There is a high prevalence and incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED) worldwide, and screening should take place as part of routine health assessment.
May be associated with established cardiovascular risk factors or be a precursor to significant cardiovascular, psychological, or endocrine disease.
Treatment using oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors is first line therapy.
The five treatment options include pills, injections, suppositories, vacuum devices, and penile implants. Treating hypogonadism with testosterone supplementation may be regarded as a sixth option, though not currently a definitive organic ED treatment.
Complex patients and treatment failures should be evaluated by a urologist if continued therapy is desired.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual performance.
Professor of Surgery
Division of Urology
University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine
EDK declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr Edward D. Kim would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Andrew C. Kramer, Dr Daniel H. Williams, and Dr James K. Kuan, previous contributors to this topic.
Imperial Healthcare NHS Trust
JV declares that he has no competing interests.
Professor of Urology
Cellular and Molecular Medicine
The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute
The Johns Hopkins Hospital
ALB declares that he has no competing interests.
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