Lyme disease

References

Key articles

Lantos PM, Rumbaugh J, Bockenstedt LK, et al. Clinical practice puidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), American Academy of Neurology (AAN), and American College of Rheumatology (ACR): 2020 guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 23;72(1):e1-48.Full text  Abstract

Hengge UR, Tannapfel A, Tyring SK, et al. Lyme borreliosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003 Aug;3(8):489-500. Abstract

Steere AC. Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 12;345(2):115-25. Abstract

Stanek G, Strle F. Lyme borreliosis. Lancet. 2003 Nov 15;362(9396):1639-47. Abstract

Steere AC, Coburn J, Glickstein L. The emergence of Lyme disease. J Clin Invest. 2004 Apr;113(8):1093-101.Full text  Abstract

Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Wang G, Schwartz I, et al. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005 Jul;18(3):484-509.Full text  Abstract

Steere AC. Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 12;345(2):115-25. Abstract

Singh SK, Girschick HJ. Lyme borreliosis: from infection to autoimmunity. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:598-614. Abstract

Steere AC, Coburn J, Glickstein L. The emergence of Lyme disease. J Clin Invest. 2004 Apr;113(8):1093-101.Full text  Abstract

Hayes EB, Piesman J. How can we prevent Lyme disease? N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 12;348(24):2424-30. Abstract

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for test performance and interpretation from the Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme Disease. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1995 Aug 11;44(31):590-1.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK). Lyme disease. October 2018 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

1. Tibbles CD, Edlow JA. Does this patient have erythema migrans? JAMA. 2007 Jun 20;297(23):2617-27. Abstract

2. Lantos PM, Rumbaugh J, Bockenstedt LK, et al. Clinical practice puidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), American Academy of Neurology (AAN), and American College of Rheumatology (ACR): 2020 guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 23;72(1):e1-48.Full text  Abstract

3. Hengge UR, Tannapfel A, Tyring SK, et al. Lyme borreliosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003 Aug;3(8):489-500. Abstract

4. Steere AC. Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 12;345(2):115-25. Abstract

5. Nau R, Christen HJ, Eiffert H. Lyme disease: current state of knowledge. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009 Jan;106(5):72-81;quiz 82, I.Full text  Abstract

6. Schwartz AM, Hinckley AF, Mead PS, et al. Surveillance for Lyme disease - United States, 2008-2015. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2017 Nov 10;66(22):1-12.Full text  Abstract

7. Stanek G, Strle F. Lyme borreliosis. Lancet. 2003 Nov 15;362(9396):1639-47. Abstract

8. Bennet L, Halling A, Berglund J. Increased incidence of Lyme borreliosis in southern Sweden following mild winters and during warm, humid summers. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006 Jul;25(7):426-32. Abstract

9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tickborne disease surveillance data summary. November 2019 [internet publication].Full text

10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How many people get Lyme disease? December 2018 [internet publication].Full text

11. Adams DA, Thomas KR, Jajosky RA, et al. Summary of notifiable infectious diseases and conditions - United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Aug 11;64(53):1-143.Full text  Abstract

12. Zhang X, Meltzer MI, Pena CA, et al. Economic impact of Lyme disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Apr;12(4):653-60.Full text  Abstract

13. Groseclose SL, Brathwaite WS, Hall PA, et al. Summary of notifiable diseases - United States, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004 Apr 30;51(53):1-84.Full text  Abstract

14. Steere AC, McHugh G, Suarez C, et al. Prospective study of coinfection in patients with erythema migrans. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Apr 15;36(8):1078-81.Full text  Abstract

15. Steere AC, Coburn J, Glickstein L. The emergence of Lyme disease. J Clin Invest. 2004 Apr;113(8):1093-101.Full text  Abstract

16. Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Wang G, Schwartz I, et al. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005 Jul;18(3):484-509.Full text  Abstract

17. Steere AC. Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 12;345(2):115-25. Abstract

18. Pritt BS, Mead PS, Johnson DK, et al. Identification of a novel pathogenic Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis with unusually high spirochaetaemia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 May;16(5):556-64.Full text  Abstract

19. Singh SK, Girschick HJ. Lyme borreliosis: from infection to autoimmunity. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:598-614. Abstract

20. Steere AC, Coburn J, Glickstein L. The emergence of Lyme disease. J Clin Invest. 2004 Apr;113(8):1093-101.Full text  Abstract

21. Hayes EB, Piesman J. How can we prevent Lyme disease? N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 12;348(24):2424-30. Abstract

22. Daltroy LH, Phillips C, Lew R, et al. A controlled trial of a novel primary prevention program for Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses. Health Educ Behav. 2007 Jun;34(3):531-42. Abstract

23. Bratton RL, Whiteside JW, Hovan MJ, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008 May;83(5):566-71.Full text  Abstract

24. Dessau RB, van Dam AP, Fingerle V, et al. To test or not to test? Laboratory support for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis: a position paper of ESGBOR, the ESCMID study group for Lyme borreliosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2018 Feb;24(2):118-24.Full text  Abstract

25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for test performance and interpretation from the Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme Disease. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1995 Aug 11;44(31):590-1.Full text  Abstract

26. Mead P, Petersen J, Hinckley A. Updated CDC recommendation for serologic diagnosis of lyme disease. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Aug 16;68(32):703.Full text  Abstract

27. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK). Lyme disease. October 2018 [internet publication].Full text

28. Mygland A, Ljøstad U, Fingerle V, et al; European Federation of Neurological Societies. EFNS guidelines on the diagnosis and management of European Lyme neuroborreliosis. Eur J Neurol. 2010 Jan;17(1):8-16;e1-4.Full text  Abstract

29. Moore A, Nelson C, Molins C, et al. Current guidelines, common clinical pitfalls, and future directions for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Jul;22(7):1169–77.Full text  Abstract

30. Branda JA, Steere AC. Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2021 Jan 27 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

31. American Academy of Pediatrics. Lyme disease. In: Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, eds. Red Book: 2018 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 31st ed. Itasca, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2018: 515-23.

32. American Academy of Pediatrics. Tetracyclines. In: Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, eds. Red Book: 2018 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 31st ed. Itasca, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2018: 905-6.

33. Steere AC, Malawista SE, Newman JH, et al. Antibiotic therapy in Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Jul;93(1):1-8. Abstract

34. Steere AC, Hutchinson GJ, Rahn DW, et al. Treatment of early manifestations of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med. 1983 Jul;99(1):22-6. Abstract

35. Massarotti EM, Luger SW, Rahn DW, et al. Treatment of early Lyme disease. Am J Med. 1992 Apr;92(4):396-403. Abstract

36. Nadelman RB, Luger SW, Frank E, et al. Comparison of cefuroxime axetil and doxycycline in the treatment of early Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med. 1992 Aug 15;117(4):273-80. Abstract

37. Luger SW, Paparone P, Wormser GP, et al. Comparison of cefuroxime axetil and doxycycline in treatment of patients with early Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995 Mar;39(3):661-7.Full text  Abstract

38. Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Forseter G, et al. Doxycycline versus tetracycline therapy for Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995 Feb;32(2 Pt 1):223-7. Abstract

39. Eppes SC, Childs JA. Comparative study of cefuroxime axetil versus amoxicillin in children with early Lyme disease. Pediatrics. 2002 Jun;109(6):1173-7. Abstract

40. Wormser GP, Ramanathan R, Nowakowski J, et al. Duration of antibiotic therapy for early Lyme disease. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2003 May 6;138(9):697-704. Abstract

41. Sigal LH. Early disseminated Lyme disease: cardiac manifestations. Am J Med. 1995 Apr 24;98(4A):25S-28S;discussion 28S-29S. Abstract

42. Berende A, Ter Hofstede HJM, Vos FJ, et al. Effect of prolonged antibiotic treatment on cognition in patients with Lyme borreliosis. Neurology. 2019 Mar 26;92(13):e1447-55.Full text  Abstract

43. Waddell LA, Greig J, Lindsay LR, et al. A systematic review on the impact of gestational Lyme disease in humans on the fetus and newborn. PLoS One. 2018 Nov 12;13(11):e0207067.Full text  Abstract

44. Lathrop SL, Ball R, Haber P, et al. Adverse event reports following vaccination for Lyme disease: December 1998-July 2000. Vaccine. 2002 Feb 22;20(11-12):1603-8. Abstract

45. Nadelman RB, Nowakowski J, Fish D, et al; Tick Bite Study Group. Prophylaxis with single-dose doxycycline for the prevention of Lyme disease after an Ixodes scapularis tick bite. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 12;345(2):79-84.Full text  Abstract

46. Steere AC, Levin RE, Molloy PJ, et al. Treatment of Lyme arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1994 Jun;37(6):878-88. Abstract

47. Eckman MH, Steere AC, Kalish RA, et al. Cost effectiveness of oral as compared with intravenous antibiotic treatment for patients with early Lyme disease or Lyme arthritis. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jul 31;337(5):357-63.Full text  Abstract

48. Nemeth J, Bernasconi E, Heininger U, et al. Update of the Swiss guidelines on post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Swiss Med Wkly. 2016 Dec 5;146:w14353.Full text  Abstract

49. Eliassen KE, Hjetland R, Reiso H, et al. Symptom load and general function among patients with erythema migrans: a prospective study with a 1-year follow-up after antibiotic treatment in Norwegian general practice. Scand J Prim Health Care. 2017 Mar;35(1):75-83.Full text  Abstract

50. Berende A, ter Hofstede HJ, Vos FJ, et al. Randomized trial of longer-term therapy for symptoms attributed to Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2016;374:1209-1220.Full text  Abstract

51. Steere AC, Pachner AR, Malawista SE. Neurologic abnormalities of Lyme disease: successful treatment with high-dose intravenous penicillin. AAnn Intern Med. 1983 Dec;99(6):767-72. Abstract

52. Dotevall L, Alestig K, Hanner P, et al. The use of doxycycline in nervous system Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1988;53:74-9. Abstract

53. Pfister HW, Preac-Mursic V, Wilske B, et al. Cefotaxime vs. penicillin G for acute neurologic manifestations in Lyme borreliosis. A prospective randomized study. Arch Neurol. 1989 Nov;46(11):1190-4. Abstract

54. Mullegger RR, Millner MM, Stanek G, et al. Penicillin G sodium and ceftriaxone in the treatment of neuroborreliosis in children - a prospective study. Infection. 1991 Jul-Aug;19(4):279-83. Abstract

55. Pfister HW, Preac-Mursic V, Wilske B, et al. Randomized comparison of ceftriaxone and cefotaxime in Lyme neuroborreliosis. J Infect Dis. 1991 Feb;163(2):311-8. Abstract

56. Wormser GP. Treatment and prevention of Lyme disease, with emphasis on antimicrobial therapy for neuroborreliosis and vaccination. Semin Neurol. 1997 Mar;17(1):45-52. Abstract

57. Dotevall L, Hagberg L. Successful oral doxycycline treatment of Lyme disease-associated facial palsy and meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Mar;28(3):569-74.Full text  Abstract

58. Karlsson M, Hammers-Berggren S, Lindquist L, et al. Comparison of intravenous penicillin G and oral doxycycline for treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Neurology. 1994 Jul;44(7):1203-7. Abstract

59. Kohlhepp W, Oschmann P, Mertens HG. Treatment of Lyme borreliosis: randomized comparison of doxycycline and penicillin G. J Neurol. 1989 Dec;236(8):464-9. Abstract

60. Thorstrand C, Belfrage E, Bennet R, et al. Successful treatment of neuroborreliosis with ten day regimens. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002 Dec;21(12):1142-5. Abstract

61. Borg R, Dotevall L, Hagberg L, et al. Intravenous ceftriaxone compared with oral doxycycline for the treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37(6-7):449-54. Abstract

62. Karkkonen K, Stiernstedt SH, Karlsson M. Follow-up of patients treated with oral doxycycline for Lyme borreliosis. Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33(4):259-62. Abstract

63. Dattwyler RJ, Halperin JJ, Volkman DJ, et al. Treatment of late Lyme borreliosis - randomized comparison of ceftriaxone and penicillin. Lancet. 1988 May 28;1(8596):1191-4. Abstract

64. Dattwyler RJ, Wormser GP, Rush TJ, et al. A comparison of two treatment regimens of ceftriaxone in late Lyme disease. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2005 Jun;117(11-12):393-7. Abstract

65. Pinto DS. Cardiac manifestations of Lyme disease. Med Clin North Am. 2002 Mar;86(2):285-96. Abstract

66. Strle F, Maraspin V, Pleterski-Rigler D, et al. Treatment of borrelial lymphocytoma. Infection. 1996 Jan-Feb;24(1):80-4. Abstract

67. Berende A, ter Hofstede HJ, Vos FJ, et al. Randomized trial of longer-term therapy for symptoms attributed to Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 31;374(13):1209-20.Full text  Abstract

68. Marzec NS, Nelson C, Waldron PR, et al. Serious bacterial infections acquired during treatment of patients given a diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease - United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jun 16;66(23):607-9.Full text  Abstract

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