Last reviewed:November 2019
Last updated:April  2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • abdominal pain
  • weight loss
  • lymphadenopathy

Other diagnostic factors

  • age 50 to 70 years
  • male sex
  • smoking
  • family history
  • nausea
  • dysphagia
  • lower gastrointestinal bleeding

Risk factors

  • pernicious anaemia
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • N-nitroso compounds
  • diet low in fruits and vegetables
  • high-salt diet
  • smoking
  • family history

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)
  • computed tomography of abdomen/pelvis
  • chest x-ray
  • computed tomography of chest
  • laparoscopy
  • positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Associate Professor

Department of GI Medical Oncology

University of Texas

MD Anderson Cancer Center

Houston

TX

Disclosures

MBM declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Mariela Blum Murphy would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Valerie Reed and Dr Prajnan Das, previous contributors to this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Director

Gastrointestinal Radiation Oncology

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center

Boston

MA

Disclosures

TH declares that he has no competing interests.

Head of Department

Department of Gastroenterology

Sana Klinikum

Remscheid

Germany

Disclosures

AL declares that he has no competing interests.

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