Approach

Early diagnosis is vital, as identification at an earlier stage is associated with better long-term prognosis.[39] Any intratesticular mass should be considered a testicular cancer until demonstrated otherwise. Age of the patient, family history of testicular cancer, previous diagnosis of testicular cancer, and, most important, history of undescended testis should alert the physician to a possible diagnosis. In addition, awareness of the differential diagnostic possibilities based on routine light microscopic features and further directed observations or immunohistochemical studies may help to achieve an accurate diagnosis.[40]

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