Tetanus

References

Key articles

Rodrigo C, Fernando D, Rajapakse S. Pharmacological management of tetanus: an evidence-based review. Crit Care. 2014 Mar 26;18(2):217.Full text  Abstract

Yen LM, Thwaites CL. Tetanus. Lancet. 2019 Apr 20;393(10181):1657-68. Abstract

Brook I. Current concepts in the management of Clostridium tetani infection. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2008 Jun;6(3):327-36. Abstract

Liang JL, Tiwari T, Moro P, et al. Prevention of pertussis, tetanus, and diphtheria with vaccines in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 2018 Apr 27;67(2):1–44.Full text  Abstract

UK Health Security Agency. Tetanus: the green book, chapter 30. Jan 2020 [internet publication].Full text

Thwaites CL, Farrar JJ. Preventing and treating tetanus. BMJ. 2003 Jan 18;326(7381):117-8.Full text  Abstract

World Health Organization. Tetanus vaccines: WHO position paper – February 2017. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2017 Feb 10;92(6):53-76.Full text  Abstract

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended child and adolescent immunization schedule for ages 18 years or younger, United States, 2022. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended adult immunization schedule for ages 19 years or older, United States, 2022. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

Havers FP, Moro PL, Hunter P, et al. Use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines: updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Jan 24;69(3):77-83.Full text  Abstract

Tiwari TSP, Moro PL, Acosta AM. Tetanus. In: Hall E, Wodi AP, Hamborsky J, et al, eds. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiology and vaccine-preventable diseases. 14th ed. Washington, D.C.: Public Health Foundation; 2021.Full text

Reference articles

1. Rodrigo C, Fernando D, Rajapakse S. Pharmacological management of tetanus: an evidence-based review. Crit Care. 2014 Mar 26;18(2):217.Full text  Abstract

2. Yen LM, Thwaites CL. Tetanus. Lancet. 2019 Apr 20;393(10181):1657-68. Abstract

3. Ablett JJL. Analysis and main experiences in 82 patients treated in the Leeds Tetanus Unit. In: Ellis M, ed. Symposium on tetanus in Great Britain. Boston Spa, UK: National Lending Library; 1967.

4. Brook I. Tetanus in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004 Jan;20(1):48-51. Abstract

5. Roper MH, Vandelaer JH, Gasse FL. Maternal and neonatal tetanus. Lancet. 2007 Dec 8;370(9603):1947-59. Abstract

6. Fauveau V, Mamdani M, Steinglass R, et al. Maternal tetanus: magnitude, epidemiology and potential control measures. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1993 Jan;40(1):3-12. Abstract

7. Brook I. Current concepts in the management of Clostridium tetani infection. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2008 Jun;6(3):327-36. Abstract

8. Liang JL, Tiwari T, Moro P, et al. Prevention of pertussis, tetanus, and diphtheria with vaccines in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 2018 Apr 27;67(2):1–44.Full text  Abstract

9. UK Health Security Agency. Tetanus: the green book, chapter 30. Jan 2020 [internet publication].Full text

10. Collins S, Amirthalingam G, Beeching NJ, et al. Current epidemiology of tetanus in England, 2001-2014. Epidemiol Infect. 2016 Dec;144(16):3343-53. Abstract

11. Hahne SJM, White JM, Crowcroft NS, et al. Tetanus in injecting drug users, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Apr;12(4):709-10.Full text  Abstract

12. UK Health Security Agency. Shooting up: infections among people who inject drugs in the UK. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About tetanus. Feb 2019 [internet publication].Full text

14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Tetanus surveillance: United States, 2001-2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Apr 1;60(12):365-9.Full text  Abstract

15. Thwaites CL, Farrar JJ. Preventing and treating tetanus. BMJ. 2003 Jan 18;326(7381):117-8.Full text  Abstract

16. Kyu HH, Mumford JE, Stanaway JD, et al. Mortality from tetanus between 1990 and 2015: findings from the global burden of disease study 2015. BMC Public Health. 2017 Feb 8;17(1):179.Full text  Abstract

17. World Health Organization. Maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination (MNTE). Jul 2020 [internet publication].Full text

18. Vandelaer J, Birmingham M, Gasse F, et al. Tetanus in developing countries: an update on the Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative. Vaccine. 2003 Jul 28;21(24):3442-5. Abstract

19. Thwaites CL, Beeching NJ, Newton CR. Maternal and neonatal tetanus. Lancet. 2015 Jan 24;385(9965):362-70. Abstract

20. Kanu FA, Yusuf N, Kassogue M, et al. Progress toward achieving and sustaining maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination - worldwide, 2000-2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 Mar 18;71(11):406-11.Full text  Abstract

21. Demicheli V, Barale A, Rivetti A. Vaccines for women for preventing neonatal tetanus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(7):CD002959.Full text  Abstract

22. Farrar JJ, Yen LM, Cook T, et al. Tetanus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000 Sep;69(3):292-301.Full text  Abstract

23. Schiavo G, Benfenati F, Poulain B, et al. Tetanus and botulinum-B neurotoxins block neurotransmitter release by proteolytic cleavage of synaptobrevin. Nature. 1992 Oct 29;359(6398):832-5. Abstract

24. Reid PM, Brown D, Coni N, et al. Tetanus immunisation in the elderly population. J Accid Emerg Med. 1996 May;13(3):184-5.Full text  Abstract

25. Yen LM, Dao LM, Day NP, et al. Role of quinine in the high mortality of intramuscular injection tetanus. Lancet. 1994 Sep 17;344(8925):786-7. Abstract

26. Thwaites CL, Farrar JJ. Preventing and treating tetanus. BMJ. 2003 Jan 18;326(7381):117-8.Full text  Abstract

27. Udwadia FE. Tetanus. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1994.

28. World Health Organization. Tetanus vaccines: WHO position paper – February 2017. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2017 Feb 10;92(6):53-76.Full text  Abstract

29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC health information for international travel (yellow book): tetanus. 2020 [internet publication].Full text

30. Public Health England. Advice on tetanus for people who inject drugs. May 2013 [internet publication].Full text

31. Blencowe H, Lawn J, Vandelaer J, et al. Tetanus toxoid immunization to reduce mortality from neonatal tetanus. Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Apr;39(Suppl 1):i102-9.Full text  Abstract

32. Committee on Obstetric Practice, Immunization and Emerging Infections Expert Work Group. Committee Opinion No. 718: Update on Immunization and Pregnancy: Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccination. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Sep;130(3):e153-7.Full text  Abstract

33. Blencowe H, Cousens S, Mullany LC, et al. Clean birth and postnatal care practices to reduce neonatal deaths from sepsis and tetanus: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect. BMC Public Health. 2011 Apr 13;11(Suppl 3):S11.Full text  Abstract

34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended child and adolescent immunization schedule for ages 18 years or younger, United States, 2022. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended adult immunization schedule for ages 19 years or older, United States, 2022. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

36. Havers FP, Moro PL, Hunter P, et al. Use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines: updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Jan 24;69(3):77-83.Full text  Abstract

37. Oliver SE, Moore KL. Licensure of a diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate, and hepatitis B vaccine, and guidance for use in infants. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Feb 7;69(5):136-9.Full text  Abstract

38. Tiwari TSP, Moro PL, Acosta AM. Tetanus. In: Hall E, Wodi AP, Hamborsky J, et al, eds. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiology and vaccine-preventable diseases. 14th ed. Washington, D.C.: Public Health Foundation; 2021.Full text

39. Public Health England. Tetanus: advice for health professionals. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text

40. Schon F, O'Dowd L, White J, et al. Tetanus: delay in diagnosis in England and Wales. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994 Aug;57(8):1006-7.Full text  Abstract

41. Crone NE, Reder AT. Severe tetanus in immunized patients with high anti-tetanus titers. Neurology. 1992 Apr;42(4):761-4. Abstract

42. Rushdy AA, White JM, Ramsay ME, et al. Tetanus in England and Wales, 1984-2000. Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Feb;130(1):71-7. Abstract

43. Wood D, Webster E, Martinez D, et al. Case report: survival after deliberate strychnine self-poisoning, with toxicokinetic data. Crit Care. 2002 Oct;6(5):456-9.Full text  Abstract

44. Nakajima M, Aso S, Matsui H, et al. Clinical features and outcomes of tetanus: Analysis using a National Inpatient Database in Japan. J Crit Care. 2018 Apr;44:388-91. Abstract

45. Campbell JI, Lam TM, Huynh TL, et al. Microbiologic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium tetani isolated from wounds of patients with clinically diagnosed tetanus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 May;80(5):827-31.Full text  Abstract

46. Ahmadsyah I, Salim A. Treatment of tetanus: an open study to compare the efficacy of procaine penicillin and metronidazole. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985 Sep 7;291(6496):64.Full text  Abstract

47. Yen LM, Dao LM, Day NPJ, et al. Management of tetanus: a comparison of penicillin and metronidazole. Paper presented at: Symposium of antimicrobial resistance in southern Viet Nam; 1997; Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

48. Kapoor W, Carey P, Karpf M. Induction of lactic acidosis with intravenous diazepam in a patient with tetanus. Arch Intern Med. 1981 Jun;141(7):944-5. Abstract

49. Attygalle D, Rodrigo N. New trends in the management of tetanus. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2004 Feb;2(1):73-84. Abstract

50. Gyasi HK, Fahr J, Kurian E, et al. Midazolam for prolonged intravenous sedation in patients with tetanus. Middle East J Anesthesiol. 1993 Jun;12(2):135-41. Abstract

51. Okoromah CN, Lesi FE. Diazepam for treating tetanus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004 Jan 26;(1):CD003954. Abstract

52. Buchanan N, Cane RD, Wolfson G, et al. Autonomic dysfunction in tetanus: the effects of a variety of therapeutic agents, with special reference to morphine. Intensive Care Med. 1979 May;5(2):65-8. Abstract

53. Engrand N, Vilain G, Rouamba A, et al. Value of intrathecal baclofen in the treatment of severe tetanus in the tropical milieu. Med Trop (Mars). 2000;60(4):385-8. [In French] Abstract

54. Saissy JM, Demaziere J, Vitris M, et al. Treatment of severe tetanus by intrathecal injections of baclofen without artificial ventilation. Intensive Care Med. 1992;18(4):241-4. Abstract

55. Boots RJ, Lipman J, O'Callaghan J, et al. The treatment of tetanus with intrathecal baclofen. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2000 Aug;28(4):438-42. Abstract

56. Dressnandt J, Konstanzer A, Weinzierl FX, et al. Intrathecal baclofen in tetanus: four cases and a review of reported cases. Intensive Care Med. 1997 Aug;23(8):896-902. Abstract

57. Santos ML, Mota-Miranda A, Alves-Pereira A, et al. Intrathecal baclofen for the treatment of tetanus. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 1;38(3):321-8.Full text  Abstract

58. Lee C, Zhang X, Kwan WF. Electromyographic and mechanomyographic characteristics of neuromuscular block by magnesium sulphate in the pig. Br J Anaesth. 1996 Feb;76(2):278-83.Full text  Abstract

59. James MFM, Manson EDM. The use of magnesium sulphate infusions in the management of very severe tetanus. Intensive Care Med. 1985;11(1):5-12. Abstract

60. Lipman J, James MFM, Erskine J, et al. Autonomic dysfunction in severe tetanus: magnesium sulfate as an adjunct to deep sedation. Crit Care Med. 1987 Oct;15(10):987-8. Abstract

61. Attygalle D, Rodrigo N. Magnesium sulphate for control of spasms in severe tetanus. Can we avoid sedation and artificial ventilation? Anaesthesia. 1997 Oct;52(10):956-62. Abstract

62. Thwaites CL, Yen LM, Loan HT, et al. Magnesium sulphate for treatment of severe tetanus: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 Oct 21;368(9545):1436-43. Abstract

63. Attygalle D, Rodrigo N. Magnesium as first line therapy in the management of tetanus: a prospective study of 40 patients. Anaesthesia. 2002 Aug;57(8):811-7. Abstract

64. Rodrigo C, Samarakoon L, Fernando SD, et al. A meta-analysis of magnesium for tetanus. Anaesthesia. 2012 Dec;67(12):1370-4. Abstract

65. Rocke DA, Wesley AG, Pather M, et al. Morphine in tetanus--the management of sympathetic nervous system overactivity. S Afr Med J. 1986 Nov 22;70(11):666-8. Abstract

66. Buchanan N, Smit L, Cane RD, et al. Sympathetic overactivity in tetanus: fatality associated with propranolol. Br Med J. 1978 Jul 22;2(6132):254-5.Full text  Abstract

67. Dolar D. The use of continuous atropine infusion in the management of tetanus. Intensive Care Med. 1992;18(1):26-31. Abstract

68. Sutton DN, Tremlett MR, Woodcock TE, et al. Management of autonomic dysfunction in severe tetanus: the use of magnesium sulphate and clonidine. Intensive Care Med. 1990;16(2):75-80. Abstract

69. Gregorakos L, Kerezoudi E, Dimopoulos G, et al. Management of blood pressure instability in severe tetanus: the use of clonidine. Intensive Care Med. 1997 Aug;23(8):893-5. Abstract

70. Southorn PA, Blaise GA. Treatment of tetanus-induced autonomic nervous system dysfunction with continuous epidural blockade. Crit Care Med. 1986 Mar;14(3):251-2. Abstract

71. Shibuya M, Sugimoto H, Sugimoto T, et al. The use of continuous spinal anesthesia in severe tetanus with autonomic disturbance. J Trauma. 1989 Oct;29(10):1423-9. Abstract

72. Freshwater-Turner D, Udy A, Lipman J, et al. Autonomic dysfunction in tetanus - what lessons can be learnt with special reference to alpha-2 agonists? Anaesthesia. 2007 Oct;62(10):1066-70. Abstract

73. Wesley AG, Hariparsad D, Pather M, et al. Labetalol in tetanus. The treatment of sympathetic nervous system overactivity. Anaesthesia. 1983 Mar;38(3):243-9. Abstract

74. King WW, Cave DR. Use of esmolol to control autonomic instability of tetanus. Am J Med. 1991 Oct;91(4):425-8. Abstract

75. Beards SC, Lipman J, Bothma PA, et al. Esmolol in a case of severe tetanus. Adequate haemodynamic control achieved despite markedly elevated catecholamine levels. S Afr J Surg. 1994 Mar;32(1):33-5. Abstract

76. Hassel B. Tetanus: pathophysiology, treatment, and the possibility of using botulinum toxin against tetanus-induced rigidity and spasms. Toxins (Basel). 2013 Jan 8;5(1):73-83.Full text  Abstract

77. Loan HT, Yen LM, Kestelyn E, et al. A pilot study to assess safety and feasibility of intrathecal immunoglobulin for the treatment of adults with tetanus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Aug;99(2):323-6.Full text  Abstract

78. Loan HT, Yen LM, Kestelyn E, et al. Intrathecal immunoglobulin for treatment of adult patients with tetanus: a randomized controlled 2x2 factorial trial. Wellcome Open Res. 2018 Nov 5;3:58.Full text  Abstract

79. Thwaites CL, Yen LM, Glover C, et al. Predicting the clinical outcome of tetanus: the tetanus severity score. Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Mar;11(3):279-87.Full text  Abstract

80. Phillips LA. A classification of tetanus. Lancet. 1967 Jun 3;1(7501):1216-7. Abstract

81. Vakil BJ. Table ronde: propositions pour une classification internationale. In: 4th International Conference on Tetanus, vol 1. Dakar, Senegal: Fondation Merieux; 1975:3349-67.

82. Gurses N, Aydin M. Factors affecting prognosis of neonatal tetanus. Scan J Infect Dis. 1993;25(3):353-5. Abstract

83. Davies-Adetugbo AA, Torimiro SE, Ako-Nai KA. Prognostic factors in neonatal tetanus. Trop Med Int Health. 1998 Jan;3(1):9-13.Full text  Abstract

84. Basu S, Paul DK, Ganguly S, et al. Risk factors for mortality from neonatal tetanus: 7 years experience in North Bengal, India. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2006 Sep;26(3):233-9. Abstract

85. Lam PK, Trieu HT, Lubis IN, et al. Prognosis of neonatal tetanus in the modern management era: an observational study in 107 Vietnamese infants. Int J Infect Dis. 2015 Apr;33:7-11.Full text  Abstract

86. Loan HT, Parry J, Nga NT, et al. Semi-recumbent body position fails to prevent healthcare-associated pneumonia in Vietnamese patients with severe tetanus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Feb;106(2):90-7.Full text  Abstract

87. Chalya PL, Mabula JB, Dass RM, et al. Ten-year experiences with tetanus at a tertiary hospital in northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 102 cases. World J Emerg Surg. 2011 Jul 8;6:20.Full text  Abstract

88. Teknetzi P, Manios S, Katsouyanopoulos V. Neonatal tetanus--long-term residual handicaps. Arch Dis Child. 1983 Jan;58(1):68-9.Full text  Abstract

89. Anlar B, Yalaz K, Dizmen R. Long-term prognosis after neonatal tetanus. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1989 Feb;31(1):76-80. Abstract

90. Barlow JL, Mung'Ala-Odera V, Gona J, et al. Brain damage after neonatal tetanus in a rural Kenyan hospital. Trop Med Int Health. 2001 Apr;6(4):305-8.Full text  Abstract

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