Presenting symptoms can include weight loss and abdominal pain, although patients with proximal or gastro-oesophageal junction tumours may present with dysphagia.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy demonstrating carcinoma is required to confirm the diagnosis. Staging based on imaging is required.
Early-stage disease is treated with surgery alone.
Locally advanced disease is treated with multimodality approach that includes surgery followed by postoperative chemoradiation, or chemotherapy before and after surgery.
Metastatic disease is treated with chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or chemoradiation and supportive care measures.
Common complications are gastric bleeding and gastric outlet obstruction.
Stomach cancer is a neoplasm that can develop in any portion of the stomach and may spread to the lymph nodes and other organs. Most tumours are adenocarcinomas. Other histological types include lymphoma, leiomyosarcoma, neuroendocrine tumours, and squamous cell carcinomas, but these are uncommon and will not be discussed here.
History and exam
Department of GI Medical Oncology
University of Texas
MD Anderson Cancer Center
MBM declares that she has no competing interests.
Dr Mariela Blum Murphy would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Valerie Reed and Dr Prajnan Das, previous contributors to this topic.
Gastrointestinal Radiation Oncology
Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center
TH declares that he has no competing interests.
Head of Department
Department of Gastroenterology
AL declares that he has no competing interests.
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