Assessment of syncope

References

Key articles

Shen WK, Sheldon RS, Benditt DG, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline for the evaluation and management of patients with syncope: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines, and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2017 Aug 1;136(5):e60-122.Full text  Abstract

Brignole M, Moya A, de Lange FJ, et al. 2018 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. Eur Heart J. 2018 Jun 1;39(21):1883-948.Full text  Abstract

Huff JS, Decker WW, Quinn JV, et al. Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with syncope. Ann Emerg Med. 2007 Apr;49(4):431-44. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Sun BC. Quality-of-life, health service use, and costs associated with syncope. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Jan-Feb;55(4):370-75.Full text  Abstract

2. Probst MA, Su E, Weiss RE, et al. Clinical Benefit of Hospitalization for Older Adults With Unexplained Syncope: A Propensity-Matched Analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2019 Aug;74(2):260-69.Full text  Abstract

3. Sarasin FP, Louis-Simonet M, Carballo D, et al. Prospective evaluation of patients with syncope: a population-based study. Am J Med. 2001 Aug 15;111(3):177-84. Abstract

4. D'Ascenzo F, Biondi-Zoccai G, Reed MJ, et al. Incidence, etiology and predictors of adverse outcomes in 43,315 patients presenting to the emergency department with syncope: an international meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2013 Jul 15;167(1):57-62. Abstract

5. Sun BC, Hoffman JR, Mangione CM, et al. Older age predicts short-term, serious events after syncope. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007 Jun;55(6):907-12.Full text  Abstract

6. Grossman SA, Chiu D, Lipsitz L, et al. Can elderly patients without risk factors be discharged home when presenting to the emergency department with syncope? Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2014 Jan-Feb;58(1):110-14.Full text  Abstract

7. Gibson TA, Weiss RE, Sun BC. Predictors of Short-Term Outcomes after Syncope: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. West J Emerg Med. 2018 May;19(3):517-23.Full text  Abstract

8. Grubb BP, Karabin B. Syncope: evaluation and management in the geriatric patient. Clin Geriatr Med. 2012 Nov;28(4):717-28.Full text  Abstract

9. Shen WK, Sheldon RS, Benditt DG, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline for the evaluation and management of patients with syncope: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines, and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2017 Aug 1;136(5):e60-122.Full text  Abstract

10. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Heart valve disease presenting in adults: investigation and management. Nov 2021 [internet publication].Full text

11. Brignole M, Moya A, de Lange FJ, et al. 2018 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. Eur Heart J. 2018 Jun 1;39(21):1883-948.Full text  Abstract

12. Wang CZ. Current diagnosis and management of children with vasovagal syncope. World J Pediatr. 2007;3:98-103.

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14. Wiener Z, Shapiro NI, Chiu DT, et al. The prevalence of psychiatric disease in emergency department patients with unexplained syncope. Intern Emerg Med. 2013 Aug;8(5):427-30.Full text  Abstract

15. Alciati A, Shiffer D, Dipaola F, et al. Psychogenic Pseudosyncope: Clinical Features, Diagnosis and Management. J Atr Fibrillation. 2020 Jun-Jul;13(1):2399.Full text  Abstract

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18. Calvo-Romero JM, Pérez-Miranda M, Bureo-Dacal P. Syncope in acute pulmonary embolism. Eur J Emerg Med. 2004 Aug;11(4):208-9. Abstract

19. Prandoni P, Lensing AW, Prins MH, et al. Prevalence of Pulmonary Embolism among Patients Hospitalized for Syncope. N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 20;375(16):1524-31.Full text  Abstract

20. Timmons S, Kingston M, Hussain M, et al. Pulmonary embolism: differences in presentation between older and younger patients. Age Ageing. 2003 Nov;32(6):601-5.Full text  Abstract

21. Konstantinides SV, Meyer G, Becattini C, et al. 2019 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism developed in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society (ERS): The Task Force for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Respir J. 2019 Sep;54(3).Full text  Abstract

22. Brignole M, Moya A, de Lange FJ, et al. Practical Instructions for the 2018 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. Eur Heart J. 2018 Jun 1;39(21):e43-e80.Full text  Abstract

23. Wieling W, Ganzeboom KS, Krediet CT, et al. Initial diagnostic strategy in the case of transient losses of consciousness: the importance of the medical history [in Dutch]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003 May 3;147(18):849-54. Abstract

24. Sheldon R, Rose S, Ritchie D, et al. Historical criteria that distinguish syncope from seizures. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Jul 3;40(1):142-8.Full text  Abstract

25. Asplund CA, O'Connor FG, Noakes TD. Exercise-associated collapse: an evidence-based review and primer for clinicians. Br J Sports Med. 2011 Nov;45(14):1157-62.Full text  Abstract

26. Alboni P, Brignole M, Menozzi C, et al. Diagnostic value of history in patients with syncope with or without heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Jun 1;37(7):1921-8.Full text  Abstract

27. Brigo F, Nardone R, Bongiovanni LG. Value of tongue biting in the differential diagnosis between epileptic seizures and syncope. Seizure. 2012 Oct;21(8):568-72.Full text  Abstract

28. Middlekauff HR, Stevenson WG, Stevenson LW, et al. Syncope in advanced heart failure: high risk of sudden death regardless of origin of syncope. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Jan;21(1):110-6.Full text  Abstract

29. Le RJ, Fenstad ER, Maradit-Kremers H, et al. Syncope in adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Aug 16;58(8):863-7. Abstract

30. Antzelevitch C, Brugada P, Brugada J, et al. Brugada syndrome: 1992-2002: a historical perspective. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 May 21;41(10):1665-71.Full text  Abstract

31. Brugada J, Brugada R, Antzelevitch C, et al. Long-term follow-up of individuals with the electrocardiographic pattern of right bundle-branch block and ST-segment elevation in precordial leads V1 to V3. Circulation. 2002 Jan 1;105(1):73-8.Full text  Abstract

32. Spirito P, Autore C, Rapezzi C, et al. Syncope and risk of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2009 Apr 7;119(13):1703-10.Full text  Abstract

33. Iglesias JF, Graf D, Forclaz A, et al. Stepwise evaluation of unexplained syncope in a large ambulatory population. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2009 Mar;32 (Suppl 1):S202-6. Abstract

34. Freeman R, Wieling W, Axelrod FB, et al. Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome. Clin Auton Res. 2011 Apr;21(2):69-72. Abstract

35. Dovgalyuk J, Holstege C, Mattu A, et al. The electrocardiogram in the patient with syncope. Am J Emerg Med. 2007 Jul;25(6):688-701. Abstract

36. Costantino G, Sun BC, Barbic F, et al. Syncope clinical management in the emergency department: a consensus from the first international workshop on syncope risk stratification in the emergency department. Eur Heart J. 2016 May 14;37(19):1493-8.Full text  Abstract

37. Grossman SA, Fischer C, Lipsitz LA, et al. Predicting adverse outcomes in syncope. J Emerg Med. 2007 Oct;33(3):233-9.Full text  Abstract

38. Bastani A, Su E, Adler DH, et al. Comparison of 30-Day Serious Adverse Clinical Events for Elderly Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department With Near-Syncope Versus Syncope. Ann Emerg Med. 2019 Mar;73(3):274-80.Full text  Abstract

39. Quinn JV, Stiell IG, McDermott DA, et al. Derivation of the San Francisco Syncope Rule to predict patients with short-term serious outcomes. Ann Emerg Med. 2004 Feb;43(2):224-32. Abstract

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43. Huff JS, Decker WW, Quinn JV, et al. Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with syncope. Ann Emerg Med. 2007 Apr;49(4):431-44. Abstract

44. Ghani AR, Ullah W, Abdullah HMA, et al. The role of echocardiography in diagnostic evaluation of patients with syncope-a retrospective analysis. Am J Cardiovasc Dis. 2019;9(5):78-83.Full text  Abstract

45. Primary Writing Committee., Sandhu RK, Raj SR, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Clinical Practice Update on the Assessment and Management of Syncope. Can J Cardiol. 2020 Aug;36(8):1167-1177.Full text  Abstract

46. Heidenreich PA, Bozkurt B, Aguilar D, et al. 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2022 May 3;145(18):e895-1032.Full text  Abstract

47. Nader A, Massumi A, Cheng J, et al. Inherited arrhythmic disorders: long QT and Brugada syndromes. Tex Heart Inst J. 2007;34(1):67-75.Full text  Abstract

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49. Kouranos V, Sharma R. Cardiac sarcoidosis: state-of-the-art review. Heart. 2021 Mar 4 [Epub ahead of print].Full text  Abstract

50. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Quantitative faecal immunochemical tests to guide referral for colorectal cancer in primary care. Jul 2017 [internet publication].Full text

51. Ammirati F, Colivicchi F, Santini M. Diagnosing syncope in clinical practice. Implementation of a simplified diagnostic algorithm in a multicentre prospective trial - the OESIL 2 study (Osservatorio Epidemiologico della Sincope nel Lazio). Eur Heart J. 2000 Jun;21(11):935-40.Full text  Abstract

52. Grossman SA, Fischer C, Bar JL, et al. The yield of head CT in syncope: a pilot study. Intern Emerg Med. 2007 Mar;2(1):46-9.Full text  Abstract

53. Grubb BP, Gerard G, Wolfe DA, et al. Syncope and seizures of psychogenic origin: identification with head-upright tilt table testing. Clin Cardiol. 1992 Nov;15(11):839-42.Full text  Abstract

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