Diagnosis should include a careful history and directed physical examination.
Microscopic or macroscopic haematuria: increases the possibility of prostate or bladder cancer
Neurological disease (such as long-standing diabetes): may suggest neurogenic bladder
History of prior urological surgeries and urethral stricture
History of recurrent infection
Renal impairment that is attributed to lower urinary tract dysfunction
Abnormal digital rectal exam suggesting prostate cancer
Abnormal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels.
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