Pulmonary embolism

References

Key articles

Konstantinides SV, Meyer G, Becattini C, et al. 2019 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism developed in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society (ERS). Eur Heart J. 2020 Jan 21;41(4):543-603.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Venous thromboembolic diseases: diagnosis, management and thrombophilia testing. March 2020 [internet publication].Full text

Howard LSGE, Barden S, Condliffe R, et al. British Thoracic Society guideline for the initial outpatient management of pulmonary embolism (PE). Thorax. 2018 Jul;73 (Suppl 2):ii1-29.Full text  Abstract

Stevens SM, Woller SC, Baumann Kreuziger L, et al. Executive summary: antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: second update of the CHEST guideline and expert panel report. Chest. 2021 Dec;160(6):2247-59.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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28. Beemath A, Skaf E, Stein PD. Pulmonary embolism as a cause of death in adults who died with heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Oct 15;98(8):1073-5. Abstract

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34. Chang SL, Huang YL, Lee MC, et al. Association of varicose veins with incident venous thromboembolism and peripheral artery disease. JAMA. 2018 Feb 27;319(8):807-17. Abstract

35. Watson HG, Baglin TP. Guidelines on travel-related venous thrombosis. Br J Haematol. 2011 Jan;152(1):31-4. Abstract

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45. Vinogradova Y, Coupland C, Hippisley-Cox J. Use of combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and CPRD databases. BMJ. 2015 May 26;350:h2135.Full text  Abstract

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53. Simone B, De Stefano V, Leoncini E, et al. Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with single and combined effects of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin 20210A and Methylenetethraydrofolate reductase C677T: a meta-analysis involving over 11,000 cases and 21,000 controls. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013 Aug;28(8):621-47.Full text  Abstract

54. Borowczyk M, Wojtaszewska M, Lewandowski K, et al. The JAK2 V617F mutational status and allele burden may be related with the risk of venous thromboembolic events in patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Thromb Res. 2015 Feb;135(2):272-80. Abstract

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58. Croles FN, Nasserinejad K, Duvekot JJ, et al. Pregnancy, thrombophilia, and the risk of a first venous thrombosis: systematic review and bayesian meta-analysis. BMJ. 2017 Oct 26;359:j4452.Full text  Abstract

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64. rtel TL. Thrombosis and the antiphospholipid syndrome. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2005:462-8.Full text  Abstract

65. Konstantinides SV, Meyer G, Becattini C, et al. 2019 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism developed in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society (ERS). Eur Heart J. 2020 Jan 21;41(4):543-603.Full text  Abstract

66. Kahn SR, Lim W, Dunn AS, et al. Prevention of VTE in nonsurgical patients. Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 Suppl):e195S-226S.Full text  Abstract

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68. Gould MK, Garcia DA, Wren SM, et al. Prevention of VTE in nonorthopedic surgical patients. Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 Suppl):e227S-77S.Full text  Abstract

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70. Bikdeli B, Chatterjee S, Desai NR, et al. Inferior vena cava filters to prevent pulmonary embolism: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Sep 26;70(13):1587-97. Abstract

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72. Kahn SR, Lim W, Dunn AS, et al. Prevention of VTE in nonsurgical patients. Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 Suppl):e195S-226S.Full text  Abstract

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74. White RH, Gettner S, Newman JM, et al. Predictors of rehospitalization for symptomatic venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty. N Engl J Med. 2000 Dec 14;343(24):1758-64.Full text  Abstract

75. Kakkos SK, Caprini JA, Geroulakos G, et al. Combined intermittent pneumatic leg compression and pharmacological prophylaxis for prevention of venous thromboembolism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Sep 7;(9):CD005258.Full text  Abstract

76. Felder S, Rasmussen MS, King R, et al. Prolonged thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin for abdominal or pelvic surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 27;3:CD004318.Full text  Abstract

77. Raja AS, Greenberg JO, Qaseem A, et al. Evaluation of patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism: best practice advice from the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Nov 3;163(9):701-11.Full text  Abstract

78. Meyer G, Roy PM, Gilberg S, et al. Pulmonary embolism. BMJ. 2010 Apr 13;340:c1421.Full text  Abstract

79. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Venous thromboembolic diseases: diagnosis, management and thrombophilia testing. March 2020 [internet publication].Full text

80. National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD). Know the score: a review of the quality of care provided to patients aged over 16 years with a new diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

81. Simcox LE, Ormesher L, Tower C, et al. Pulmonary thrombo-embolism in pregnancy: diagnosis and management. Breathe (Sheff). 2015 Dec;11(4):282-9.Full text  Abstract

82. Langlois E, Cusson-Dufour C, Moumneh T, et al. Could the YEARS algorithm be used to exclude pulmonary embolism during pregnancy? Data from the CT-PE-pregnancy study. J Thromb Haemost. 2019 May 20 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

83. van der Pol LM, Tromeur C, Bistervels IM, et al. Pregnancy-adapted YEARS algorithm for diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med. 2019 Mar 21;380(12):1139-49. Abstract

84. Stein PD, Henry JW. Clinical characteristics of patients with acute pulmonary embolism stratified according to their presenting syndromes. Chest. 1997 Oct;112(4):974-9. Abstract

85. Goodacre S, Sutton AJ, Sampson FC. Meta-analysis: The value of clinical assessment in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Jul 19;143(2):129-39.Full text  Abstract

86. Ortel TL. Thrombosis and the antiphospholipid syndrome. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2005:462-8.Full text  Abstract

87. Cronin-Fenton DP, Søndergaard F, Pedersen LA, et al. Hospitalisation for venous thromboembolism in cancer patients and the general population: a population-based cohort study in Denmark, 1997-2006. Br J Cancer. 2010 Sep 14;103(7):947-53.Full text  Abstract

88. Nemeth B, Lijfering WM, Nelissen RGHH, et al. Risk and risk factors associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism following surgery in patients with history of venous thromboembolism. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 May 3;2(5):e193690.Full text  Abstract

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90. Bitzer J, Amy JJ, Beerthuizen R, et al. Statement on combined hormonal contraceptives containing third- or fourth-generation progestogens or cyproterone acetate, and the associated risk of thromboembolism. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2013 Apr 12;39(3):156-9.Full text  Abstract

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92. Heit JA, Silverstein MD, Mohr DN, et al. Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a population-based case-control study. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Mar 27;160(6):809-15. Abstract

93. Chew HK, Wun T, Harvey D, et al. Incidence of venous thromboembolism and its effect on survival among patients with common cancers. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Feb 27;166(4):458-64.Full text  Abstract

94. Stein PD. Fever in acute pulmonary embolism. Chest. 2000 Jan;117(1):39-42. Abstract

95. S Menzies. Chest wall tenderness does not exclude pulmonary embolism. Thorax. 2005 Jun;60(6):461.Full text

96. Laporte S, Mismetti P, Décousus H, et al; RIETE Investigators. Clinical predictors for fatal pulmonary embolism in 15,520 patients with venous thromboembolism: findings from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbolica venosa (RIETE) Registry. Circulation. 2008 Apr 1;117(13):1711-6.Full text  Abstract

97. Matthews JC, McLaughlin V. Acute right ventricular failure in the setting of acute pulmonary embolism or chronic pulmonary hypertension: a detailed review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2008 Feb;4(1):49-59.Full text  Abstract

98. Arnold RW, Janitz E, Poulton TB, et al. Pulmonary CT angiography to evaluate for pulmonary embolism in children visiting adult-centered community hospitals. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Jun;196(6):W823-30.Full text  Abstract

99. Kline JA, Kabrhel C. Emergency evaluation for pulmonary embolism, part 2: diagnostic approach. J Emerg Med. 2015 Jul;49(1):104-17.Full text  Abstract

100. Kline JA, Mitchell AM, Kabrhel C, et al. Clinical criteria to prevent unnecessary diagnostic testing in emergency department patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. J Thromb Haemost. 2004 Aug;2(8):1247-55.Full text  Abstract

101. Singh B, Mommer SK, Erwin PJ, et al. Pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) in pulmonary embolism - revisited: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Emerg Med J. 2013 Sep;30(9):701-6.Full text  Abstract

102. Chunilal SD, Eikelboom JW, Attia J, et al. Does this patient have pulmonary embolism? JAMA. 2003 Dec 3;290(21):2849-58. Abstract

103. Ceriani E, Combescure C, Le Gal G, et al. Clinical prediction rules for pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thromb Haemost. 2010 Feb 2;8(5):957-70.Full text  Abstract

104. Hendriksen JM, Geersing GJ, Lucassen WA, et al. Diagnostic prediction models for suspected pulmonary embolism: systematic review and independent external validation in primary care. BMJ. 2015 Sep 8;351:h4438.Full text  Abstract

105. Carrier M, Righini M, Djurabi RK, et al. VIDAS D-dimer in combination with clinical pre-test probability to rule out pulmonary embolism: a systematic review of management outcome studies. Thromb Haemost. 2009 May;101(5):886-92. Abstract

106. Schouten HJ, Geersing GJ, Koek HL, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional or age adjusted D-dimer cut-off values in older patients with suspected venous thromboembolism: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013 May 3;346:f2492.Full text  Abstract

107. Wilts IT, Le Gal G, Den Exter PL, et al. Performance of the age-adjusted cut-off for D-dimer in patients with cancer and suspected pulmonary embolism. Thromb Res. 2017 Feb 13;152:49-51.Full text  Abstract

108. Rodger MA, Carrier M, Jones GN, et al. Diagnostic value of arterial blood gas measurement in suspected pulmonary embolism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Dec;162(6):2105-8.Full text  Abstract

109. Stein PD, Goldhaber SZ, Henry JW, et al. Arterial blood gas analysis in the assessment of suspected acute pulmonary embolism. Chest. 1996 Jan;109(1):78-81. Abstract

110. Howard LSGE, Barden S, Condliffe R, et al. British Thoracic Society guideline for the initial outpatient management of pulmonary embolism (PE). Thorax. 2018 Jul;73 (Suppl 2):ii1-29.Full text  Abstract

111. Becattini C, Vedovati MC, Agnelli G. Prognostic value of troponins in acute pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis. Circulation. 2007 Jul 2;116(4):427-33.Full text  Abstract

112. Kaeberich A, Seeber V, Jiménez D, et al. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism. Eur Respir J. 2015 May;45(5):1323-31.Full text  Abstract

113. Coutance G, Cauderlier E, Ehtisham J, et al. The prognostic value of markers of right ventricular dysfunction in pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis. Crit Care. 2011 Mar 28;15(2):R103.Full text  Abstract

114. Klok FA, Mos IC, Huisman MV. Brain-type natriuretic peptide levels in the prediction of adverse outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Jun 12;178(4):425-30.Full text  Abstract

115. Qaddoura A, Digby GC, Kabali C, et al. The value of electrocardiography in prognosticating clinical deterioration and mortality in acute pulmonary embolism: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Cardiol. 2017 Jun 19;40(10):814-24.Full text  Abstract

116. Bajaj N, Bozarth AL, Guillot J, et al. Clinical features in patients with pulmonary embolism at a community hospital: analysis of 4 years of data. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2014 Apr;37(3):287-92. Abstract

117. Mitchell DP, Rowan M, Loughman E, et al. Contrast monitoring techniques in CT pulmonary angiography: an important and underappreciated contributor to breast dose. Eur J Radiol. 2017 Jan;86:184-9. Abstract

118. Shahir K, McCrea JM, Lozano LA, et al. Reduced z-axis technique for CT pulmonary angiography in pregnancy: validation for practical use and dose reduction. Emerg Radiol. 2015 Dec;22(6):651-6. Abstract

119. Sheen JJ, Haramati LB, Natenzon A, et al. Performance of low-dose perfusion scintigraphy and CT pulmonary angiography for pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. Chest. 2018 Jan;153(1):152-60. Abstract

120. Perisinakis K, Seimenis I, Tzedakis A, et al. Perfusion scintigraphy versus 256-slice CT angiography in pregnant patients suspected of pulmonary embolism: comparison of radiation risks. J Nucl Med. 2014 Aug;55(8):1273-80.Full text  Abstract

121. Astani SA, Davis LC, Harkness BA, et al. Detection of pulmonary embolism during pregnancy: comparing radiation doses of CTPA and pulmonary scintigraphy. Nucl Med Commun. 2014 Jul;35(7):704-11. Abstract

122. Chunilal SD, Bates SM. Venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: diagnosis, management and prevention. Thromb Haemost. 2009 Mar;101(3):428-38. Abstract

123. Bajc M, Neilly JB, Miniati M, et al. EANM guidelines for ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy. Part 1. Pulmonary imaging with ventilation/perfusion single photon emission tomography. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009 Aug;36(8):1356-70. Abstract

124. Nijkeuter M, Geleijns J, De Roos A, et al. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: rationalizing fetal radiation exposure in radiological procedures. J Thromb Haemost. 2004 Oct;2(10):1857-8.Full text  Abstract

125. Mitchell AM, Jones AE, Tumlin JA, et al. Prospective study of the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy among patients evaluated for pulmonary embolism by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Acad Emerg Med. 2012 Jun;19(6):618-25.Full text  Abstract

126. Kline JA, Courtney DM, Beam DM, et al. Incidence and predictors of repeated computed tomographic pulmonary angiography in emergency department patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Oct 5;54(1):41-8. Abstract

127. European Society of Cardiology. Essential messages from the 2014 ESC guidelines on acute pulmonary embolism. 2014 [internet publication].Full text

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