Cholelithiasis (gallstones)


Key articles

European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL). EASL clinical practice guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of gallstones. J Hepatol. 2016 Jul;65(1):146-81.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Gallstone disease: diagnosis and management. Oct 2014 [internet publication].Full text

Tazuma S, Unno M, Igarashi Y, et al. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for cholelithiasis 2016. J Gastroenterol. 2017 Mar;52(3):276-300.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL). EASL clinical practice guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of gallstones. J Hepatol. 2016 Jul;65(1):146-81.Full text  Abstract

2. Stinton LM, Shaffer EA. Epidemiology of gallbladder disease: cholelithiasis and cancer. Gut Liver. 2012 Apr;6(2):172-87.Full text  Abstract

3. Völzke H, Baumeister SE, Alte D, et al. Independent risk factors for gallstone formation in a region with high cholelithiasis prevalence. Digestion. 2005;71(2):97-105. Abstract

4. Nakeeb A, Comuzzie AG, Martin L, et al. Gallstones: genetics versus environment. Ann Surg. 2002 Jun;235(6):842-9. Abstract

5. Katsika D, Grjibovski A, Einarsson C, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on symptomatic gallstone disease: a Swedish study of 43,141 twin pairs. Hepatology. 2005 May;41(5):1138-43. Abstract

6. Ferkingstad E, Oddsson A, Gretarsdottir S, et al. Genome-wide association meta-analysis yields 20 loci associated with gallstone disease. Nat Commun. 2018 Nov 30;9(1):5101.Full text  Abstract

7. Shaffer EA. Gallstone disease: epidemiology of gallbladder stone disease. Best Prac Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;20(6):981-96. Abstract

8. Sanders G, Kingsnorth AN. Gallstones. BMJ. 2007 Aug 11;335(7614):295-9.Full text  Abstract

9. Abraham S, Rivero HG, Erlikh IV, et al. Surgical and nonsurgical management of gallstones. Am Fam Physician. 2014 May 15;89(10):795-802. Abstract

10. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Gallstone disease: diagnosis and management. Oct 2014 [internet publication].Full text

11. Sun H, Tang H, Jiang S, et al. Gender and metabolic differences of gallstone diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Apr 21;15(15):1886-91.Full text  Abstract

12. Ansari-Moghaddam A, Khorram A, Miri-Bonjar M, et al. The prevalence and risk factors of gallstone among adults in south-east of Iran: a population-based study. Glob J Health Sci. 2015 Jul 30;8(4):60-7.Full text  Abstract

13. Attili AF, Carulli N, Roda E, et al. Epidemiology of gallstone disease in Italy: prevalence data of the Multicenter Italian Study on Cholelithiasis (M.I.COL.). Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jan 15;141(2):158-65. Abstract

14. Freidman GD, Raviola CA, Fireman B. Prognosis of gallstones with mild or no symptoms: 25 years of follow-up in a health maintenance organization. J Clin Epidemiol. 1989;42(2):127-36. Abstract

15. Gracie WA, Ransohoff DF. The natural history of silent gallstones: the innocent gallstone is not a myth. N Engl J Med. 1982 Sep 23;307(13):798-800. Abstract

16. McSherry CK, Ferstenberg H, Calhoun WF, et al. The natural history of diagnosed gallstone disease in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Ann Surg. 1985 Jul;202(1):59-63. Abstract

17. Glasgow RE, Cho M, Hutter MM, et al. The spectrum and cost of complicated gallstone disease in California. Arch Surg. 2000 Sep;135(9):1021-5; discussion 1025-7.Full text  Abstract

18. Friedman GD. Natural history of asymptomatic and symptomatic gallstones. Am J Surg. 1993 Apr;165(4):399-404. Abstract

19. Stampfer MJ, Maclure KM, Colditz GA, et al. Risk of symptomatic gallstones in women with severe obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 Mar;55(3):652-8. Abstract

20. Guglielmi FW, Boggio-Bertinet D, Federico A, et al. Total parenteral nutrition-related gastroenterological complications. Dig Liver Dis. 2006 Sep;38(9):623-42. Abstract

21. Erlinger S. Gallstones in obesity and weight loss. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 Dec;12(12):1347-52. Abstract

22. Stolk MF, van Erpecum KJ, Koppeschaar HP, et al. Postprandial gall bladder motility and hormone release during intermittent and continuous subcutaneous octreotide treatment in acromegaly. Gut. 1993 Jun;34(6):808-13.Full text  Abstract

23. Andrade RJ, Tulkens PM. Hepatic safety of antibiotics used in primary care. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011 Jul;66(7):1431-46.Full text  Abstract

24. Ali A, Perveen S, Khan I, et al. Symptomatic gallstones in young patients under the age of 30 years. Cureus. 2021 Nov;13(11):e19894.Full text  Abstract

25. Zhang JW, Xiong JP, Xu WY, et al. Fruits and vegetables consumption and the risk of gallstone disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jul;98(28):e16404.Full text  Abstract

26. Aune D, Leitzmann M, Vatten LJ. Physical activity and the risk of gallbladder disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Phys Act Health. 2016 Jul;13(7):788-95. Abstract

27. ASGE Standards of Practice Committee., Buxbaum JL, Abbas Fehmi SM, et al. ASGE guideline on the role of endoscopy in the evaluation and management of choledocholithiasis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2019 Jun;89(6):1075-105.e15. Abstract

28. Williams CI, Shaffer EA. Gallstone disease: current therapeutic practice. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2008 Apr;11(2):71-7. Abstract

29. Di Ciaula A, Portincasa P. Recent advances in understanding and managing cholesterol gallstones. F1000Res. 2018, 7(F1000 Faculty Rev):1529.Full text  Abstract

30. Venneman NG, Buskens E, Besselink MG, et al. Small gallstones are associated with increased risk of acute pancreatitis: potential benefits of prophylactic cholecystectomy? Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Nov;100(11):2540-50. Abstract

31. Venneman NG, Renooij W, Rehfeld JF, et al. Small gallstones, preserved gallbladder motility, and fast crystallization are associated with pancreatitis. Hepatology. 2005 Apr;41(4):738-46.Full text  Abstract

32. Sugiyama M, Atomi Y. Risk factors for acute biliary pancreatitis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004 Aug;60(2):210-2. Abstract

33. Tazuma S, Unno M, Igarashi Y, et al. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for cholelithiasis 2016. J Gastroenterol. 2017 Mar;52(3):276-300.Full text  Abstract

34. Nuño-Guzmán CM, Marín-Contreras ME, Figueroa-Sánchez M, et al. Gallstone ileus, clinical presentation, diagnostic and treatment approach. World J Gastrointest Surg. 2016 Jan 27;8(1):65-76.Full text  Abstract

35. Novacek G. Gender and gallstone disease. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2006 Oct;156(19-20):527-33. Abstract

36. Amaral JF, Thompson WR. Gallbladder disease in the morbidly obese. Am J Surg. 1985 Apr;149(4):551-7. Abstract

37. Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, et al. Central adiposity, regional fat distribution, and the risk of cholecystectomy in women. Gut. 2006 May;55(5):708-14. Abstract

38. Su PY, Hsu YC, Cheng YF, et al. Strong association between metabolically-abnormal obesity and gallstone disease in adults under 50 years. BMC Gastroenterol. 2019 Jul 4;19(1):117.Full text  Abstract

39. Noel RA, Braun DK, Patterson RE, et al. Increased risk of acute pancreatitis and biliary disease observed in patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study. Diabetes Care. 2009 May;32(5):834-8. Abstract

40. Aune D, Vatten LJ. Diabetes mellitus and the risk of gallbladder disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Diabetes Complications. 2016 Mar;30(2):368-73. Abstract

41. Ata N, Kucukazman M, Yavuz B, et al. The metabolic syndrome is associated with complicated gallstone disease. Can J Gastroenterol. 2011 May;25(5):274-6.Full text  Abstract

42. Krawczyk M, Wang DQ, Portincasa P, et al. Dissecting the genetic heterogeneity of gallbladder stone formation. Semin Liver Dis. 2011 May;31(2):157-72. Abstract

43. Joshi AD, Andersson C, Buch S, et al. Four susceptibility loci for gallstone disease identified in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Gastroenterology. 2016 Aug;151(2):351-63.Full text  Abstract

44. Ko CW, Beresford SA, Schulte SJ, et al. Incidence, natural history, and risk factors for biliary sludge and stones during pregnancy. Hepatology. 2005 Feb;41(2):359-65. Abstract

45. Wang S, Wang Y, Xu J, et al. Is the oral contraceptive or hormone replacement therapy a risk factor for cholelithiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Apr;96(14):e6556.Full text  Abstract

46. Estrogens and Oral Contraceptives. In: In: LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2020. Abstract

47. Jaruvongvanich V, Sanguankeo A, Upala S. Significant association between gallstone disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dig Dis Sci. 2016 Aug;61(8):2389-96. Abstract

48. Arrese M, Cortés V, Barrera F, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cholesterol gallstones, and cholecystectomy: new insights on a complex relationship. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar;34(2):90-6. Abstract

49. Di Ciaula A, Wang DQ, Portincasa P. An update on the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar;34(2):71-80.Full text  Abstract

50. Shiffman ML, Sugerman HJ, Kellum JM, et al. Gallstone formation after rapid weight loss: a prospective study in patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for treatment of morbid obesity. Am J Gastroenterol. 1991 Aug;86(8):1000-5. Abstract

51. Muller EL, Grace PA, Pitt HA. The effect of parenteral nutrition on biliary calcium and bilirubin. J Surg Res. 1986 Jan;40(1):55-62. Abstract

52. Redfern JS, Fortuner WJ 2nd. Octreotide-associated biliary tract dysfunction and gallstone formation: pathophysiology and management. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995 Jul;90(7):1042-52. Abstract

53. Faillie JL, Yu OH, Yin H, et al. Association of bile duct and gallbladder diseases with the use of incretin-based drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Oct 1;176(10):1474-81. Abstract

54. Nreu B, Dicembrini I, Tinti F, et al. Cholelithiasis in patients treated with Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor: An updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020 Mar;161:108087. Abstract

55. Becker CD, Fischer RA. Acute cholecystitis caused by ceftriaxone stones in an adult. Case Rep Med. 2009 Apr 26;2009:132452.Full text  Abstract

56. Parente F, Pastore L, Bargiggia S, et al. Incidence and risk factors for gallstones in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a large case-control study. Hepatology. 2007 May;45(5):1267-74. Abstract

57. Vítek L, Carey MC. Enterohepatic cycling of bilirubin as a cause of 'black' pigment gallstones in adult life. Eur J Clin Invest. 2003 Sep;33(9):799-810. Abstract

58. Hutchinson R, Tyrrell PN, Kumar D, et al. Pathogenesis of gall stones in Crohn's disease: an alternative explanation. Gut. 1994 Jan;35(1):94-7.Full text  Abstract

59. Allali S, de Montalembert M, Brousse V, et al. Hepatobiliary complications in children with sickle cell disease: a retrospective review of medical records from 616 patients. J Clin Med. 2019 Sep 18;8(9):1481.Full text  Abstract

60. Everhart JE, Yeh F, Lee ET, et al. Prevalence of gallbladder disease in American Indian populations: findings from the Strong Heart Study. Hepatology. 2002 Jun;35(6):1507-12. Abstract

61. Carey MC, Paigen B. Epidemiology of the American Indians' burden and its likely genetic origins. Hepatology. 2002 Oct;36(4 Pt 1):781-91. Abstract

62. Nervi F, Miquel JF, Marshall G. The Amerindian epidemics of cholesterol gallstones: the North and South connection. Hepatology. 2003 Apr;37(4):947-8. Abstract

63. Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, et al. Dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic load and the incidence of symptomatic gallstone disease in men. Gut. 2005 Jun;54(6):823-8. Abstract

64. Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, et al. Glycemic load, glycemic index, and carbohydrate intake in relation to risk of cholecystectomy in women. Gastroenterology. 2005 Jul;129(1):105-12. Abstract

65. Cen L, Pan J, Zhou B, et al. Helicobacter Pylori infection of the gallbladder and the risk of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Helicobacter. 2018 Feb;23(1):e12457. Abstract

66. Ari A, Tatar C, Yarikkaya E. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori-positivity in the gallbladder and stomach and effect on gallbladder pathologies. J Int Med Res. 2019 Oct;47(10):4904-10.Full text  Abstract

67. Leitzmann MF, Giovannucci EL, Rimm EB, et al. The relation of physical activity to risk for symptomatic gallstone disease in men. Ann Intern Med. 1998 Mar 15;128(6):417-25. Abstract

68. Banim PJ, Luben RN, Wareham NJ, et al. Physical activity reduces the risk of symptomatic gallstones: a prospective cohort study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Aug;22(8):983-8. Abstract

69. Zhang YP, Zhao YL, Sun YL, et al. Physical activity and the risk of gallstone disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2017 Oct;51(9):857-68. Abstract

70. Stokes CS, Gluud LL, Casper M, et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid and diets higher in fat prevent gallbladder stones during weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Jul;12(7):1090-100.e2Full text  Abstract

71. Haal S, Guman MSS, Boerlage TCC, et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid for the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease after bariatric surgery (UPGRADE): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled superiority trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021 Dec;6(12):993-1001. Abstract

72. Venneman NG, Besselink MG, Keulemans YC, et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid exerts no beneficial effect in patients with symptomatic gallstones awaiting cholecystectomy. Hepatology. 2006 Jun;43(6):1276-83. Abstract

73. Giljaca V, Gurusamy KS, Takwoingi Y, et al. Endoscopic ultrasound versus magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography for common bile duct stones. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Feb 26;(2):CD011549.Full text  Abstract

74. Barkun AN, Barkun JS, Fried GM, et al. Useful predictors of bile duct stones in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Ann Surg. 1994 Jul;220(1):32-9. Abstract

75. Onken JE, Brazer SR, Eisen GM, et al. Predicting the presence of choledocholithiasis in patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996 Apr;91(4):762-7. Abstract

76. Gurusamy KS, Davidson BR. Gallstones. BMJ. 2014 Apr 22;348:g2669. Abstract

77. Royal College of Physicians. National early warning score (NEWS) 2: standardising the assessment of acute-illness severity in the NHS. Dec 2017 [internet publication].Full text

78. NHS England. Sepsis guidance implementation advice for adults. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Full text

79. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. September 2017 [internet publication].Full text

80. Nutbeam T, Daniels R; The UK Sepsis Trust. Professional resources: clinical. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

81. Academy of Medical Royal Colleges. Statement on the initial antimicrobial treatment of sepsis V 2.0. Oct 2022 [internet publication].Full text

82. Singer AJ, McCracken G, Henry MC, et al.Correlation among clinical, laboratory, and hepatobiliary scanning findings in patients with suspected acute cholecystitis. Ann Emerg Med. 1996 Sep;28(3):267-72. Abstract

83. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Suspected cancer: recognition and referral. Jun 2015 [internet publication].Full text

84. Tenner S, Baillie J, DeWitt J, et al. American College of Gastroenterology guideline: management of acute pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Jul 30;108(9):1400-15.Full text  Abstract

85. American Society for Clinical Pathology. Choosing wisely: testing for amylase. Sep 2016 [internet publication].Full text

86. Rompianesi G, Hann A, Komolafe O, et al. Serum amylase and lipase and urinary trypsinogen and amylase for diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Apr 21;(4):CD012010.Full text  Abstract

87. Ross M, Brown M, McLaughlin K, et al. Emergency physician-performed ultrasound to diagnose cholelithiasis: a systematic review. Acad Emerg Med. 2011 Mar;18(3):227-35. Abstract

88. Pisano M, Allievi N, Gurusamy K, et al. 2020 World Society of Emergency Surgery updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute calculus cholecystitis. World J Emerg Surg. 2020 Nov 5;15(1):61.Full text  Abstract

89. Pereira J, Bass GA, Mariani D, et al. Surgeon-performed point-of-care ultrasound for acute cholecystitis: indications and limitations: a European Society for Trauma and Emergency Surgery (ESTES) consensus statement. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2020 Feb;46(1):173-83.Full text  Abstract

90. Pinto A, Reginelli A, Cagini L, et al. Accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of acute calculous cholecystitis: review of the literature. Crit Ultrasound J. 2013 Jul 15;5 Suppl 1:S11.Full text  Abstract

91. De Angelis C, Marietti M, Bruno M, et al. Endoscopic ultrasound in common bile duct dilatation with normal liver enzymes. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2015 Jul 10;7(8):799-805.Full text  Abstract

92. Gurusamy KS, Giljaca V, Takwoingi Y, et al. Ultrasound versus liver function tests for diagnosis of common bile duct stones. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Feb 26;(2):CD011548.Full text  Abstract

93. Chen W, Mo JJ, Lin L, et al. Diagnostic value of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in choledocholithiasis. World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Mar 21;21(11):3351-60.Full text  Abstract

94. Kondo S, Isayama H, Akahane M, et al. Detection of common bile duct stones: comparison between endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiography, and helical-computed-tomographic cholangiography. Eur J Radiol. 2005 May;54(2):271-5. Abstract

95. Meeralam Y, Al-Shammari K, Yaghoobi M. Diagnostic accuracy of EUS compared with MRCP in detecting choledocholithiasis: a meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy in head-to-head studies. Gastrointest Endosc. 2017 Jun 20;86(6):986-93. Abstract

96. Zhang J, Li NP, Huang BC, et al. The value of performing early non-enhanced CT in developing strategies for treating acute gallstone pancreatitis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2016 Mar;20(3):604-10. Abstract

97. Narula VK, Fung EC, Overby DW, et al. Clinical spotlight review for the management of choledocholithiasis. Surg Endosc. 2020 Apr;34(4):1482-91.Full text  Abstract

98. Karakan T, Cindoruk M, Alagozlu H, et al. EUS versus endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for patients with intermediate probability of bile duct stones: a prospective randomized trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2009 Feb;69(2):244-52. Abstract

99. Janssen J, Halboos A, Greiner L. EUS accurately predicts the need for therapeutic ERCP in patients with a low probability of biliary obstruction. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008 Sep;68(3):470-6. Abstract

100. Lee YT, Chan FK, Leung WK, et al. Comparison of EUS and ERCP in the investigation with suspected biliary obstruction caused by choledocholithiasis: a randomized study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008 Apr;67(4):660-8. Abstract

101. Liu CL, Fan ST, Lo CM, et al. Comparison of early endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the management of acute biliary pancreatitis: a prospective randomized study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Dec;3(12):1238-44. Abstract

102. Polkowski M, Regula J, Tilszer A, et al. Endoscopic ultrasound versus endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for patients with intermediate probability of bile duct stones: a randomized trial comparing two management strategies. Endoscopy. 2007 Apr;39(4):296-303. Abstract

103. Miquel JF, Covarrubias C, Villaroel L, et al. Genetic epidemiology of cholesterol cholelithiasis among Chilean Hispanics, Amerindians, and Maoris. Gastroenterology. 1998 Oct;115(4):937-46. Abstract

104. Cotton PB, Durkalski V, Romagnuolo J, et al. Effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy for suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction on pain-related disability following cholecystectomy: the EPISOD randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014 May;311(20):2101-9.Full text  Abstract

105. Vettoretto N, Arezzo A, Famiglietti F, et al. Laparoscopic-endoscopic rendezvous versus preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy in people undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for stones in the gallbladder and bile duct. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Apr 11;(4):CD010507.Full text  Abstract

106. Schacher FC, Giongo SM, Teixeira FJP, et al. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography versus surgery for choledocholithiasis: a meta-analysis. Ann Hepatol. 2019 Jul-Aug;18(4):595-600.Full text  Abstract

107. Philip Rothman J, Burcharth J, Pommergaard HC, et al. Preoperative risk factors for conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open surgery - a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Dig Surg. 2016;33(5):414-23.Full text  Abstract

108. Keus F, de Jong JA, Gooszen HG, et al. Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy for patients with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD006231.Full text  Abstract

109. Adamek HE, Rochlitz C, Von Bubnoff AC, et al. Predictions and associations of cholecystectomy in patients with cholecystolithiasis treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Dig Dis Sci. 2004 Nov-Dec;49(11-12):1938-42. Abstract

110. Leyva-Alvizo A, Arredondo-Saldaña G, Leal-Isla-Flores V, et al. Systematic review of management of gallbladder disease in patients undergoing minimally invasive bariatric surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2020 Jan;16(1):158-64. Abstract

111. da Costa DW, Schepers NJ, Römkens TE, et al. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and cholecystectomy in acute biliary pancreatitis. Surgeon. 2016 Apr;14(2):99-108. Abstract

112. Caddy GR, Tham TC. Gallstone disease: symptoms, diagnosis, and endoscopic management of common bile duct stones. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;20(6):1085-101. Abstract

113. Friis C, Rothman JP, Burcharth J, et al. Optimal timing for laparoscopic cholecystectomy after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a systematic review. Scand J Surg. 2018 Jun;107(2):99-106.Full text  Abstract

114. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. The SpyGlass direct visualisation system for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures during endoscopy of the biliary system. February 2015 [internet publication].Full text

115. Iranmanesh P, Frossard JL, Mugnier-Konrad B, et al. Initial cholecystectomy vs sequential common duct endoscopic assessment and subsequent cholecystectomy for suspected gallstone migration: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014 Jul;312(2):137-44.Full text  Abstract

116. Global Initiative for Asthma. Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. 2022 [internet publication]Full text

117. Davison SN. Clinical pharmacology considerations in pain management in patients with advanced kidney failure. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2019 Jun 7;14(6):917-31Full text  Abstract

118. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acute kidney injury: prevention, detection and management. December 2019 [internet publication]Full text

119. Centre for Perioperative Care. Guideline for perioperative care for people with diabetes mellitus undergoing elective and emergency surgery. Dec 2022 [internet publication].Full text

120. Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. The use of variable rate intravenous insulin infusion (VRIII) in medical inpatients. Oct 2014 [internet publication].Full text

121. Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. A good inpatient diabetes service. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text

122. Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain & Ireland. Peri-operative care of people with dementia. February 2019 [internet publication]Full text

123. Pendlebury ST, Klaus SP, Mather M, et al. Routine cognitive screening in older patients admitted to acute medicine: abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) and subjective memory complaint versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment and IQCODE. Age Ageing. 2015 Oct 13;44(6):1000-5Full text  Abstract

124. Hodkinson HM. Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Age Ageing. 1972 Nov;1(4):233-8 Abstract

125. Department of Health. Mental Capacity Act 2005 [internet publication]Full text

126. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Decision making and mental capacity. October 2018 [internet publication]Full text

127. Social Care Institute for Excellence. Independent mental capacity advocate (IMCA). 2010 [internet publication]Full text

128. Hogervorst VM, Buurman BM, De Jonghe A, et al. Emergency department management of older people living with frailty: a guide for emergency practitioners. Emerg Med J. 2021 Sep;38(9):724-9 Abstract

129. NHS England. Toolkit for general practice in supporting older people living with frailty. March 2017 [internet publication]Full text

130. Rockwood K; British Geriatrics Society. Silver book II: frailty. February 2021 [internet publication]Full text

131. Royal College of Physicians. Acute care toolkit 3. Acute care for older people living with frailty. December 2020 [internet publication]Full text

132. Wallis SJ, Wall J, Biram RW, et al. Association of the clinical frailty scale with hospital outcomes. QJM. 2015 Dec;108(12):943-9Full text  Abstract

133. Conroy SP, Bardsley M, Smith P, et al. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for frail older people in acute hospitals: the HoW-CGA mixed-methods study. Health Services and Delivery Research. 2019 April:7(15)Full text

134. Quinn TJ, Mooijaart SP, Gallacher K, et al. Acute care assessment of older adults living with frailty. BMJ. 2019 Jan 31;364:l13 Abstract

135. Fritz Z, Slowther AM, Perkins GD. Resuscitation policy should focus on the patient, not the decision. BMJ. 2017 Feb 28;356:j813Full text  Abstract

136. Office of the Public Guardian. Mental Capacity Act: making decisions. October 2014 [internet publiction]Full text

137. Winstein CJ, Stein J, Arena R, et al. Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2016 May 4;47(6):e98-e169Full text  Abstract

138. Taylor DM, Barnes TRE, Young AH. The Maudsley prescribing guidelines in psychiatry. 14th edition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2021

139. Roose SP, Rutherford BR. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and operative bleeding risk: a review of the literature. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2016 Dec;36(6):704-9 Abstract

140. Freeman R, Wieling W, Axelrod FB, et al. Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome. Clin Auton Res. 2011 Apr;21(2):69-72 Abstract

141. Verbrugge FH, Grieten L, Mullens W. Management of the cardiorenal syndrome in decompensated heart failure. Cardiorenal Med. 2014 Dec;4(3-4):176-88Full text  Abstract

142. Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. Self-management of diabetes in hospital. Feb 2023 [internet publication].Full text

143. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management. Aug 2022 [internet publication].Full text

144. Pasquel FJ, Lansang MC, Dhatariya K, et al. Management of diabetes and hyperglycaemia in the hospital. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2021 Mar;9(3):174-88Full text  Abstract

145. Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. The management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. Mar 2023 [internet publication].Full text

146. Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. The management of the hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) in adults. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

147. Rehman A, Setter SM, Vue MH. Drug-induced glucose alterations part 2: drug-Induced hyperglycemia. Diabetes Spect. 2011 Nov;24(4):234-8Full text

148. NHS Digital. National Diabetes Inpatient Audit (NaDIA) - 2019. Nov 2020 [internet publication]Full text

149. Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. The hospital management of hypoglycaemia in adults with diabetes mellitus. Jan 2023 [internet publication].Full text

150. Kerry C, Mitchell S, Sharma S, et al. Diurnal temporal patterns of hypoglycaemia in hospitalized people with diabetes may reveal potentially correctable factors. Diabet Med. 2013 Dec;30(12):1403-6 Abstract

151. Rajendran R, Kerry C, Rayman G, et al. Temporal patterns of hypoglycaemia and burden of sulfonylurea-related hypoglycaemia in UK hospitals: a retrospective multicentre audit of hospitalised patients with diabetes. BMJ Open. 2014 Jul 9;4(7):e005165Full text  Abstract

152. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management. October 2019 [internet publication]Full text

153. Rayman G, Vas PR, Baker N, et al. The Ipswich Touch Test: a simple and novel method to identify inpatients with diabetes at risk of foot ulceration. Diabetes Care. 2011 May 18;34(7):1517-8Full text  Abstract

154. British Thoracic Society; Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma: a national clinical guideline. July 2019 [internet publication].Full text

155. Global Initiative for Asthma. Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. 2022 [internet publication]Full text

156. Salpeter SR, Ormiston TM, Salpeter EE. Cardiovascular effects of beta-agonists in patients with asthma and COPD: a meta-analysis. Chest. 2004 Jun;125(6):2309-21Full text  Abstract

157. Au DH, Curtis JR, Every NR, et al. Association between inhaled beta-agonists and the risk of unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Chest. 2002 Mar;121(3):846-51Full text  Abstract

158. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2023 [internet publication]Full text

159. Walters JA, Tan DJ, White CJ, et al. Different durations of corticosteroid therapy for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 19;3:CD006897Full text  Abstract

160. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in over 16s: diagnosis and management. July 2019 [internet publication]Full text

161. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Delirium: prevention, diagnosis and management in hospital and long-term care. Jan 2023 [internet publication].Full text

162. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Dementia: assessment, management and support for people living with dementia and their carers. Jun 2018 [internet publication].Full text

163. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Risk reduction and management of delirium. Mar 2019 [internet publication].Full text

164. White S, Griffiths R, Baxter M, et al. Guidelines for the peri-operative care of people with dementia: guidelines from the Association of Anaesthetists. Anaesthesia. 2019 Jan 11;74(3):357-72Full text  Abstract

165. Bellelli G, Morandi A, Davis DH, et al. Validation of the 4AT, a new instrument for rapid delirium screening: a study in 234 hospitalised older people. Age Ageing. 2014 Mar 2;43(4):496-502Full text  Abstract

166. MacLullich AM, Shenkin SD, Goodacre S, et al. The 4 'A's test for detecting delirium in acute medical patients: a diagnostic accuracy study. Health Technol Assess. 2019 Aug;23(40):1-194Full text  Abstract

167. Nova Scotia Health Authority. This is not my Mom. 2012 [internet publication]Full text

168. Inouye SK, Schlesinger MJ, Lydon TJ. Delirium: a symptom of how hospital care is failing older persons and a window to improve quality of hospital care. Am J Med. 1999 May;106(5):565-73 Abstract

169. Siddiqi N, Harrison JK, Clegg A, et al. Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised non-ICU patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 11;3:CD005563Full text  Abstract

170. Martinez F, Tobar C, Hill N. Preventing delirium: should non-pharmacological, multicomponent interventions be used? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Age Ageing. 2014 Nov 25;44(2):196-204Full text  Abstract

171. Public Health England. Urinary tract infection: diagnostic tools for primary care. October 2020 [internet publication]Full text

172. DiMatteo MR, Lepper HS, Croghan TW. Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Jul 24;160(14):2101-7 Abstract

173. Clarke DM, Currie KC. Depression, anxiety and their relationship with chronic diseases: a review of the epidemiology, risk and treatment evidence. Med J Aust. 2009 Apr 6;190(7 suppl):S54-60 Abstract

174. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem: recognition and management. October 2009 [internet publication]Full text

175. Prina AM, Cosco TD, Dening T, et al. The association between depressive symptoms in the community, non-psychiatric hospital admission and hospital outcomes: a systematic review. J Psychosom Res. 2014 Nov 8;78(1):25-33Full text  Abstract

176. World Health Organization. Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders. 2016 [internet publication]Full text

177. Cleare A, Pariante CM, Young AH, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: a revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. J Psychopharmacol. 2015 May 12;29(5):459-525Full text  Abstract

178. Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 17;352(11):1112-20 Abstract

179. Buckley NA, Dawson AH, Isbister GK. Serotonin syndrome. BMJ. 2014 Feb 19;348:g1626 Abstract

180. Dalton SO, Sørensen HT, Johansen C. SSRIs and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: what is known and how should it influence prescribing? CNS Drugs. 2006;20(2):143-51 Abstract

181. Dalton SO, Johansen C, Mellemkjaer L, et al. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding: a population-based cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jan 13;163(1):59-64Full text  Abstract

182. Cheng YL, Hu HY, Lin XH, et al. Use of SSRI, but not SNRI, increased upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Nov;94(46):e2022Full text  Abstract

183. Loke YK, Trivedi AN, Singh S. Meta-analysis: gastrointestinal bleeding due to interaction between selective serotonin uptake inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Jan 1;27(1):31-40Full text  Abstract

184. Flowers L. Nicotine replacement therapy. Am J Psychiatry Resid. 2016 Jun;11(6)4-7Full text

185. Desai HD, Seabolt J, Jann MW. Smoking in patients receiving psychotropic medications: a pharmacokinetic perspective. CNS Drugs. 2001;15(6):469-94 Abstract

186. Oliveira P, Ribeiro J, Donato H, Madeira N. Smoking and antidepressants pharmacokinetics: a systematic review. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2017;16:17Full text  Abstract

187. National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training. Smoking cessation and mental health. 2014 [internet publication]Full text

188. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Tobacco: preventing uptake, promoting quitting and treating dependence. Jan 2023 [internet publication].Full text

189. Lindson N, Chepkin SC, Ye W, et al. Different doses, durations and modes of delivery of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Apr 18;4(4):CD013308.Full text  Abstract

190. Rigotti NA, Kruse GR, Livingstone-Banks J, et al. Treatment of tobacco smoking: a review. JAMA. 2022 Feb 8;327(6):566-77.Full text  Abstract

191. Thomas KH, Dalili MN, López-López JA, et al. Comparative clinical effectiveness and safety of tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies and electronic cigarettes: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Addiction. 2022 Apr;117(4):861-76.Full text  Abstract

192. Li M, Tao Y, Shen S, et al. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in patients with previous abdominal biliary tract operations. Surg Endosc. 2020 Apr;34(4):1551-60.Full text  Abstract

193. Costamagna G, Tringali A, Shah SK. Long-term follow-up of patients after endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis and risk factors for recurrence. Endoscopy. 2002 Apr;34(4):273-9. Abstract

194. Sugiyama M, Atomi Y. Risk factors predictive of late complications after endoscopic sphincterotomy for bile duct stones: long-term (more than 10 years) follow-up study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002 Nov;97(11):2763-7. Abstract

195. Sugiyama M, Suzuki Y, Abe N, et al. Endoscopic retreatment of recurrent choledocholithiasis after sphincterotomy. Gut. 2004 Dec;53(12):1856-9.Full text  Abstract

196. Alobaidi M, Gupta R, Jafri SZ, et al. Current trends in imaging evaluation of acute cholecystitis. Emerg Radiol. 2004 Mar 17;10(5):256-8. Abstract

197. Kalimi R, Gecelter GR, Caplin D, et al. Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis: sensitivity of sonography, cholescintigraphy, and combined sonography-cholescintigraphy. J Am Coll Surg. 2001 Dec;193(6):609-13. Abstract

198. Gurusamy KS, Davidson C, Gluud C, et al. Early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for people with acute cholecystitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 30;(6):CD005440.Full text  Abstract

199. Leung JW. Does the addition of endoscopic sphincterotomy to stent insertion improve drainage of the bile duct in acute suppurative cholangitis? Gastrointest Endosc. 2003 Oct;58(4):570-2. Abstract

200. Congly S, Shaffer EA. Acute cholangitis: risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. Adv Med Biol. 2012;45:147-62.

201. van Santvoort HC, Besselink MG, de Vries AC, et al. Early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in predicted severe acute biliary pancreatitis: a prospective multicenter study. Ann Surg. 2009 Jul;250(1):68-75. Abstract

202. Caldwell KM, Lee SJ, Leggett PL, et al. Bouveret syndrome: current management strategies. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2018;11:69-75.Full text  Abstract

203. Dumonceau JM, Devière J. Novel treatment options for Bouveret's syndrome: a comprehensive review of 61 cases of successful endoscopic treatment. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Nov;10(11):1245-55. Abstract

204. Dumonceau JM, Kapral C, Aabakken L, et al. ERCP-related adverse events: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline. Endoscopy. 2020 Feb;52(2):127-49.Full text  Abstract

205. Cheng CL, Sherman S, Watkins JL, et al. Risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis: a prospective multicenter study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Jan;101(1):139-47. Abstract

206. Elmunzer BJ, Scheiman JM, Lehman GA, et al. A randomized trial of rectal indomethacin to prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis. N Engl J Med. 2012 Apr 12;366(15):1414-22.Full text  Abstract

207. Barkun AN, Rezeig M, Mehta SN, et al. Postcholecystectomy biliary leaks in the laparoscopic era: risk factors, presentation, and management. McGill Gallstone Treatment Group. Gastrointest Endosc. 1997 Mar;45(3):277-82. Abstract

208. de'Angelis N, Catena F, Memeo R, et al. 2020 WSES guidelines for the detection and management of bile duct injury during cholecystectomy. World J Emerg Surg. 2021 Jun 10;16(1):30.Full text  Abstract

209. Eikermann M, Siegel R, Broeders I, et al; European Association for Endoscopic Surgery. Prevention and treatment of bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: the clinical practice guidelines of the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES). Surg Endosc. 2012 Nov;26(11):3003-39. Abstract

210. Lin WC, Lin HH, Hung CY, et al. Clinical endoscopic management and outcome of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0177449.Full text  Abstract

211. Leung JW, Chan FK, Sung JJ, et al. Endoscopic sphincterotomy-induced hemorrhage: a study of risk factors and the role of epinephrine injection. Gastrointest Endosc. 1995 Dec;42(6):550-4. Abstract

212. Nelson DB, Freeman ML. Major hemorrhage from endoscopic sphincterotomy: risk factor analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1994Dec;19(4):283-7. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer