The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) now recommends screening for glucose status for adults aged 40 to 70 years who have body mass index (BMI) ≥25. Those with normal test results should be re-screened every 3 years. Those who have pre-diabetes should subsequently be screened annually for diabetes.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has recommended routine screening of non-pregnant asymptomatic adults of any age with BMI ≥25 kg/m² (≥23 kg/m² for people from South Asia) plus one or more risk factors for diabetes. Those without risk factors should be screened starting at age 45 years. Risk factors for diabetes include family history of diabetes, overweight or obesity, sedentary lifestyle, high-risk ancestry, gestational diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia (low HDL-cholesterol and/or elevated triglycerides), vascular disease, glucose intolerance, or polycystic ovary syndrome.
Recommended screening tests include fasting plasma glucose (pre-diabetes if 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L [100-125 mg/dL] once, in the absence of diabetes) and/or HbA1c (pre-diabetes if 39-46 mmol/mol [5.7% to 6.4%] once, in the absence of diabetes; diabetes if ≥48 mmol/mol [≥6.5%] twice). Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test is less commonly used in non-pregnant adults.
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