Normal result does not rule out coronary artery disease.
may show evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy or old infarction
Risk of hypertension is increased if there are features of the metabolic syndrome.
Unprovoked hypokalaemia suggests hyperaldosteronism.
GFR is calculated according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula or the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation.[ Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimate by the IDMS-Traceable MDRD Study Equation ][ Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimate by CKD-EPI Equation ]
may show renal insufficiency, hyperglycaemia, hypokalaemia, hyperuricaemia, or hypercalcaemia
Risk of hypertension is increased in the setting of the metabolic syndrome.
may show high LDL, low HDL, or high triglycerides
Increased albumin excretion suggests end-organ damage.
may show proteinuria
Anaemia accompanies chronic renal failure.
Polycythaemia may be seen with phaeochromocytoma.
anaemia or polycythaemia suggests secondary cause or complication
Indicated if signs/symptoms of hypo- or hyperthyroidism.
high or low if thyroid dysfunction
Indicated when unprovoked hypokalaemia present.
low renin suggests hyperaldosteronism
Indicated in the following situations: BP is sustained above 150/100 mmHg on 3 measurements over different days, with hypertension resistant to 3 conventional antihypertensive drugs (including a diuretic), or controlled BP (140/90 mmHg) on 4 or more antihypertensive drugs; hypertension and spontaneous or diuretic-induced hypokalaemia; hypertension and adrenal incidentaloma; hypertension and sleep apnoea; hypertension and a family history of early-onset hypertension or cerebrovascular accident at a young age (40 years); hypertensive first-degree relatives of patients with primary aldosteronism.
high aldosterone or failure to suppress with salt loading suggests hyperaldosteronism
Young patients (age <40 years) with severe hypertension or renal artery bruits.
Ultrasound provides haemodynamical information and magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) provides anatomical information, in lieu of renal angiogram. CT angiography is accurate in atherosclerotic disease.
may show renal artery stenosis, renal scarring, or lesions
Indicated with symptoms/signs of catecholamine excess.
elevated catecholamines if phaeochromocytoma
Indicated with signs/symptoms of catecholamine excess. This test is easier to perform than 24-hour urine screen, but has a higher rate of false positives.
elevated metanephrines if phaeochromocytoma
Indicated when stigmata of Cushing's disease present.
elevated in Cushing's disease
Sleep study may be considered in cases of resistant hypertension and also for patients with signs or symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea.
may show results consistent with obstructive sleep apnoea
Assesses left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular function.
increased left ventricular mass, decreased left ventricular systolic function, impaired left ventricular diastolic function, and increased left atrial size and decreased function
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