Suicide risk mitigation


Key articles

Centre for Suicide Research, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford. Clinical guide: assessment of suicide risk in people with depression. 2013 [internet publication].Full text

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Self-harm in over 8s: short-term management and prevention of recurrence. July 2004 [internet publication].Full text

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Self-harm in over 8s: long-term management. November 2011 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

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24. Caputi TL, Smith D, Ayers JW. Suicide risk behaviors among sexual minority adolescents in the United States, 2015. JAMA. 2017 Dec 19;318(23):2349-51. Abstract

25. Miranda-Mendizábal A, Castellví P, Parés-Badell O, et al. Sexual orientation and suicidal behaviour in adolescents and young adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2017 Aug;211(2):77-87.Full text  Abstract

26. Connolly MD, Zervos MJ, Barone CJ 2nd, et al. The mental health of transgender youth: advances in understanding. J Adolesc Health. 2016 Nov;59(5):489-95. Abstract

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28. Cerel J, Brown MM, Maple M, et al. How many people are exposed to suicide? Not six. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2019 Apr;49(2):529-34. Abstract

29. Van Orden KA, Witte TK, Cukrowicz KC, et al. The interpersonal theory of suicide. Psychol Rev. 2010 Apr;117(2):575-600.Full text  Abstract

30. Klonsky ED, May AM. The three-step theory (3ST): a new theory of suicide rooted in the “ideation-to-action” framework. Int J Cogn Ther. 2015; 8(2):114-29.Full text

31. O'Connor RC, Kirtley OJ. The integrated motivational-volitional model of suicidal behaviour. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2018 Sep 5;373(1754).Full text  Abstract

32. Tidamalm D, Runeson B, Waern M, et al. Familial clustering of suicide risk: a total population study of 11.4 million individuals. Psychol Med. 2011 Dec;41(12):2527-34.Full text  Abstract

33. Royal College of Psychiatrists. Self-harm, suicide and risk: helping people who self-harm - final report of a working group. June 2010 [internet publication].Full text

34. American Psychiatric Association. Assessing and treating suicidal behaviors: a quick reference guide. 2003 [internet publication].Full text

35. Mann JJ. Neurobiology of suicidal behavior. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003 Oct;4(10):819-28. Abstract

36. Currier D, Mann JJ. Stress, genes and the biology of suicidal behavior. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2008 Jun;31(2):247-69.Full text  Abstract

37. van Heeringen K, Bijttebier S, Desmyter S, et al. Is there a neuroanatomical basis of the vulnerability to suicidal behavior? A coordinate-based meta-analysis of structural and functional MRI studies. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 Oct 22;8:824.Full text  Abstract

38. van Heeringen K, Mann JJ. The neurobiology of suicide. Lancet Psychiatry. 2014 Jun;1(1):63-72. Abstract

39. van Heeringen C, Bijttebier S, Godfrin K. Suicidal brains: a review of functional and structural brain studies in association with suicidal behaviour. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011 Jan;35(3):688-98. Abstract

40. Cox Lippard ET, Johnston JA, Blumberg HP. Neurobiological risk factors for suicide: insights from brain imaging. Am J Prev Med. 2014 Sep;47(3 suppl 2):S152-62.Full text  Abstract

41. Wagner G, Koch K, Schachtzabel C, et al. Enhanced rostral anterior cingulate cortex activation during cognitive control is related to orbitofrontal volume reduction in unipolar depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2008 May;33(3):199-208.Full text  Abstract

42. Nock MK, Millner AJ, Joiner TE, et al. Risk factors for the transition from suicide ideation to suicide attempt: results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). J Abnorm Psychol. 2018 Feb;127(2):139-49.Full text  Abstract

43. Powell J, Geddes J, Hawton K, et al. Suicide in psychiatric hospital in-patients: risk factors and their predictive power. Br J Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;176:266-72.Full text  Abstract

44. McHugh CM, Corderoy A, Ryan CJ, et al. Association between suicidal ideation and suicide: meta-analyses of odds ratios, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value. BJPsych Open. 2019 Mar;5(2):e18.Full text  Abstract

45. Cooper J, Kapur N, Webb R, et al. Suicide after deliberate self-harm: a 4-year cohort study. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;162(2):297-303.Full text  Abstract

46. Christiansen E, Jensen BF. Risk of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide or all deaths after an episode of attempted suicide: a register-based survival analysis. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2007 Mar;41(3):257-65. Abstract

47. Hawton K, Casañas I Comabella C, Haw C, et al. Risk factors for suicide in individuals with depression: a systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2013 May;147(1-3):17-28. Abstract

48. Zahl DL, Hawton K. Repetition of deliberate self-harm and subsequent suicide risk: long-term follow-up study of 11,583 patients. Br J Psychiatry. 2004 Jul;185:70-5.Full text  Abstract

49. Kapur N, Cooper J, King-Hele S, et al. The repetition of suicidal behavior: a multicenter cohort study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Oct;67(10):1599-609. Abstract

50. Bergen H, Hawton K, Waters K, et al. How do methods of non-fatal self-harm relate to eventual suicide? J Affect Disord. 2012 Feb;136(3):526-33.Full text  Abstract

51. Mann JJ, Apter A, Bertolote J, et al. Suicide prevention strategies: a systematic review. JAMA. 2005 Oct 26;294(16):2064-74. Abstract

52. Barraclough B, Bunch J, Nelson B, et al. A hundred cases of suicide: clinical aspects. Br J Psychiatry. 1974 Oct;125(0):355-73. Abstract

53. Harris EC, Barraclough B. Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders: a meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 1997 Mar;170:205-28. Abstract

54. McGirr A, Renaud J, Seguin M, et al. Course of major depressive disorder and suicide outcome: a psychological autopsy study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008 Jun;69(6):966-70. Abstract

55. Yoshimasu K, Kiyohara C, Miyashita K; The Stress Research Group of the Japanese Society for Hygiene. Suicidal risk factors and completed suicide: meta-analyses based on psychological autopsy studies. Environ Health Prev Med. 2008 Sep;13(5):243-56.Full text  Abstract

56. Borges G, Bagge CL, Cherpitel CJ, et al. A meta-analysis of acute use of alcohol and the risk of suicide attempt. Psychol Med. 2017 Apr;47(5):949-57.Full text  Abstract

57. Dahlberg LL, Ikeda RM, Kresnow MJ. Guns in the home and risk of a violent death in the home: findings from a national study. Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Nov 15;160(10):929-36.Full text  Abstract

58. Elnour AA, Harrison J. Lethality of suicide methods. Inj Prev. 2008 Feb;14(1):39-45.Full text  Abstract

59. Dube SR, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, et al. Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: findings from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. JAMA. 2001 Dec 26;286(24):3089-96.Full text  Abstract

60. Norman RE, Byambaa M, De R, Butchart A, et al. The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2012;9(11):e1001349.Full text  Abstract

61. Liu J, Fang Y, Gong J, et al. Associations between suicidal behavior and childhood abuse and neglect: A meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2017 Oct 1;220:147-155.Full text  Abstract

62. Geulayov G, Gunnell D, Holmen TL, et al. The association of parental fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour with offspring suicidal behaviour and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2012 Aug;42(8):1567-80. Abstract

63. Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB. Suicide risk in relation to family history of completed suicide and psychiatric disorders: a nested case-control study based on longitudinal registers. Lancet. 2002 Oct 12;360(9340):1126-30. Abstract

64. Ballard ED, Cui L, Vandeleur C, et al. Familial aggregation and coaggregation of suicide attempts and comorbid mental disorders in adults. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 Mar 27;76(8):826-33.Full text  Abstract

65. Mérelle S, Foppen E, Gilissen R, et al. Characteristics associated with non-disclosure of suicidal ideation in adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 May 9;15(5):E943.Full text  Abstract

66. Konrad N, Daigle MS, Daniel AE, et al. International Association for Suicide Prevention Task Force on Suicide in Prisons. Preventing suicide in prisons, part I. Recommendations from the International Association for Suicide Prevention Task Force on Suicide in Prisons. Crisis. 2007;28(3):113-21. Abstract

67. Anguiano L, Mayer DK, Piven ML, et al. A literature review of suicide in cancer patients. Cancer Nurs. 2012 Jul-Aug;35(4):E14-26. Abstract

68. Harris EC, Barraclough BM. Suicide as an outcome for medical disorders. Medicine (Baltimore). 1994 Nov;73(6):281-96. Abstract

69. Giannini MJ, Bergmark B, Kreshover S, et al. Understanding suicide and disability through three major disabling conditions: intellectual disability, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis. Disabil Health J. 2010 Apr;3(2):74-8. Abstract

70. Henson KE, Brock R, Charnock J, et al. Risk of suicide after cancer diagnosis in England. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 Jan 1;76(1):51-60.Full text  Abstract

71. Sandhu JK, Wu KK, Bui TL, et al. Association between atopic dermatitis and suicidality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol. 2019 Feb 1;155(2):178-87.Full text  Abstract

72. Druss B, Pincus H. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in general medical illnesses. Arch Intern Med. 2000 May 22;160(10):1522-6.Full text  Abstract

73. Webb RT, Kontopantelis E, Doran T, et al. Suicide risk in primary care patients with major physical diseases: a case-control study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Mar;69(3):256-64.Full text  Abstract

74. Guo Z, Gan S, Li Y, et al. Incidence and risk factors of suicide after a prostate cancer diagnosis: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2018 Nov;21(4):499-508. Abstract

75. Pigeon WR, Pinquart M, Conner K. Meta-analysis of sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012 Sep;73(9):e1160-7. Abstract

76. Kposowa AJ. Marital status and suicide in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000 Apr;54(4):254-61.Full text  Abstract

77. Masocco M, Pompili M, Vichi M, et al. Suicide and marital status in Italy. Psychiatr Q. 2008 Dec;79(4):275-85. Abstract

78. Milner A, Spittal MJ, Pirkis J, et al. Suicide by occupation: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2013 Dec;203(6):409-16. Abstract

79. Gallagher LM, Kliem C, Beautrais AL, et al. Suicide and occupation in New Zealand, 2001-2005. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2008 Jan-Mar;14(1):45-50. Abstract

80. Meltzer H, Griffiths C, Brock A, et al. Patterns of suicide by occupation in England and Wales: 2001-2005. Br J Psychiatry. 2008 Jul;193(1):73-6. Abstract

81. Agerbo E, Gunnell D, Bonde JP, et al. Suicide and occupation: the impact of socio-economic, demographic and psychiatric differences. Psychol Med. 2007 Aug;37(8):1131-40. Abstract

82. Chang Q, Chan CH, Yip PSF. A meta-analytic review on social relationships and suicidal ideation among older adults. Soc Sci Med. 2017 Oct;191:65-76. Abstract

83. Langille DB, Curtis L, Hughes J, et al. Association of socio-economic factors with health risk behaviours among high school students in rural Nova Scotia. Can J Public Health. 2003 Nov-Dec;94(6):442-7. Abstract

84. Gould MS, Greenberg T, Velting DM, et al. Youth suicide risk and preventive interventions: a review of the past 10 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;42(4):386-405. Abstract

85. Zatti C, Rosa V, Barros A, et al. Childhood trauma and suicide attempt: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies from the last decade. Psychiatry Res. 2017 Oct;256:353-8. Abstract

86. Iemmi V, Bantjes J, Coast E, et al. Suicide and poverty in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016 Aug;3(8):774-83. Abstract

87. University of Manchester. National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness (NCISH) report: suicide by children and young people. July 2017 [internet publication].Full text

88. Pitman AL, Osborn DP, Rantell K, et al. Bereavement by suicide as a risk factor for suicide attempt: a cross-sectional national UK-wide study of 3432 young bereaved adults. BMJ Open. 2016 Jan 26;6(1):e009948.Full text  Abstract

89. Luoma JB, Martin CE, Pearson JL. Contact with mental health and primary care providers before suicide: a review of the evidence. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Jun;159(6):909-16.Full text  Abstract

90. Simon GE, Savarino J. Suicide attempts among patients starting depression treatment with medications or psychotherapy. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Jul;164(7):1029-34.Full text  Abstract

91. Olfson M, Shaffer D, Marcus SC, et al. Relationship between antidepressant medication treatment and suicide in adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Oct;60(10):978-82.Full text  Abstract

92. Gibbons RD, Hur K, Bhaumik DK, et al. The relationship between antidepressant medication use and rate of suicide. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;62(2):165-72.Full text  Abstract

93. Henriksson S, Isacsson G. Increased antidepressant use and fewer suicides in Jamtland county, Sweden, after a primary care educational programme on the treatment of depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2006 Sep;114(3):159-67. Abstract

94. Ritter K, Stompe T, Voracek M, et al. Suicide risk-related knowledge and attitudes of general practitioners. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 Aug 30;114(15-16):685-90. Abstract

95. Michail M, Tait L, Churchill D. General practitioners' clinical expertise in managing suicidal young people: implications for continued education. Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2017 Sep;18(5):419-28. Abstract

96. Beautrais A, Fergusson D, Coggan C, et al. Effective strategies for suicide prevention in New Zealand: a review of the evidence. N Z Med J. 2007 Mar 23;120(1251):U2459. Abstract

97. Crawford MJ, Thana L, Methuen C, et al. Impact of screening for risk of suicide: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2011 May;198(5):379-84.Full text  Abstract

98. van der Feltz-Cornelis CM, Sarchiapone M, Postuvan V, et al. Best practice elements of multilevel suicide prevention strategies: a review of systematic reviews. Crisis. 2011;32(6):319-33.Full text  Abstract

99. Szanto K, Kalmar S, Hendin H, et al. A suicide prevention program in a region with a very high suicide rate. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Aug;64(8):914-20.Full text  Abstract

100. Zalsman G, Hawton K, Wasserman D, et al. Suicide prevention strategies revisited: 10-year systematic review. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016 Jul;3(7):646-59. Abstract

101. Milner A, Witt K, Pirkis J, et al. The effectiveness of suicide prevention delivered by GPs: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2017 Mar 1;210:294-302. Abstract

102. Knox KL, Litts DA, Talcott GW, et al. Risk of suicide and related adverse outcomes after exposure to a suicide prevention programme in the US Air Force: cohort study. BMJ. 2003 Dec 13;327(7428):1376.Full text  Abstract

103. Isaac M, Elias B, Katz LY, et al. Swampy Cree Suicide Prevention Team. Gatekeeper training as a preventative intervention for suicide: a systematic review. Can J Psychiatry. 2009 Apr;54(4):260-8. Abstract

104. Bagley SC, Munjas B, Shekelle P, et al. A systematic review of suicide prevention programs for military or veterans. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2010 Jun;40(3):257-65. Abstract

105. Walrath C, Garraza LG, Reid H, et al. Impact of the Garrett Lee Smith youth suicide prevention program on suicide mortality. Am J Public Health. 2015 May;105(5):986-93.Full text  Abstract

106. Crowley P, Kilroe J, Burke S. Youth suicide prevention: evidence briefing. Dublin, Republic of Ireland: Institute of Public Health in Ireland; 2004.

107. Beautrais AL. Risk factors for suicide and attempted suicide among young people. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2000 Jun;34(3):420-36. Abstract

108. Robinson J, Bailey E, Witt K, et al. What works in youth suicide prevention? A systematic review and meta-analysis. EClinicalMedicine. 2018 Oct-Nov;4-5:52-91.Full text  Abstract

109. Baux-Cazal L, Gokalsing E, Amadeo S, et al. Suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13: a systematic review [in French]. Encephale. 2017 May;43(3):273-80. Abstract

110. Kutcher S, Wei Y, Behzadi P. School- and community-based youth suicide prevention interventions: hot idea, hot air, or sham? Can J Psychiatry. 2017 Jun;62(6):381-7.Full text  Abstract

111. Wei Y, Kutcher S, LeBlanc JC. Hot idea or hot air: a systematic review of evidence for two widely marketed youth suicide prevention programs and recommendations for implementation. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015 Winter;24(1):5-16.Full text  Abstract

112. Cusimano MD, Sameem M, Cusimano MD, et al. The effectiveness of middle and high school-based suicide prevention programmes for adolescents: a systematic review. Inj Prev. 2011 Feb;17(1):43-9. Abstract

113. Wasserman D, Hoven CW, Wasserman C, et al. School-based suicide prevention programmes: the SEYLE cluster-randomised, controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Apr 18;385(9977):1536-44. Abstract

114. Rodgers PL, Sudak HS, Silverman MM, et al. Evidence-based practices project for suicide prevention. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2007 Apr;37(2):154-64. Abstract

115. Etzersdorfer E, Sonneck G. Preventing suicide by influencing mass-media reporting: the Viennese experience 1980-1996. Arch Suicide Res. 1998;4:67-74.

116. Sisask M, Varnik A, Sisask M, et al. Media roles in suicide prevention: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 Jan;9(1):123-38.Full text  Abstract

117. Gould MS, Kalafat J, Harrismunfakh JL, et al. An evaluation of crisis hotline outcomes. Part 2: suicidal callers. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2007 Jun;37(3):338-52. Abstract

118. Klimes-Dougan B, Yuan C, Lee S, et al. Suicide prevention with adolescents: considering potential benefits and untoward effects of public service announcements. Crisis. 2009;30(3):128-35. Abstract

119. Guo B, Harstall C. Efficacy of suicide prevention programs for children and youth. Health technology assessment HTA26: Series A. Edmonton, Canada: Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research; 2002.Full text

120. Gunnell D, Knipe D, Chang SS, et al. Prevention of suicide with regulations aimed at restricting access to highly hazardous pesticides: a systematic review of the international evidence. Lancet Glob Health. 2017 Oct;5(10):e1026-37.Full text  Abstract

121. Welton RS. The management of suicidality: assessment and intervention. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2007 May;4(5):24-34.Full text  Abstract

122. Rudd MD. Suicide warning signs in clinical practice. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2008 Feb;10(1):87-90. Abstract

123. Cole-King A, Platt S. Suicide prevention for physicians: identification, intervention and mitigation of risk. Medicine. 2017;45(3):131-4.

124. Centre for Suicide Research, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford. Clinical guide: assessment of suicide risk in people with depression. 2013 [internet publication].Full text

125. Rogers ML, Ringer FB, Joiner TE. A meta-analytic review of the association between agitation and suicide attempts. Clin Psychol Rev. 2016 Aug;48:1-6. Abstract

126. Royal College of Psychiatrists. Assessment and management of risk to others. August 2016 [internet publication].Full text

127. Royal College of Psychiatrists. Psychiatry attachments [internet publication].Full text

128. Royal College of Psychiatrists. Safety for psychiatrists. January 2006 [internet publication].Full text

129. Betz ME, Boudreaux ED. Managing suicidal patients in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2016 Feb;67(2):276-82.Full text  Abstract

130. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Self-harm in over 8s: short-term management and prevention of recurrence. July 2004 [internet publication].Full text

131. Royal College of Emergency Medicine. Mental health in emergency departments: a toolkit for improving care. October 2019 [internet publication].Full text

132. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Self-harm: the short-term physical and psychological management and secondary prevention of self-harm in primary and secondary care – summary of management and treatment (clinical practice algorithms). July 2004 [internet publication].Full text

133. The National Archives. Mental Capacity Act 2005 [internet publication].Full text

134. Hirschfeld RM, Russell JM. Assessment and treatment of suicidal patients. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 25;337(13):910-5. Abstract

135. Mental Health, Equality and Disability Division. Information sharing and suicide prevention: consensus statement. January 2014 [internet publication].Full text

136. Ilgen MA, Walton MA, Cunningham RM, et al. Recent suicidal ideation among patients in an inner city emergency department. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2009 Oct;39(5):508-17.Full text  Abstract

137. Claassen CA, Larkin GL. Occult suicidality in an emergency department population. Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Apr;186:352-3.Full text  Abstract

138. Harriss L, Hawton K. Suicidal intent in deliberate self-harm and the risk of suicide: the predictive power of the Suicide Intent Scale. J Affect Disord. 2005 Jun;86(2-3):225-33. Abstract

139. Fegg M, Kraus S, Graw M, et al. Physical compared to mental diseases as reasons for committing suicide: a retrospective study. BMC Palliat Care. 2016 Feb 9;15:14.Full text  Abstract

140. Poorolajal J, Haghtalab T, Farhadi M, et al. Substance use disorder and risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and suicide death: a meta-analysis. J Public Health (Oxf). 2016 Sep;38(3):e282-91.Full text  Abstract

141. Brady J. The association between alcohol misuse and suicidal behaviour. Alcohol Alcohol. 2006 Sep-Oct;41(5):473-8.Full text  Abstract

142. Chan MK, Bhatti H, Meader N, et al. Predicting suicide following self-harm: systematic review of risk factors and risk scales. Br J Psychiatry. 2016 Oct;209(4):277-83. Abstract

143. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Self-harm in over 8s: long-term management. November 2011 [internet publication].Full text

144. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Suicide prevention. September 2019 [internet publication].Full text

145. University of Manchester. National Confidential Inquiry Into Suicide And Homicide By People With Mental Illness: annual report – England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. October 2017 [internet publication].Full text

146. Woodford R, Spittal MJ, Milner A, et al. Accuracy of clinician predictions of future self-harm: a systematic review and meta-analysis of predictive studies. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2019 Feb;49(1):23-40. Abstract

147. Pisani AR, Murrie DC, Silverman MM. Reformulating suicide risk formulation: from prediction to prevention. Acad Psychiatry. 2016 Aug;40(4):623-9.Full text  Abstract

148. Fowler JC. Suicide risk assessment in clinical practice: pragmatic guidelines for imperfect assessments. Psychotherapy (Chic). 2012 Mar;49(1):81-90. Abstract

149. Mullinax S, Chalmers CE, Brennan J, et al. Suicide screening scales may not adequately predict disposition of suicidal patients from the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med. 2018 Oct;36(10):1779-83. Abstract

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