In adult patients, the diagnosis of RTA is more often made after the observation of unexplained, incidental laboratory findings in blood and urine acid-base parameters and electrolyte concentrations. In children the diagnosis is commonly identified following investigation for growth retardation, rickets, or failure to thrive. Rarely, patients may present with severe acidosis and Kussmaul's breathing due to respiratory compensation.

BMJ Best Practice is an evidence-based point of care tool for healthcare practitioners.

To continue reading and access all of BMJ Best Practice's pages you'll need to log in or start a free trial.

You can access through your institution if your hospital, university, trust or other institution provides access to BMJ Best Practice through either OpenAthens or Shibboleth.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer