug-Induced hyperglycemia. Diabetes Spect. 2011 Nov;24(4):234-8Full text

153. NHS Digital. National Diabetes Inpatient Audit (NaDIA) - 2019. Nov 2020 [internet publication]Full text

154. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The hospital management of hypoglycaemia in adults with diabetes mellitus. March 2022 [internet publication]Full text

155. TREND Diabetes. End of life guidance for diabetes care. November 2021 [internet publication]Full text

156. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management. October 2019 [internet publication]Full text

157. Rayman G, Vas PR, Baker N, et al. The Ipswich Touch Test: a simple and novel method to identify inpatients with diabetes at risk of foot ulceration. Diabetes Care. 2011 May 18;34(7):1517-8Full text  Abstract

158. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001 Sep;16(9):606-13 Abstract

159. Boden JM, Fergusson DM. Alcohol and depression. Addiction. 2011 Mar 7;106(5):906-14Full text  Abstract

160. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Liaison psychiatry. In: Emergency acute medical care in over 16s: service delivery and organisation. March 2018 [internet publication]Full text

161. National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD). Treat as one. Bridging the gap between mental and physical healthcare in general hospitals. 2017 [internet publication]Full text

162. Cleare A, Pariante CM, Young AH, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: A revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. J Psychopharmacol. 2015 May 12;29(5):459-525Full text  Abstract

163. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem: recognition and management. October 2009 [internet publication]Full text

164. Taylor DM, Barnes TRE, Young AH. The Maudsley prescribing guidelines in psychiatry. 13th edition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2018

165. Flowers L. Nicotine replacement therapy. Am J Psychiatry Resid. 2016 Jun;11(6)4-7Full text

166. Desai HD, Seabolt J, Jann MW. Smoking in patients receiving psychotropic medications: a pharmacokinetic perspective. CNS Drugs. 2001;15(6):469-94

167. Oliveira P, Ribeiro J, Donato H, Madeira N. Smoking and antidepressants pharmacokinetics: a systematic review. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2017;16:17Full text  Abstract

168. National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training. Smoking cessation and mental health. 2014 [internet publication]Full text

169. Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 17;352(11):1112-20 Abstract

170. Auerbach AD, Vittinghoff E, Maselli J, et al. Perioperative use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risks for adverse outcomes of surgery. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jun 24;173(12):1075-81Full text  Abstract

171. Salpeter SR, Ormiston TM, Salpeter EE. Cardiovascular effects of beta-agonists in patients with asthma and COPD: a meta-analysis. Chest. 2004 Jun;125(6):2309-21Full text  Abstract

172. Au DH, Curtis JR, Every NR, et al. Association between inhaled beta-agonists and the risk of unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Chest. 2002 Mar;121(3):846-51Full text  Abstract

173. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2020 [internet publication]Full text

174. Walters JA, Tan DJ, White CJ, et al. Different durations of corticosteroid therapy for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 19;3:CD006897Full text  Abstract

175. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Tobacco: preventing uptake, promoting quitting and treating dependence. Nov 2021 [internet publication]Full text

176. Tripuraneni K, Ganga S, Quinn R, et al. The effect of time delay to surgical debridement of open tibia shaft fractures on infection rate. Orthopedics. 2008 Dec;31(12).Full text  Abstract

177. Macintyre NR, Ilyas AM, Jupiter JB. Treatment of forearm fractures. Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech. 2009 Feb;76(1):7-14. Abstract

178. Griffin XL, Costa ML, Parsons N, et al. Electromagnetic field stimulation for treating delayed union or non-union of long bone fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Apr 13;(4):CD008471.Full text  Abstract

179. Griffin XL, Parsons N, Costa ML, et al. Ultrasound and shockwave therapy for acute fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jun 23;2014(6):CD008579.Full text  Abstract

180. Ryzewicz M, Morgan SJ, Linford E, et al. Central bone grafting for nonunion of fractures of the tibia: a retrospective series. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2009 Apr;91(4):522-9. Abstract

181. Govender S, Csimma C, Genant HK, et al. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for treatment of open tibial fractures: a prospective, controlled, randomized study of four hundred and fifty patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002 Dec;84(12):2123-34. Abstract

182. Schmitz MA, Finnegan M, Natarajan R, et al. Effect of smoking on tibial shaft fracture healing. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999 Aug;(365):184-200. Abstract

183. Nyquist F, Berglund M, Nilsson BE, et al. Nature and healing of tibial shaft fractures in alcohol abusers. Alcohol Alcohol. 1997 Jan-Feb;32(1):91-5. Abstract

184. Hak DJ. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in trauma and long bone fractures. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2001 Sep;7(5):338-43. Abstract

185. Pulmonary Embolism Prevention (PEP) trial Collaborative Group. Prevention of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis with low dose aspirin: Pulmonary Embolism Prevention (PEP) trial. Lancet. 2000 Apr 15;355(9212):1295-302. Abstract

186. Jameson SS, James P, Howcroft DW, et al. Venous thromboembolic events are rare after shoulder surgery: analysis of a national database. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011 Jul;20(5):764-70. Abstract

187. Bruehl S. Complex regional pain syndrome. BMJ. 2015 Jul 29;351:h2730.Full text  Abstract

188. Elliott KG, Johnstone AJ. Diagnosing acute compartment syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2003 Jul;85(5):625-32.Full text  Abstract

189. Gurd AR, Wilson RI. The fat embolism syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1974 Aug;56B(3):408-16. Abstract

190. Habashi NM, Andrews PL, Scalea TM. Therapeutic aspects of fat embolism syndrome. Injury. 2006 Oct;37 Suppl 4:S68-73. Abstract

191. White T, Petrisor BA, Bhandari M. Prevention of fat embolism syndrome. Injury. 2006 Oct;37 Suppl 4:S68-73. Abstract

192. Johnson MJ, Lucas GL. Fat embolism syndrome. Orthopedics. 1996 Jan;19(1):41-8. Abstract

193. Bachiller FG, Caballer AP, Portal LF. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002 Jun;(399):87-109. Abstract

194. Keating J. Femoral neck fractures. In Buchold RW, ed. Rockwood and Green’s fractures in adults. 7th ed, v. 2. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2010.

195. Mont MA, Marulanda GA, Jones LC, et al. Systematic analysis of classification systems for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Nov;88 Suppl 3:16-26. Abstract

196. Jawad MU, Haleem AA, Scully SP. In brief: Ficat classification: avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012 Sep;470(9):2636-9. Abstract

197. Rajagopal M, Balch Samora J, Ellis TJ. Efficacy of core decompression as treatment for osteonecrosis of the hip: a systematic review. Hip Int. 2012 Sept-Oct;22(5):489-93. Abstract

198. Wang CJ, Wang FS, Huang CC, et al. Treatment for osteonecrosis of the femoral head: comparison of extracorporeal shock waves with core decompression and bone-grafting. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005 Nov;87(11):2380-7. Abstract

199. Agarwala S, Jain D, Joshi VR, Sule A. Efficacy of alendronate, a bisphosphonate, in the treatment of AVN of the hip. A prospective open-label study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005 Mar;44(3):352-9.Full text  Abstract

200. Huang YP, Fann CY, Chiu YH, et al. Association of diabetes mellitus with the risk of developing adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: a longitudinal population-based followup study. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013 Jul;65(7):1197-202.Full text  Abstract

201. Huang SW, Lin JW, Wang WT, et al. Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for developing adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: a nationwide longitudinal population-based study. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb 25;4:4183.Full text  Abstract

202. Nickel C, Arendts G, Lucke J, et al; British Geriatrics Society. Silver book II: geriatric syndromes. February 2021 [internet publication].Full text

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer