Bronchiolitis

References

Key articles

McCulloh R, Koster M, Ralston S, et al. Use of intermittent vs continuous pulse oximetry for nonhypoxemic infants and young children hospitalized for bronchiolitis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Oct;169(10):898-904.Full text  Abstract

Cunningham S, Rodriguez A, Adams T, et al. Oxygen saturation targets in infants with bronchiolitis (BIDS): a double-blind, randomised, equivalence trial. Lancet. 2015 Sep 12;386(9998):1041-8.Full text  Abstract

Lin J, Zhang Y, Xiong L, et al. High-flow nasal cannula therapy for children with bronchiolitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child. 2019 Jun;104(6):564-76. Abstract

Farley R, Spurling GK, Eriksson L, et al. Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Oct 9;(10):CD005189.Full text  Abstract

Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C, et al. Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 21;(12):CD006458.Full text  Abstract

Liet JM, Ducruet T, Gupta V, et al. Heliox inhalation therapy for bronchiolitis in infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 18;(9):CD006915.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Willwerth BM, Harper MB, Greenes DS. Identifying hospitalized infants who have bronchiolitis and are at high risk for apnea. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 Oct;48(4):441-7. Abstract

2. Schroeder AR, Mansbach JM, Stevenson M, et al. Apnea in children hospitalized with bronchiolitis. Pediatrics. 2013 Nov;132(5):e1194-201. Abstract

3. Hall CB, Weinberg GA, Blumkin AK, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospitalizations among children less than 24 months of age. Pediatrics. 2013;132:e341-8. Abstract

4. Fujiogi M, Goto T, Yasunaga H, et al. Trends in bronchiolitis hospitalizations in the United States: 2000-2016. Pediatrics. 2019 Dec;144(6):e20192614.Full text  Abstract

5. Thomas E, Mattila JM, Lehtinen P, et al. Burden of respiratory syncytial virus infection during the first year of life. J Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 3;223(5):811-7.Full text  Abstract

6. Shi T, McAllister DA, O'Brien KL, et al. Global, regional, and national disease burden estimates of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children in 2015: a systematic review and modelling study. Lancet. 2017 Sep 2;390(10098):946-58.Full text  Abstract

7. Obando-Pacheco P, Justicia-Grande AJ, Rivero-Calle I, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus seasonality: a global overview. J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 11;217(9):1356-64.Full text  Abstract

8. Mansbach JM, Camargo CA Jr. Respiratory viruses in bronchiolitis and their link to recurrent wheezing and asthma. Clin Lab Med. 2009 Dec;29(4):741-55. Abstract

9. Jackson DJ, Gangnon RE, Evans MD, et al. Wheezing rhinovirus illnesses in early life predict asthma development in high-risk children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;178:667-72.Full text  Abstract

10. Lukkarinen M, Koistinen A, Turunen R, et al. Rhinovirus-induced first wheezing episode predicts atopic but not nonatopic asthma at school age. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Oct;140(4):988-95. Abstract

11. Törmänen S, Lauhkonen E, Riikonen R, et al. Risk factors for asthma after infant bronchiolitis. Allergy. 2018 Apr;73(4):916-22. Abstract

12. Midulla F, Nicolai A, Ferrara M, et al. Recurrent wheezing 36 months after bronchiolitis is associated with rhinovirus infections and blood eosinophilia. Acta Paediatr. 2014 Oct;103(10):1094-9. Abstract

13. Brandão HV, Vieira GO, Vieira TO, et al. Acute viral bronchiolitis and risk of asthma in schoolchildren: analysis of a Brazilian newborn cohort. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2017 May - Jun;93(3):223-9.Full text  Abstract

14. Kenmoe S, Kengne-Nde C, Ebogo-Belobo JT, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of common respiratory viruses in children <2 years with bronchiolitis in the pre-COVID-19 pandemic era. PLoS One. 2020;15(11):e0242302.Full text  Abstract

15. Tripp RA. Pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus infection. Viral Immunol. 2004;17(2):165-81. Abstract

16. Martinez FD, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, et al. Diminished lung function as a predisposing factor for wheezing respiratory illness in infants. N Engl J Med. 1988 Oct 27;319(17):1112-7. Abstract

17. Turner SW, Young S, Landau LI, et al. Reduced lung function both before bronchiolitis and at 11 years. Arch Dis Child. 2002 Nov;87(5):417-20. Abstract

18. Stevenson MD, Mansbach JM, Mowad E, et al. Prenatal versus postnatal tobacco smoke exposure and intensive care use in children hospitalized with bronchiolitis. Acad Pediatr. 2016 Jul;16(5):446-52.Full text  Abstract

19. Lanari M, Vandini S, Adorni F, et al. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure increases hospitalizations for bronchiolitis in infants. Respir Res. 2015 Dec 22;16:152.Full text  Abstract

20. Jones LL, Hashim A, McKeever T, et al. Parental and household smoking and the increased risk of bronchitis, bronchiolitis and other lower respiratory infections in infancy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Respir Res. 2011 Jan 10;12:5.Full text  Abstract

21. Carugno M, Dentali F, Mathieu G, et al. PM10 exposure is associated with increased hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis among infants in Lombardy, Italy. Environ Res. 2018 Oct;166:452-7. Abstract

22. Kim CK, Kim SW, Park CS, et al. Bronchoalveolar lavage cytokine profiles in acute asthma and acute bronchiolitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Jul;112(1):64-71. Abstract

23. Oh JW, Lee HB, Yum MK, et al. ECP level in nasopharyngeal secretions and serum from children with respiratory virus infections and asthmatic children. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2000 Mar-Apr;21(2):97-100. Abstract

24. Legg JP, Hussain IR, Warner JA, et al. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine imbalance in acute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Sep 15;168(6):633-9.Full text  Abstract

25. Lukacs NW, Tekkanat KK, Berlin A, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus predisposes mice to augmented allergic airway responses via IL-13-mediated mechanisms. J Immunol. 2001 Jul 15;167(2):1060-5.Full text  Abstract

26. Welliver TP, Garofalo RP, Hosakote Y, et al. Severe human lower respiratory tract illness caused by respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus is characterized by the absence of pulmonary cytotoxic lymphocyte responses. J Infect Dis. 2007 Apr 15;195(8):1126-36. Abstract

27. Copenhaver CC, Gern JE, Li Z, et al. Cytokine response patterns, exposure to viruses, and respiratory infections in the first year of life. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Jul 15;170(2):175-80. Abstract

28. Guerra S, Lohman IC, Halonen M, et al. Reduced interferon gamma production and soluble CD14 levels in early life predict recurrent wheezing by 1 year of age. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Jan 1;169(1):70-6. Abstract

29. Jozwik A, Habibi MS, Paras A, et al. RSV-specific airway resident memory CD8+ T cells and differential disease severity after experimental human infection. Nat Commun. 2015 Dec 21;6:10224.Full text  Abstract

30. Arruvito L, Raiden S, Geffner J. Host response to respiratory syncytial virus infection. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2015 Jun;28(3):259-66. Abstract

31. Hosakote YM, Jantzi PD, Esham DL, et al. Viral-mediated inhibition of antioxidant enzymes contributes to the pathogenesis of severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Jun 1;183(11):1550-60. Abstract

32. Pangesti KNA, El Ghany MA, Kesson AM, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus in the Western Pacific Region: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Glob Health. 2019 Dec;9(2):020431.Full text  Abstract

33. Townsi N, Laing IA, Hall GL, et al. The impact of respiratory viruses on lung health after preterm birth. Eur Clin Respir J. 2018 Aug 1;5(1):1487214.Full text  Abstract

34. Friedrich L, Pitrez PM, Stein RT, et al. Growth rate of lung function in healthy preterm infants. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Dec 15;176(12):1269-73. Abstract

35. Allen J, Zwerdling R, Ehrenkranz R, et al. Statement on the care of the child with chronic lung disease of infancy and childhood. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Aug 1;168(3):356-96.Full text  Abstract

36. Rice JL, McGrath-Morrow SA, Collaco JM. Indoor air pollution sources and respiratory symptoms in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul;222:85-90.e2.Full text  Abstract

37. Fauroux B, Hascoët JM, Jarreau PH, et al. Risk factors for bronchiolitis hospitalization in infants: a French nationwide retrospective cohort study over four consecutive seasons (2009-2013). PLoS One. 2020;15(3):e0229766.Full text  Abstract

38. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. RSV in infants and young children. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Full text

39. MacDonald NE, Hall CB, Suffin SC, et al. Respiratory syncytial viral infection in infants with congenital heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1982 Aug 12;307(7):397-400. Abstract

40. Navas L, Wang E, de Carvalho V, et al. Improved outcome of respiratory syncytial virus infection in a high-risk hospitalized population of Canadian children. Pediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada. J Pediatr. 1992 Sep;121(3):348-54. Abstract

41. Lehners N, Tabatabai J, Prifert C, et al. Long-term shedding of influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial epidemiology in patients with hematological disorders. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 11;11(2):e0148258.Full text  Abstract

42. Ralston SL, Lieberthal AS, Meissner HC, et al; American Academy of Pediatrics. Clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis. Pediatrics. 2014 Nov;134(5):e1474-502.Full text  Abstract

43. Simões EAF, Bont L, Manzoni P, et al. Past, present and future approaches to the prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children. Infect Dis Ther. 2018 Mar;7(1):87-120.Full text  Abstract

44. Committee on Infectious Diseases and Bronchiolitis Guidelines Committee, American Academy of Pediatrics. Updated guidance for palivizumab prophylaxis among infants and young children at increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus infection. Pediatrics. 2014 Aug;134(2):415-20. [Reaffirmed: Pediatrics. 2019 Aug;144(2):e20191767.]Full text  Abstract

45. Morris SK, Dzolganovski B, Beyene J, et al. A meta-analysis of the effect of antibody therapy for the prevention of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection. BMC Infect Dis. 2009 Jul 5;9:106.Full text  Abstract

46. Bollani L, Baraldi E, Chirico G, et al. Revised recommendations concerning palivizumab prophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Ital J Pediatr. 2015 Dec 15;41:97.Full text  Abstract

47. Feltes TF, Cabalka AK, Meissner HC, et al. Palivizumab prophylaxis reduces hospitalization due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. J Pediatr. 2003 Oct;143(4):532-40. Abstract

48. Øymar K, Skjerven HO, Mikalsen IB. Acute bronchiolitis in infants, a review. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2014 Apr 3;22:23.Full text  Abstract

49. Zorc JJ, Hall CB. Bronchiolitis: recent evidence on diagnosis and management. Pediatrics. 2010 Feb;125(2):342-9. Abstract

50. Sarmiento L, Rojas-Soto GE, Rodríguez-Martínez CE. Predictors of inappropriate use of diagnostic tests and management of bronchiolitis. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:9730696.Full text  Abstract

51. Caballero MT, Polack FP, Stein RT. Viral bronchiolitis in young infants: new perspectives for management and treatment. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2017 Nov - Dec;93(suppl 1):75-83.Full text  Abstract

52. Cavaye D, Roberts DP, Saravanos GL, et al. Evaluation of national guidelines for bronchiolitis: AGREEments and controversies. J Paediatr Child Health. 2019 Jan;55(1):25-31. Abstract

53. McCulloh R, Koster M, Ralston S, et al. Use of intermittent vs continuous pulse oximetry for nonhypoxemic infants and young children hospitalized for bronchiolitis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Oct;169(10):898-904.Full text  Abstract

54. Friedman JN, Rieder MJ, Walton JM; Canadian Paediatric Society, Acute Care Committee, Drug Therapy and Hazardous Substances Committee. Bronchiolitis: recommendations for diagnosis, monitoring and management of children one to 24 months of age. Paediatr Child Health. 2014 Nov;19(9):485-98.Full text  Abstract

55. Cunningham S, Rodriguez A, Adams T, et al. Oxygen saturation targets in infants with bronchiolitis (BIDS): a double-blind, randomised, equivalence trial. Lancet. 2015 Sep 12;386(9998):1041-8.Full text  Abstract

56. Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative (PREDICT) Network, Australasia. Australasian bronchiolitis guideline. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Full text

57. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Bronchiolitis in children: diagnosis and management. Aug 2021 [internet publication].Full text

58. Chao JH, Lin RC, Marneni S, et al. Predictors of airspace disease on chest x-ray in emergency department patients with clinical bronchiolitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acad Emerg Med. 2016 Oct;23(10):1107-18.Full text  Abstract

59. Ecochard-Dugelay E, Beliah M, Perreaux F, et al. Clinical predictors of radiographic abnormalities among infants with bronchiolitis in a paediatric emergency department. BMC Pediatr. 2014 Jun 6;14:143.Full text  Abstract

60. Allen JL, Wolfson MR, McDowell K, et al. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony in infants with airflow obstruction. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990 Feb;141(2):337-42. Abstract

61. Schuh S, Freedman S, Coates A, et al. Effect of oximetry on hospitalization in bronchiolitis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014 Aug 20;312(7):712-8. Abstract

62. American Thoracic Society; European Respiratory Society. ATS/ERS statement: raised volume forced expirations in infants: guidelines for current practice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Dec 1;172(11):1463-71.Full text  Abstract

63. Palmer J, Allen J, Mayer O. Tidal breathing analysis. NeoReviews. 2004;5:E186-93.Full text

64. Lin J, Zhang Y, Xiong L, et al. High-flow nasal cannula therapy for children with bronchiolitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child. 2019 Jun;104(6):564-76. Abstract

65. Moreel L, Proesmans M. High flow nasal cannula as respiratory support in treating infant bronchiolitis: a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 May;179(5):711-8. Abstract

66. O'Brien S, Craig S, Babl FE, et al. 'Rational use of high-flow therapy in infants with bronchiolitis. What do the latest trials tell us?' A Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative perspective. J Paediatr Child Health. 2019 Jul;55(7):746-52. Abstract

67. Franklin D, Babl FE, Schlapbach LJ, et al. A randomized trial of high-flow oxygen therapy in infants with bronchiolitis. N Engl J Med. 2018 Mar 22;378(12):1121-31.Full text  Abstract

68. Jat KR, Mathew JL. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for acute bronchiolitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 31;(1):CD010473.Full text  Abstract

69. Combret Y, Prieur G, LE Roux P, et al. Non-invasive ventilation improves respiratory distress in children with acute viral bronchiolitis: a systematic review. Minerva Anestesiol. 2017 Jun;83(6):624-37.Full text  Abstract

70. Hernandez E, Khoshoo V, Thoppil D, et al. Aspiration: a factor in rapidly deteriorating bronchiolitis in previously healthy infants? Pediatr Pulmonol. 2002 Jan;33(1):30-1. Abstract

71. Oakley E, Borland M, Neutze J, et al. Nasogastric hydration versus intravenous hydration for infants with bronchiolitis: a randomised trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2013 Apr;1(2):113-20. Abstract

72. Valla FV, Baudin F, Demaret P, et al. Nutritional management of young infants presenting with acute bronchiolitis in Belgium, France and Switzerland: survey of current practices and documentary search of national guidelines worldwide. Eur J Pediatr. 2019 Mar;178(3):331-40. Abstract

73. American Academy of Pediatrics. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kimberlin DW, Barnett ED, Lynfield R, et al, eds. Red Book (2021). Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 32nd ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2021:628-36.Full text

74. Fernandes RM, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, et al. Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 4;(6):CD004878.Full text  Abstract

75. Alansari K, Sakran M, Davidson BL, et al. Oral dexamethasone for bronchiolitis: a randomized trial. Pediatrics. 2013 Oct;132(4):e810-6. Abstract

76. Shein SL, Rotta AT, Speicher R, et al. Corticosteroid therapy during acute bronchiolitis in patients who later develop asthma. Hosp Pediatr. 2017 Jul;7(7):403-9.Full text  Abstract

77. Gadomski AM, Scribani MB. Bronchodilators for bronchiolitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jun 17;(6):CD001266.Full text  Abstract

78. Ralston S, Hill V, Waters A. Occult serious bacterial infection in infants younger than 60 to 90 days with bronchiolitis: a systematic review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Oct;165(10):951-6. Abstract

79. Pinto LA, Pitrez PM, Luisi F, et al. Azithromycin therapy in hospitalized infants with acute bronchiolitis is not associated with better clinical outcomes: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Pediatr. 2012 Dec;161(6):1104-8. Abstract

80. Farley R, Spurling GK, Eriksson L, et al. Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Oct 9;(10):CD005189.Full text  Abstract

81. McDaniel CE, Ralston S, Lucas B, et al. Association of diagnostic criteria with urinary tract infection prevalence in bronchiolitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2019 Mar 1;173(3):269-77.Full text  Abstract

82. Zhang L, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Wainwright C, et al. Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 21;(12):CD006458.Full text  Abstract

83. Brooks CG, Harrison WN, Ralston SL, et al. Association between hypertonic saline and hospital length of stay in acute viral bronchiolitis: a reanalysis of 2 meta-analyses. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Jun 1;170(6):577-84.Full text  Abstract

84. Heikkilä P, Renko M, Korppi M. Hypertonic saline inhalations in bronchiolitis - a cumulative meta-analysis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2018 Feb;53(2):233-42. Abstract

85. Harrison W, Angoulvant F, House S, et al. Hypertonic saline in bronchiolitis and type I error: a trial sequential analysis. Pediatrics. 2018 Sep;142(3):e20181144.Full text  Abstract

86. Enriquez A, Chu IW, Mellis C, et al. Nebulised deoxyribonuclease for viral bronchiolitis in children younger than 24 months. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Nov 14;(11):CD008395.Full text  Abstract

87. Hartling L, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, et al. Epinephrine for bronchiolitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jun 15;(6):CD003123.Full text  Abstract

88. Hartling L, Fernandes RM, Bialy L, et al. Steroids and bronchodilators for acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011 Apr 6;342:d1714.Full text  Abstract

89. Plint AC, Johnson DW, Patel H, et al. Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC). Epinephrine and dexamethasone in children with bronchiolitis. N Engl J Med. 2009 May 14;360(20):2079-89.Full text  Abstract

90. Roqué i Figuls M, Giné-Garriga M, Granados Rugeles C, et al. Chest physiotherapy for acute bronchiolitis in paediatric patients between 0 and 24 months old. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Feb 1;(2):CD004873.Full text  Abstract

91. Gajdos VK, Katsahian S, Beydon N, et al. Effectiveness of chest physiotherapy in infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2010 Sep 28;7(9):e1000345.Full text  Abstract

92. Gomes GR, Donadio MVF. Effects of the use of respiratory physiotherapy in children admitted with acute viral bronchiolitis. Arch Pediatr. 2018 Aug;25(6):394-8. Abstract

93. Luchetti M, Ferrero F, Gallini C, et al. Multicenter, randomized, controlled study of porcine surfactant in severe respiratory syncytial virus-induced respiratory failure. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2002 Jul;3(3):261-8. Abstract

94. Tibby SM, Hatherill M, Wright SM, et al. Exogenous surfactant supplementation in infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Oct;162(4 Pt 1):1251-6. Abstract

95. Barreira ER, Precioso AR, Bousso A. Pulmonary surfactant in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: the role in pathogenesis and clinical implications. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2011 May;46(5):415-20. Abstract

96. Jat KR, Chawla D. Surfactant therapy for bronchiolitis in critically ill infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Aug 24;(8):CD009194.Full text  Abstract

97. Martinon-Torres F, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Martinon-Sanchez JM. Heliox therapy in infants with acute bronchiolitis. Pediatrics. 2002 Jan;109(1):68-73. Abstract

98. Liet JM, Ducruet T, Gupta V, et al. Heliox inhalation therapy for bronchiolitis in infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 18;(9):CD006915.Full text  Abstract

99. Kim IK, Phrampus E, Sikes K, et al. Helium-oxygen therapy for infants with bronchiolitis: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Dec;165(12):1115-22. Abstract

100. Chowdhury MM, McKenzie SA, Pearson CC, et al. Heliox therapy in bronchiolitis: phase III multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2013 Apr;131(4):661-9. Abstract

101. Amirav I, Luder AS, Kruger N, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of montelukast for acute bronchiolitis. Pediatrics. 2008 Dec;122(6):e1249-55. Abstract

102. Kim CK, Choi J, Kim HB, et al. A randomized intervention of montelukast for post-bronchiolitis: effect on eosinophil degranulation. J Pediatr. 2010 May;156(5):749-54. Abstract

103. Bisgaard H, Flores-Nunez A, Goh A, et al. Study of montelukast for the treatment of respiratory symptoms of post-respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in children. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2008 Oct 15;178(8):854-60.Full text  Abstract

104. Proesmans M, Sauer K, Govaere E, et al. Montelukast does not prevent reactive airway disease in young children hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis. Acta Paediatr. 2009 Nov;98(11):1830-4. Abstract

105. Zedan M, Gamil N, El-Assmy M, et al. Montelukast as an episodic modifier for acute viral bronchiolitis: a randomized trial. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2010 Mar-Apr;31(2):147-53. Abstract

106. Liu F, Ouyang J, Sharma AN, et al. Leukotriene inhibitors for bronchiolitis in infants and young children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Mar 16;(3):CD010636.Full text  Abstract

107. Pérez-Gutiérrez F, Otárola-Escobar I, Arenas D. Are leukotriene inhibitors useful for bronchiolitis? Medwave. 2016 Dec 16;16(suppl 5):e6799. Abstract

108. Alansari K, Toaimah FH, Khalafalla H, et al. Caffeine for the treatment of apnea in bronchiolitis: a randomized trial. J Pediatr. 2016 Oct;177:204-11.e3. Abstract

109. Marchisio P, Consonni D, Baggi E, et al. Vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of acute otitis media in otitis-prone children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Oct;32(10):1055-60.Full text  Abstract

110. Forno E, Bacharier LB, Phipatanakul W, et al. Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on severe asthma exacerbations in children with asthma and low vitamin D levels: the VDKA randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020 Aug 25;324(8):752-60.Full text  Abstract

111. Zisi D, Challa A, Makis A. The association between vitamin D status and infectious diseases of the respiratory system in infancy and childhood. Hormones (Athens). 2019 Dec;18(4):353-63.Full text  Abstract

112. Saad K, Abd Aziz NHR, El-Houfey AA, et al. Trial of vitamin D supplementation in infants with bronchiolitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol. 2015;28(2):102-6.Full text

113. Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Ahmadi NK, et al. Zinc sulphate for acute bronchiolitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Infez Med. 2016 Dec 1;24(4):331-6. Abstract

114. Tal A, Greenberg D, Av-Gay Y, et al. Nitric oxide inhalations in bronchiolitis: a pilot, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2018 Jan;53(1):95-102. Abstract

115. Goldbart A, Golan-Tripto I, Pillar G, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in acute bronchiolitis: a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 15;10(1):9605.Full text  Abstract

116. Zhou Y, Bacharier LB, Isaacson-Schmid M, et al. Azithromycin therapy during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: upper airway microbiome alterations and subsequent recurrent wheeze. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Oct;138(4):1215-9.Full text  Abstract

117. Shang X, Liabsuetrakul T, Sangsupawanich P, et al. Efficacy and safety of Laggera pterodonta in children 3-24 months with acute bronchiolitis: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Respir J. 2017 May;11(3):296-304. Abstract

118. Sigurs N, Gustafsson PM, Bjarnason R, et al. Severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy and asthma and allergy at age 13. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Jan 15;171(2):137-41.Full text  Abstract

119. Wu P, Dupont WD, Griffin MR, et al. Evidence of a causal role of winter virus infection during infancy in early childhood asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Dec 1;178(11):1123-9. Abstract

120. Thomsen SF, van der Sluis S, Stensballe LG, et al. Exploring the association between severe respiratory syncytial virus infection and asthma: a registry-based twin study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Jun 15;179(12):1091-7. Abstract

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