Acute cystitis has been reported to be the most common bacterial infection,[2] resulting in more than 10 million medical visits in the US in 2001.[3] Cystitis accounted for around 1% of consultations by females in the UK.[4] Acute cystitis is much more common in women than men.[2] This has classically been attributed to the shorter urethra in women. Acute uncomplicated cystitis is more common among pre-menopausal women than post-menopausal women.[5] In a US telephone survey of 2000 randomly sampled women >18 years, 10.8% of women had experienced a UTI in the past 12 months, and by 24 years of age it is estimated that 33% of women will have experienced a UTI.[6] Similar annual incidence rates (19%) have been found among young women in Russia.[7] It has been estimated that 20% to 40% of women with acute cystitis will develop recurrent episodes.[8] The high prevalence of acute cystitis results in high antibiotic usage with one study across 4 countries reporting that antibiotics were prescribed for 88.5% of cases.[9]

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