Diverticular disease

References

Key articles

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diverticular disease: diagnosis and management. November 2019 [internet publication].Full text

Sartelli M, Weber DG, Kluger Y, et al. 2020 update of the WSES guidelines for the management of acute colonic diverticulitis in the emergency setting. World J Emerg Surg. 2020 May 7;15(1):32.Full text  Abstract

Peery AF. Management of colonic diverticulitis. BMJ. 2021 Mar 24;372:n72.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Tursi A. Diverticular disease: a therapeutic overview. World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Feb 6;1(1):27-35.Full text  Abstract

2. Andersen JC, Bundgaard L, Elbrønd H, et al. Danish national guidelines for treatment of diverticular disease. Dan Med J. 2012 May;59(5):C4453.Full text  Abstract

3. Hinchey EJ, Schaal PG, Richards GK. Treatment of perforated diverticular disease of the colon. Adv Surg. 1978;12:85-109. Abstract

4. Matrana MR, Margolin DA. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of diverticular disease. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2009 Aug;22(3):141-6.Full text  Abstract

5. Delvaux M. Diverticular disease of colon in Europe: epidemiology, impact on citizen health and prevention. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Nov;18(suppl 3):71-4. Abstract

6. Painter NS, Burkitt DP. Diverticular disease of the colon: a deficiency disease of Western civilization. Br Med J. 1971 May 22;2(5759):450-4. Abstract

7. Painter NS. The cause of diverticular disease of colon, its symptoms and complications, review and hypothesis. J R Col Surg Edinb. 1985 Apr;30(2):118-22. Abstract

8. Ogunbiyi OA. Diverticular disease of the colon in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 1989 Dec;18(4):241-4. Abstract

9. Kiguli-Malwadde E, Kasozi H. Diverticular disease of the colon in Kampala, Uganda. Afr Health Sci. 2002 Apr;2(1):29-32.Full text  Abstract

10. Madiba TE, Mokoena T. Pattern of diverticular disease among Africans. East Afr Med J. 1994 Oct;71(10):644-6. Abstract

11. Nair P, Mayberry JF. Vegetarianism, dietary fiber and gastrointestinal disease. Dig Dis. 1994 May-Jun;12(3):177-85. Abstract

12. Gear JS, Ware A, Fursdon P, et al. Symptomless diverticular disease and intake of dietary fibre. Lancet. 1979 Mar 10;1(8115):511-4. Abstract

13. Crowe FL, Appleby PN, Allen NE, et al. Diet and risk of diverticular disease in Oxford cohort of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): prospective study of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians. BMJ. 2011 Jul 19;343:d4131.Full text  Abstract

14. Lin OS, Soon MS, Wu SS, et al. Dietary habits and right-sided colonic diverticulosis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2000 Oct;43(10):1412-8. Abstract

15. Parks TG. Natural history of diverticular disease of the colon. Clin Gastroentrol. 1975 Jan;4(1):53-69. Abstract

16. Konvolinka CW. Acute diverticulitis under the age of forty. Am J Surg. 1994 Jun;167(6):562-5. Abstract

17. Tursi A. Current and evolving concepts on the pathogenesis of diverticular disease. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2019 Jun 1;28:225-35.Full text  Abstract

18. Schafmayer C, Harrison JW, Buch S, et al. Genome-wide association analysis of diverticular disease points towards neuromuscular, connective tissue and epithelial pathomechanisms. Gut. 2019 May;68(5):854-65. Abstract

19. Wijarnpreecha K, Ahuja W, Chesdachai S, et al. Obesity and the risk of colonic diverticulosis: a meta-analysis. 2018 Apr;61(4):476-83. Abstract

20. Aune D, Sen A, Leitzmann MF, et al. Body mass index and physical activity and the risk of diverticular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Nutr. 2017 Dec;56(8):2423-38.Full text  Abstract

21. Aune D, Sen A, Leitzmann MF, et al. Tobacco smoking and the risk of diverticular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Colorectal Dis. 2017 Jul;19(7):621-33. Abstract

22. Wijarnpreecha K, Boonpheng B, Thongprayoon C, et al. Smoking and risk of colonic diverticulosis: a meta-analysis. J Postgrad Med. 2018 Jan-Mar;64(1):35-9.Full text  Abstract

23. Bode MK, Karttunen TJ, Makela J, et al. Type I and III collagens in human colon cancer and diverticulosis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2000 Jul;35(7):747-52. Abstract

24. Bassotti G, Battaglia E, Spinozzi E, et al. Twenty-four hour recordings of colonic motility in patients with diverticular disease: evidence for abnormal motility and propulasive activity. Dis Colon Rectum. 2001 Dec;44(12):1814-20. Abstract

25. Leganger J, Søborg MK, Mortensen LQ, et al. Association between diverticular disease and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a 13-year nationwide population-based cohort study. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2016 Dec;31(12):1863-7. Abstract

26. Hauer-Jensen M, Bursac Z, Read RC. Is herniosis the single etiology of Saint's triad? Hernia. 2009 Feb;13(1):29-34. Abstract

27. Schieffer KM, Kline BP, Yochum GS, et al. Pathophysiology of diverticular disease. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jul;12(7):683-92. Abstract

28. Muller-Lissner SA. Effect of wheat bran on weight of stool and gastrointestinal transit time: a meta analysis. Br Med J. 1988 Feb 27;296(6622):615-7. Abstract

29. Simpson J, Scholefield JH, Spiller RC. Pathogenesis of colonic diverticula. Br J Surg 2002 May;89(5):546-54. Abstract

30. Tjiang E, Raja M, Hoyle C, et al. The role of nitric oxide in colonic compliance in diverticular disease. Gut. 1998;42 (suppl 1):A95.

31. Wess L, Eastwood MA, Wess TJ, et al. Cross linking of collagen is increased in colonic diverticulosis. Gut. 1995 Jul;37(1):91-4. Abstract

32. Painter NS, Burkitt DP. Diverticular disease of the colon, a 20th century problem. Clin Gastroenterol. 1975 Jan;4(1):3-21. Abstract

33. Young-Fadok TM, Roberts PL, Spencer MP, et al. Colonic diverticular disease. Curr Prob Surg. 2000 Jul;37(7):457-514. Abstract

34. Ma W, Nguyen LH, Song M, et al. Intake of dietary fiber, fruits, and vegetables and risk of diverticulitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019 Sep;114(9):1531-8.Full text  Abstract

35. Dobbins C, Defontgalland D, Duthie G, et al. The relationship of obesity to the complications of diverticular disease. Colorectal Dis. 2006 Jan;8(1):37-40. Abstract

36. Strate LL, Liu YL, Aldoori WH, et al. Obesity increases the risks of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Gastroenterology. 2009 Jan;136(1):115-22.Full text  Abstract

37. Goh H, Bourne R. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and perforated diverticular disease: a case-control study. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2002 Mar;84(2):93-6.Full text  Abstract

38. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diverticular disease: diagnosis and management. November 2019 [internet publication].Full text

39. Sugihara Y, Kudo SE, Miyachi H, et al. Analysis of risk factors for colonic diverticular bleeding: a matched case-control study. Gut Liver. 2016 Mar;10(2):244-9.Full text  Abstract

40. Yuhara H, Corley DA, Nakahara F, et al. Aspirin and non-aspirin NSAIDs increase risk of colonic diverticular bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jun;49(6):992-1000. Abstract

41. Marlett JA, McBurney MI, Slavin JL; American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Jul;102(7):993-1000. Abstract

42. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. September 2017 [internet publication].Full text

43. Nutbeam T, Daniels R; The UK Sepsis Trust. Professional resources: clinical [internet publication].Full text

44. NHS England. Sepsis guidance implementation advice for adults. September 2017 [internet publication].Full text

45. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: left lower quadrant pain - suspected diverticulitis. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

46. Sartelli M, Weber DG, Kluger Y, et al. 2020 update of the WSES guidelines for the management of acute colonic diverticulitis in the emergency setting. World J Emerg Surg. 2020 May 7;15(1):32.Full text  Abstract

47. Royal College of Physicians. National early warning score (NEWS) 2: standardising the assessment of acute-illness severity in the NHS. December 2017 [internet publication].Full text

48. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Suspected cancer: recognition and referral. Dec 2021 [internet publication].Full text

49. Shin JH, Son BH, Kim H. Clinically distinguishing between appendicitis and right-sided colonic diverticulitis at initial presentation. Yonsei Med J. 2007 Jun 30;48(3):511-6.Full text  Abstract

50. Peery AF. Management of colonic diverticulitis. BMJ. 2021 Mar 24;372:n72.Full text  Abstract

51. Jensen DM, Machicado GA, Jutabha R, et al. Urgent colonoscopy for the diagnosis and treatment of severe diverticular hemorrhage. N Eng J Med. 2000 Jan 13;342(2):78-82. Abstract

52. Strate LL, Gralnek IM. ACG clinical guideline: management of patients with acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Apr;111(4):459-74.Full text  Abstract

53. Oakland K, Chadwick G, East JE, et al. Diagnosis and management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding: guidelines from the British Society of Gastroenterology. Gut. 2019 May;68(5):776-89Full text  Abstract

54. Salzman H, Lillie D. Diverticular disease: diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Oct 1;72(7):1229-34. Abstract

55. Loftus EV Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences. Gastroenterology. 2004 May;126(6):1504-17. Abstract

56. Kirsner JB. Historical origins of current IBD concepts. World J Gastroenterol. 2001 Apr;7(2):175-84. Abstract

57. Shepherd NA. Diverticular disease and chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease: associations and masquerades. Gut 1996 Jun;38(6):801-2. Abstract

58. Schmulson MJ, Drossman DA. What is new in Rome IV. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2017 Apr 30;23(2):151-63.Full text  Abstract

59. Biondo S, Golda T, Kreisler E, et al. Outpatient versus hospitalization management for uncomplicated diverticulitis: a prospective, multicenter randomized clinical trial (DIVER trial). Ann Surg. 2014 Jan;259(1):38-44. Abstract

60. Sánchez-Velázquez P, Grande L, Pera M. Outpatient treatment of uncomplicated diverticulitis: a systematic review. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Jun;28(6):622-7. Abstract

61. Byrnes MC, Mazuski JE. Antimicrobial therapy for acute colonic diverticulitis. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2009Apr;10(2):143-54. Abstract

62. Eberhardt F, Crichton M, Dahl C, et al. Role of dietary fibre in older adults with asymptomatic (AS) or symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD): systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas. 2019 Dec;130:57-67. Abstract

63. Unlu C, Daniels L, Vrouenraets BC, et al. A systematic review of high-fibre dietary therapy in diverticular disease. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2012 Apr;27(4):419-27.Full text  Abstract

64. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. March 2019 [internet publication].Full text

65. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes. July 2018 [internet publication].Full text

66. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. December 2019 [internet publication].Full text

67. Chabok A, Påhlman L, Hjern F, et al. Randomized clinical trial of antibiotics in acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. Br J Surg. 2012 Apr;99(4):532-9. Abstract

68. Daniels L, Ünlü Ç, de Korte N, et al. Randomized clinical trial of observational versus antibiotic treatment for a first episode of CT-proven uncomplicated acute diverticulitis. Br J Surg. 2017 Jan;104(1):52-61. Abstract

69. Peery AF, Shaukat A, Strate LL. AGA clinical practice update on medical management of colonic diverticulitis: expert review. Gastroenterology. 2021 Feb;160(3):906-11.Full text  Abstract

70. Mege D, Yeo H. Meta-analyses of current strategies to treat uncomplicated diverticulitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2019 Mar;62(3):371-8. Abstract

71. Desai M, Fathallah J, Nutalapati V, et al. Antibiotics versus no antibiotics for acute uncomplicated diverticulitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2019 Aug;62(8):1005-12. Abstract

72. Emile SH, Elfeki H, Sakr A, et al. Management of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis without antibiotics: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of predictors of treatment failure. Tech Coloproctol. 2018 Jul;22(7):499-509. Abstract

73. Oakland K, Guy R, Uberoi R, et al. Acute lower GI bleeding in the UK: patient characteristics, interventions and outcomes in the first nationwide audit. Gut. 2018 Apr;67(4):654-62. Abstract

74. Oakland K, Jairath V, Uberoi R, et al. Derivation and validation of a novel risk score for safe discharge after acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding: a modelling study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Sep;2(9):635-43. Abstract

75. Bloomfeld RS, Rockey DC, Shetzline MA. Endoscopic therapy of acute diverticular hemorrhage. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Aug;96(8):2367-72. Abstract

76. Angenete E, Bock D, Rosenberg J, et al. Laparoscopic lavage is superior to colon resection for perforated purulent diverticulitis-a meta-analysis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2017 Feb;32(2):163-9.Full text  Abstract

77. Cirocchi R, Di Saverio S, Weber DG, et al. Laparoscopic lavage versus surgical resection for acute diverticulitis with generalised peritonitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Tech Coloproctol. 2017 Feb;21(2):93-110. Abstract

78. Gregersen R, Mortensen LQ, Burcharth J, et al. Treatment of patients with acute colonic diverticulitis complicated by abscess formation: a systematic review. Int J Surg. 2016 Nov;35:201-8. Abstract

79. Toorenvliet BR, Swank H, Schoones JW, et al. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for perforated colonic diverticulitis: a systematic review. Colorectal Dis. 2010 Sep;12(9):862-7. Abstract

80. Angenete E, Thornell A, Burcharth J, et al. Laparoscopic lavage is feasible and safe for the treatment of perforated diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis: the first results from the randomized controlled trial DILALA. Annf Surg. 2016 Jan;263(1):117-22.Full text  Abstract

81. Gehrman J, Angenete E, Björholt I, et al. Health economic analysis of laparoscopic lavage versus Hartmann's procedure for diverticulitis in the randomized DILALA trial. Br J Surg. 2016 Oct;103(11):1539-47.Full text  Abstract

82. Schultz JK, Wallon C, Blecic L, et al. One-year results of the SCANDIV randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic lavage versus primary resection for acute perforated diverticulitis. Br J Surg. 2017 Sep;104(10):1382-92. Abstract

83. Shaikh FM, Stewart PM, Walsh SR, et al. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage or surgical resection for acute perforated sigmoid diverticulitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Surg. 2017 Feb;38:130-7. Abstract

84. Galbraith N, Carter JV, Netz U, et al. Laparoscopic lavage in the management of perforated diverticulitis: a contemporary meta-analysis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2017 Sep;21(9):1491-9. Abstract

85. Abbas S. Resection and primary anastomosis in acute complicated diverticulitis, a systematic review of the literature. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007 Apr;22(4):351-7. Abstract

86. Janes S, Meagher A, Faragher IG, et al. The place of elective surgery following acute diverticulitis in young patients: when is surgery indicated? An analysis of the literature. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009 May;52(5):1008-16. Abstract

87. Richards RJ, Hammitt JK. Timing of prophylactic surgery in prevention of diverticulitis recurrence: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Dig Dis Sci. 2002 Sep;47(9):1903-8. Abstract

88. Siddiqui MR, Sajid MS, Qureshi S, et al. Elective laparoscopic sigmoid resection for diverticular disease has fewer complications than conventional surgery: a meta-analysis. Am J Surg. 2010 Jul;200(1):144-61. Abstract

89. Cirocchi RF, Farinella E, Trastulli S, et al. Elective sigmoid colectomy for diverticular disease. Laparoscopic vs open surgery: a systematic review. Colorectal Dis. 2012 Jun;14(6):671-83. Abstract

90. Andeweg CS, Berg R, Staal JB, et al. Patient-reported outcomes after conservative or surgical management of recurrent and chronic complaints of diverticulitis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Feb;14(2):183-90. Abstract

91. Espin Basany E, Solís-Peña A, Pellino G, et al. Preoperative oral antibiotics and surgical-site infections in colon surgery (ORALEV): a multicentre, single-blind, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Aug;5(8):729-38. Abstract

92. Primary Care Diabetes Society. How to advise on sick day rules. 2020 [internet publication]Full text

93. Diabetes UK. Diabetes when you’re unwell [internet publication]Full text

94. Peters AL, Buschur EO, Buse JB, et al. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: a potential complication of treatment with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition. Diabetes Care. 2015 Jun 15;38(9):1687-93 Abstract

95. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. SGLT2 inhibitors: updated advice on the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. April 2016 [internet publication]Full text

96. International Diabetes Federation Europe. How to manage diabetes during an illness. 2020 [internet publication]Full text

97. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acute kidney injury: prevention, detection and management. December 2019 [internet publication]Full text

98. Royal College of Radiologists. iRefer: making the best use of clinical radiology. 8th edition 2017 [internet publication]Full text

99. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Intravenous fluid therapy in adults in hospital. Clinical guideline CG174. May 2017 [internet publication]Full text

100. Verbrugge FH, Grieten L, Mullens W. Management of the cardiorenal syndrome in decompensated heart failure. Cardiorenal Med. 2014 Dec;4(3-4):176-88Full text  Abstract

101. Freeman R, Wieling W, Axelrod FB, et al. Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome. Clin Auton Res. 2011 Apr;21(2):69-72 Abstract

102. Davison SN. Clinical pharmacology considerations in pain management in patients with advanced kidney failure. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2019 Jun 7;14(6):917-31Full text  Abstract

103. Chowdhury TA, Cheston H, Claydon A. Managing adults with diabetes in hospital during an acute illness. BMJ. 2017 Jun 22;357:j2551 Abstract

104. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Self-management of diabetes in hospital. August 2021 [internet publication]Full text

105. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Glycaemic management during the inpatient enteral feeding of stroke patients with diabetes. November 2019 [internet publication]Full text

106. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The use of variable rate intravenous insulin infusion (VRIII) in medical inpatients. October 2014 [internet publication]Full text

107. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. A good inpatient diabetes service. July 2019 [internet publication]Full text

108. Centre for Perioperative Care. Guideline for perioperative care for people with diabetes mellitus undergoing elective and emergency surgery. March 2021 [internet publication]Full text

109. Pasquel FJ, Lansang MC, Dhatariya K, et al. Management of diabetes and hyperglycaemia in the hospital. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2021 Mar;9(3):174-88Full text  Abstract

110. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. SGLT2 inhibitors: monitor ketones in blood during treatment interruption for surgical procedures or acute serious medical illness. March 2020 [internet publication]Full text

111. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. June 2021 [internet publication]Full text

112. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The management of the hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) in adults. February 2022 [internet publication]Full text

113. American Diabetes Association. 16. Diabetes care in the hospital: standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes Care. 2022 Jan 1;45(suppl 1):S244-S253.Full text  Abstract

114. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. A good inpatient diabetes service. July 2019 [internet publication]Full text

115. Fritz Z, Slowther AM, Perkins GD. Resuscitation policy should focus on the patient, not the decision. BMJ. 2017 Feb 28;356:j813Full text  Abstract

116. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Decision making and mental capacity. October 2018 [internet publication]Full text

117. Department of Health. Mental Capacity Act 2005 [internet publication]Full text

118. Social Care Institute for Excellence. Independent mental capacity advocate (IMCA). 2011 [internet publication]Full text

119. Dalton SO, Sørensen HT, Johansen C. SSRIs and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: what is known and how should it influence prescribing? CNS Drugs. 2006;20(2):143-51 Abstract

120. Dalton SO, Johansen C, Mellemkjaer L, et al. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding: a population-based cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jan 13;163(1):59-64Full text  Abstract

121. Cheng YL, Hu HY, Lin XH, et al. Use of SSRI, But not SNRI, increased upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Nov;94(46):e2022Full text  Abstract

122. Loke YK, Trivedi AN, Singh S. Meta-analysis: gastrointestinal bleeding due to interaction between selective serotonin uptake inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Jan 1;27(1):31-40Full text  Abstract

123. Paton C, Ferrier IN. SSRIs and gastrointestinal bleeding. BMJ. 2005 Sep 10;331(7516):529-30Full text  Abstract

124. Davy E. The endoscopy patient with a history of sexual abuse: strategies for compassionate care. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2006 May-Jun;29(3):221-5 Abstract

125. Taylor DM, Gaughran F, Pillinger T. The Maudsley practice guidelines for physical health conditions in psychiatry. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2020

126. Cleare A, Pariante CM, Young AH, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: a revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. J Psychopharmacol. 2015 May 12;29(5):459-525Full text  Abstract

127. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem: recognition and management. October 2009 [internet publication]Full text

128. Taylor DM, Barnes TRE, Young AH. The Maudsley prescribing guidelines in psychiatry. 13th edition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2018

129. Flowers L. Nicotine replacement therapy. Am J Psychiatry Resid. 2016 Jun;11(6)4-7Full text

130. Desai HD, Seabolt J, Jann MW. Smoking in patients receiving psychotropic medications: a pharmacokinetic perspective. CNS Drugs. 2001;15(6):469-94 Abstract

131. Oliveira P, Ribeiro J, Donato H, Madeira N. Smoking and antidepressants pharmacokinetics: a systematic review. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2017;16:17Full text  Abstract

132. National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training. Smoking cessation and mental health: a briefing for front-line staff. 2014 [internet publication]Full text

133. Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 17;352(11):1112-20 Abstract

134. Hsu CY, Ordoñez JD, Chertow GM, et al. The risk of acute renal failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2008 Apr 2;74(1):101-7Full text  Abstract

135. Grau AJ, Urbanek C, Palm F. Common infections and the risk of stroke. Nat Rev Neurol. 2010 Nov 9;6(12):681-94 Abstract

136. Eigenbrodt ML, Rose KM, Couper DJ, et al. Orthostatic hypotension as a risk factor for stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study, 1987-1996. Stroke. 2000 Oct;31(10):2307-13 Abstract

137. Winstein CJ, Stein J, Arena R, et al. Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2016 May 4;47(6):e98-e169Full text  Abstract

138. Pendlebury ST, Klaus SP, Mather M, et al. Routine cognitive screening in older patients admitted to acute medicine: abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) and subjective memory complaint versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment and IQCODE. Age Ageing. 2015 Oct 13;44(6):1000-5Full text  Abstract

139. Hodkinson HM. Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Age Ageing. 1972 Nov;1(4):233-8 Abstract

140. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Delirium: diagnosis, prevention and management. March 2019 [internet publication]Full text

141. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Dementia: assessment, management and support for people living with dementia and their carers. June 2018 [internet publication]Full text

142. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Risk reduction and management of delirium. March 2019 [internet publication]Full text

143. Nova Scotia Health Authority. This is not my Mom. 2012 [internet publication]Full text

144. Inouye SK, Schlesinger MJ, Lydon TJ. Delirium: a symptom of how hospital care is failing older persons and a window to improve quality of hospital care. Am J Med. 1999 May;106(5):565-73 Abstract

145. Bellelli G, Morandi A, Davis DH, et al. Validation of the 4AT, a new instrument for rapid delirium screening: a study in 234 hospitalised older people. Age Ageing. 2014 Mar 2;43(4):496-502Full text  Abstract

146. MacLullich AM, Shenkin SD, Goodacre S, et al. The 4 'A's test for detecting delirium in acute medical patients: a diagnostic accuracy study. Health Technol Assess. 2019 Aug;23(40):1-194Full text  Abstract

147. White S, Griffiths R, Baxter M, et al. Guidelines for the peri-operative care of people with dementia: guidelines from the Association of Anaesthetists. Anaesthesia. 2019 Jan 11;74(3):357-72Full text  Abstract

148. Siddiqi N, Harrison JK, Clegg A, et al. Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised non-ICU patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 11;3:CD005563Full text  Abstract

149. Martinez F, Tobar C, Hill N. Preventing delirium: should non-pharmacological, multicomponent interventions be used? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Age Ageing. 2014 Nov 25;44(2):196-204Full text  Abstract

150. Public Health England. Urinary tract infection: diagnostic tools for primary care. October 2020 [internet publication]Full text

151. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Haloperidol (haldol): reminder of risks when used in elderly patients for the acute treatment of delirium. 2021 [internet publication]Full text

152. Ma H, Huang Y, Cong Z, et al. The efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of dementia: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;42(3):915-37 Abstract

153. Huybrechts KF, Gerhard T, Crystal S, et al. Differential risk of death in older residents in nursing homes prescribed specific antipsychotic drugs: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2012 Feb 23;344:e977Full text  Abstract

154. Van Leeuwen E, Petrovic M, van Driel ML, et al. Withdrawal versus continuation of long-term antipsychotic drug use for behavioural and psychological symptoms in older people with dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 30;3:CD007726Full text  Abstract

155. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management. March 2022 [internet publication]Full text

156. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Inpatient care of the frail older adult with diabetes. 2019 [internet publication]Full text

157. van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1359-67Full text  Abstract

158. NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators; Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, et al. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13):1283-97.Full text  Abstract

159. Marik PE, Preiser JC. Toward understanding tight glycemic control in the ICU: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Chest. 2010 Mar;137(3):544-51Full text  Abstract

160. Rehman A, Setter SM, Vue MH. Drug-induced glucose alterations part 2: drug-Induced hyperglycemia. Diabetes Spect. 2011 Nov;24(4):234-8Full text

161. NHS Digital. National Diabetes Inpatient Audit (NaDIA) - 2019. Nov 2020 [internet publication]Full text

162. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The hospital management of hypoglycaemia in adults with diabetes mellitus. March 2022 [internet publication]Full text

163. TREND Diabetes. End of life guidance for diabetes care. November 2021 [internet publication]Full text

164. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management. October 2019 [internet publication]Full text

165. Rayman G, Vas PR, Baker N, et al. The Ipswich Touch Test: a simple and novel method to identify inpatients with diabetes at risk of foot ulceration. Diabetes Care. 2011 May 18;34(7):1517-8Full text  Abstract

166. British Thoracic Society; Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma: a national clinical guideline. July 2019 [internet publication].Full text

167. Salpeter SR, Ormiston TM, Salpeter EE. Cardiovascular effects of beta-agonists in patients with asthma and COPD: a meta-analysis. Chest. 2004 Jun;125(6):2309-21Full text  Abstract

168. Au DH, Curtis JR, Every NR, et al. Association between inhaled beta-agonists and the risk of unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Chest. 2002 Mar;121(3):846-51Full text  Abstract

169. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2020 [internet publication]Full text

170. Walters JA, Tan DJ, White CJ, et al. Different durations of corticosteroid therapy for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 19;3:CD006897Full text  Abstract

171. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001 Sep;16(9):606-13 Abstract

172. Boden JM, Fergusson DM. Alcohol and depression. Addiction. 2011 Mar 7;106(5):906-14Full text  Abstract

173. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Liaison psychiatry. In: Emergency acute medical care in over 16s: service delivery and organisation. March 2018 [internet publication]Full text

174. National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD). Treat as one. Bridging the gap between mental and physical healthcare in general hospitals. 2017 [internet publication]Full text

175. DiMatteo MR, Lepper HS, Croghan TW. Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Jul 24;160(14):2101-7 Abstract

176. Clarke DM, Currie KC. Depression, anxiety and their relationship with chronic diseases: a review of the epidemiology, risk and treatment evidence. Med J Aust. 2009 Apr 6;190(7 suppl):S54-60 Abstract

177. Prina AM, Cosco TD, Dening T, et al. The association between depressive symptoms in the community, non-psychiatric hospital admission and hospital outcomes: a systematic review. J Psychosom Res. 2014 Nov 8;78(1):25-33Full text  Abstract

178. World Health Organization. Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders. 2016 [internet publication]Full text

179. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Tobacco: preventing uptake, promoting quitting and treating dependence. Nov 2021 [internet publication]Full text

180. Auerbach AD, Vittinghoff E, Maselli J, et al. Perioperative use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risks for adverse outcomes of surgery. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jun 24;173(12):1075-81Full text  Abstract

181. Desai HD, Seabolt J, Jann MW. Smoking in patients receiving psychotropic medications: a pharmacokinetic perspective. CNS Drugs. 2001;15(6):469-94

182. National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training. Smoking cessation and mental health. 2014 [internet publication]Full text

183. DiMario F, Aragona G, Leandro G, et al. Efficacy of mesalamine in the treatment of symptomatic diverticular disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2005 Mar;50(3):581-6. Abstract

184. DiMario F, Comparato G, Fanigliulo L, et al. Use of mesalazine in diverticular disease. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006 Aug;40(Suppl 3):S155-9. Abstract

185. Gatta L, Vakil N, Vaira D, et al. Efficacy of 5-ASA in the treatment of colonic diverticular disease. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010 Feb;44(2):113-9. Abstract

186. Tursi A, Joseph RE, Streck P, et al. Expanding applications: the potential usage of 5-aminosalicylic acid in diverticular disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2011 Nov;56(11):3112-21. Abstract

187. Carter F, Alsayb M, Marshall JK, et al. Mesalamine (5-ASA) for the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct 3;(10):CD009839.Full text  Abstract

188. Iannone A, Ruospo M, Wong G, et al. Mesalazine for people with diverticular disease: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Sep 16;2018:5437135.Full text  Abstract

189. Khan RMA, Ali B, Hajibandeh S, et al. Effect of mesalazine on recurrence of diverticulitis in patients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease: a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials. Colorectal Dis. 2018 Jun;20(6):469-78. Abstract

190. Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Daffina R. Long-term treatment with mesalamine and rifaxin versus rifaximin alone for patients with recurrent attacks of acute diverticulitis of colon. Dig Liver Dis. 2002 Jul;34(7):510-5. Abstract

191. Bianchi M, Festa V, Moretti A, et al. Meta-analysis: long-term therapy with rifaximin in the management of uncomplicated diverticular disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Apr;33(8):902-10.Full text  Abstract

192. Trivedi CD, Das KM; NDSG. Emerging therapies for diverticular disease of the colon. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 Nov-Dec;42(10):1145-51. Abstract

193. Lahner E, Bellisario C, Hassan C, et al. Probiotics in the treatment of diverticular disease. A systematic review. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2016 Mar;25(1):79-86.Full text  Abstract

194. Ojetti V, Petruzziello C, Cardone S, et al. The use of probiotics in different phases of diverticular disease. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2018;13(2):89-96. Abstract

195. Reisman Y, Ziv Y, Kravrovitc D, et al. Diverticulitis: the effect of age and location on the course of diseases. International J Colorect Dis. 1999 Nov;14(4-5):250-4. Abstract

196. Hupfeld L, Burcharth J, Pommergaard HC, et al. Risk factors for recurrence after acute colonic diverticulitis: a systematic review. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2017 May;32(5):611-22. Abstract

197. Munson KD, Hensien MA, Jacob LN, et al. Diverticulitis: a comprehensive follow-up, Dis Colon Rectum. 1996 Mar;39(3):318-22. Abstract

198. Elliott TB, Yego S, Irvin TT. Five-year audit of the acute complications of diverticular disease. Br J Surg. 1997 Apr;84(4):535-9. Abstract

199. Saini S, Mueller PR, Whittenberg J, et al. Percutaneous drainage of diverticular abscess: an adjunct to surgical therapy. Arch Surg. 1986 Apr;121(4):475-8. Abstract

200. Woods RJ, Lavery IC, Fazio VW, et al. Internal fistulas in diverticular disease. Dis Clon Rectum. 1988 Aug;31(8):591-6. Abstract

201. McBeath RB, Schiff M Jr, Allen V, et al. A 12-year experience with enterovesical fistulas. Urology. 1994 Nov;44(5):661-5. Abstract

202. Tamim WZ, Ghellai A, Counihan TC, et al. Experience with endoluminal colonic wall stents for the management large bowel obstruction for benign and malignant disease. Arch Surg. 2000 Apr;135(4):434-8. Abstract

203. Kief BJ, Eckert GJ, Imperiale TF. Is diverticulosis associated with colorectal neoplasia? A cross-sectional colonoscopic study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Oct;99(10):2007-11. Abstract

204. Fozard JB, Armitage NC, Schofield JB, et al. ACPGBI position statement on elective resection for diverticulitis. Colorectal Dis. 2011;13(suppl 3):S1-S11.Full text  Abstract

205. Aldoori WH, Giovannucci EL, Rimm EB, et al. Prospective study of physical activity and risk of symptomatic diverticular disease in men. Gut. 1995 Feb;36(2):276-82. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer