Amfetamines have certain therapeutic uses, but misuse potential is high.
No medication has proven effective in breaking the misuse cycle.
Aggressive psychological and sociological interventions are needed to reduce the high recidivism rate.
Amfetamine use disorder involves the recreational use (other than for an approved medical indication) of a class of non-catecholamine sympathomimetic amines - specifically, amfetamines, metamfetamines, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamfetamine (MDMA, also known as ecstasy), misused by oral and intravenous routes, nasal insufflation (snorting) and inhalation (smoking), resulting in either acute or chronic toxicity. Although these compounds have been used to improve alertness, enhance performance, reduce appetite, and improve concentration in attention deficit disorders, the misuse potential is high.
History and exam
- presence of risk factors
- chest pain
- increased BP
- dilated pupils
- skin picking, skin lesions, excoriations
- dental decay, gum disease, 'meth mouth
- trismus, bruxism
Timothy E. Albertson, MD, MPH, PhD, FRCP
Professor of Medicine
Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, and Emergency Medicine
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
University of California Davis School of Medicine
TEA declares that he has no competing interests.
Richard J. Geller, MD, MPH, FACP
Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine
University of California San Francisco School of Medicine
RJG declares that he has no competing interests.
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