Raynaud's phenomenon


Key articles

Brand FN, Larson MG, Kannel WB, et al. The occurrence of Raynaud's phenomenon in a general population: the Framingham Study. Vasc Med. 1997;2:296-230. Abstract

Fernández-Codina A, Walker KM, Pope JE, et al. Treatment algorithms for systemic sclerosis according to experts. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Nov;70(11):1820-8.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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3. Garner R, Kumari R, Lanyon P, et al. Prevalence, risk factors and associations of primary Raynaud's phenomenon: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ Open. 2015 Mar 16;5(3):e006389.Full text  Abstract

4. Belch J, Carlizza A, Carpentier PH, et al. ESVM guidelines - the diagnosis and management of Raynaud's phenomenon. Vasa. 2017 Oct;46(6):413-23.Full text  Abstract

5. Brand FN, Larson MG, Kannel WB, et al. The occurrence of Raynaud's phenomenon in a general population: the Framingham Study. Vasc Med. 1997;2:296-230. Abstract

6. Maricq HR, Carpentier PH, Weinrich MC, et al. Geographic variation in the prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon: a 5 region comparison. J Rheumatol. 1997 May;24(5):879-89. Abstract

7. Flavahan NA, Flavahan S, Liu Q, et al. Increased alpha2-adrenergic constriction of isolated arterioles in diffuse scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:1886-1890.Full text  Abstract

8. Wigley FM. Raynaud's phenomenon. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1993;5:773-784. Abstract

9. Pistorius MA, Planchon B, Schott JJ, et al. Heredity and genetic aspects of Raynaud's disease. J Mal Vasc. 2006;31:10-15. Abstract

10. Smyth AE, Hughes AE, Bruce IN, et al. A case-control study of candidate vasoactive mediator genes in primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Rheumatology (Oxford). 1999;38:1094-1098.Full text  Abstract

11. Freedman RR, Mayes MD. Familial aggregation of primary Raynaud's disease. Arthritis Rheum. 1996;39:1189-1191. Abstract

12. Eliasson K, Danielson M, Hylander B, et al. Raynaud's phenomenon caused by beta-receptor blocking drugs. Improvement after treatment with a combined alpha- and beta-blocker. Acta Med Scand. 1984;215:333-339. Abstract

13. Brotzu G, Falchi S, Mannu B, et al. The importance of presynaptic beta receptors in Raynaud's phenomenon. J Vasc Surg. 1989;9:767. Abstract

14. Herrick A. Treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: new insights and developments. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2003;5:168-174. Abstract

15. Pope JE, Al-Bishri J, Al-Azem H, et al. The temporal relationship of Raynaud's phenomenon and features of connective tissue disease in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:2329-2333. Abstract

16. Lalani S, Pope J, de Leon F, et al. Clinical features and prognosis of late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: results from the 1000 faces of lupus study. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:38-44. Abstract

17. Ramos-Casals M, Anaya JM, García-Carrasco M, et al. Cutaneous vasculitis in primary Sjögren syndrome: classification and clinical significance of 52 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2004;83:96-106. Abstract

18. García-Carrasco M, Sisó A, Ramos-Casals M, et al. Raynaud's phenomenon in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Prevalence and clinical characteristics in a series of 320 patients. J Rheumatol. 2002;29:726-730. Abstract

19. Parodi A, Caproni M, Marzano AV, et al. Dermatomyositis in 132 patients with different clinical subtypes: cutaneous signs, constitutional symptoms and circulating antibodies. Acta Derm Venereol. 2002;82:48-51. Abstract

20. Grader-Beck T, Wigley FM. Raynaud's phenomenon in mixed connective tissue disease. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2005;31:465-481. Abstract

21. Hong P, Pope JE, Ouimet JM, et al. Erectile dysfunction associated with scleroderma: a case-control study of men with scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2004;31:508-513. Abstract

22. Taylor W. Hand-arm vibration syndrome: a new clinical classification and an updated British standard guide for hand transmitted vibration. Br J Ind Med. 1988;45:281-282. Abstract

23. Harada N, Mahbub MH. Diagnosis of vascular injuries caused by hand-transmitted vibration. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008;81:507-518. Abstract

24. Małecki R, Zdrojowy K, Adamiec R. Thromboangiitis obliterans in the 21st century - a new face of disease. Atherosclerosis. 2009;206:328-334. Abstract

25. Paraskevas KI, Liapis CD, Briana DD, et al. Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease): searching for a therapeutic strategy. Angiology. 2007;58:75-84. Abstract

26. Suter LG, Murabito JM, Felson DT, et al. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and Raynaud's phenomenon in middle age. Am J Med. 2007;120:264-267. Abstract

27. Moore TL, Roberts C, Murray AK, et al. Reliability of dermoscopy in the assessment of patients with Raynaud's phenomenon. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49:542-547. Abstract

28. Boin F, Wigley FM. Understanding, assessing and treating Raynaud's phenomenon. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2005;17:752-760. Abstract

29. Baron M, Bell M, Bookman A, et al. Office capillaroscopy in systemic sclerosis. Clin Rheumatol. 2006;26:1268-1274. Abstract

30. Ko GD, Berbrayer D. Effect of ceramic-impregnated "thermoflow" gloves on patients with Raynaud's syndrome: randomized, placebo-controlled study. Altern Med Rev. 2002;7:328-335.Full text  Abstract

31. Huisstede BM, Hoogvliet P, Paulis WD, et al. Effectiveness of interventions for secondary Raynaud's phenomenon: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92:1166-1180. Abstract

32. Ennis H, Hughes M, Anderson ME, et al. Calcium channel blockers for primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Feb 25;2:CD002069.Full text  Abstract

33. Rirash F, Tingey PC, Harding SE, et al. Calcium channel blockers for primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 13;12:CD000467.Full text  Abstract

34. Roustit M, Blaise S, Allanore Y, et al. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors for the treatment of secondary Raynaud's phenomenon: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72:1696-1699. Abstract

35. Teh LS, Manning J, Moore T, et al. Sustained-release transdermal glyceryl trinitrate patches as a treatment for primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. Br J Rheumatol. 1995;34:636-641. Abstract

36. Franks AG Jr. Topical glyceryl trinitrate as adjunctive treatment in Raynaud's disease. Lancet. 1982;1:76-77. Abstract

37. Chung L, Shapiro L, Fiorentino D, et al. MQX-503, a novel formulation of nitroglycerin, improves the severity of Raynaud's phenomenon: a randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:870-877.Full text  Abstract

38. Hummers LK, Dugowson CE, Dechow FJ, et al. A multi-centre, blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, laboratory-based study of MQX-503, a novel topical gel formulation of nitroglycerine, in patients with Raynaud phenomenon. Ann Rheum Dis. 2013;72:1962-1967. Abstract

39. Thompson AE, Pope JE. Calcium channel blockers for primary Raynaud's phenomenon: a meta-analysis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005;44:145-150.Full text  Abstract

40. Challenor VF, Waller DG, Hayward RA, et al. Vibrotactile sensation and response to nifedipine dose titration in primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Angiology. 1989;40:122-128. Abstract

41. Raynaud's Treatment Study Investigators. Comparison of sustained-release nifedipine and temperature biofeedback for treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon: results from a randomized clinical trial with 1-year follow-up. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1101-1108.Full text  Abstract

42. Sarkozi J, Bookman AA, Mahon W, et al. Nifedipine in the treatment of idiopathic Raynaud's syndrome. J Rheumatol. 1986;13:331-336. Abstract

43. Corbin DO, Wood DA, Macintyre CC, et al. A randomized double blind cross-over trial of nifedipine in the treatment of primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Eur Heart J. 1986;7:165-170. Abstract

44. Gjorup T, Kelbaek H, Hartling OJ, et al. Controlled double-blind trial of the clinical effect of nifedipine in the treatment of idiopathic Raynaud's phenomenon. Am Heart J. 1986;111:742-745. Abstract

45. Waller DG, Challenor VF, Francis DA, et al. Clinical and rheological effects of nifedipine in Raynaud's phenomenon. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1986;22:449-454.Full text  Abstract

46. Stewart M, Morling JR. Oral vasodilators for primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(7):CD006687.Full text  Abstract

47. French Cooperative Multicenter Group for Raynaud Phenomenon. Controlled multicenter double-blind trial of nicardipine in the treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon. Am Heart J. 1991;122:352-355. Abstract

48. Wollersheim H, Thien T. Double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of oral nicardipine in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1991;18:813-818. Abstract

49. La Civita L, Pitaro N, Rossi M, et al. Amlodipine in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon. A double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Clin Drug Invest. 1997;13:126-131. Abstract

50. Rhedda A, McCans J, Willan AR, et al. A double blind controlled crossover randomized trial of diltiazem in Raynaud's phenomenon. J Rheumatol. 1985;12:724-727. Abstract

51. Dziadzio M, Denton CP, Smith R, et al. Losartan therapy for Raynaud's phenomenon and scleroderma: clinical and biochemical findings in a fifteen-week, randomized, parallel-group, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 1999; 42:2646-2655.Full text  Abstract

52. Wood HM, Ernst ME. Renin-angiotensin system mediators and Raynaud's phenomenon. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:1998-2002. Abstract

53. Coleiro B, Marshall SE, Denton CP, et al. Treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2001;40:1038-1043.Full text  Abstract

54. Wollersheim H, Thien T, Fennis J, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of prazosin in Raynaud's phenomenon. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1986;40:219-225. Abstract

55. Rustin MH, Almond NE, Beacham JA, et al. The effect of captopril on cutaneous blood flow in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Br J Dermatol. 1987;117:751. Abstract

56. Gliddon AE, Doré CJ, Black CM, et al. Prevention of vascular damage in scleroderma and autoimmune Raynaud's phenomenon: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor quinapril. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:3837-3846.Full text  Abstract

57. Davinroy M, Mosnier M. Double-blind clinical evaluation of naftidrofuryl in Raynaud's phenomenon [in French]. Sem Hop Paris. 1993;69:1322-1326.

58. errick AL, van den Hoogen F, Gabrielli A, et al. Modified-release sildenafil reduces Raynaud's phenomenon attack frequency in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:775-782.Full text  Abstract

59. Fries R, Shariat K, von Wilmowsky H, et al. Sildenafil in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon resistant to vasodilatory therapy. Circulation. 2005;112:2980-2985.Full text  Abstract

60. Shenoy PD, Kumar S, Jha LK, et al. Efficacy of tadalafil in secondary Raynaud's phenomenon resistant to vasodilator therapy: a double-blind randomized cross-over trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49:2420-2428. Abstract

61. Caglayan E, Axmann S, Hellmich M, et al. Vardenafil for the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:1182-1184. Abstract

62. De LaVega AJ, Derk CT. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors for the treatment of Raynaud's: a novel indication. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2009;18:23-29. Abstract

63. Lee EY, Park JK, Lee W, et al. Head-to-head comparison of udenafil vs amlodipine in the treatment of secondary Raynaud's phenomenon: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014;53:658-664. Abstract

64. Abou-Raya A, Abou-Raya S, Helmii M. Statins: potentially useful in therapy of systemic sclerosis-related Raynaud's phenomenon and digital ulcers. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:1801-1808. Abstract

65. Varga J. New hope for systemic sclerosis patients with digital ulcers. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2005;7:127. Abstract

66. Korn JH, Mayes M, Matucci Cerinic M, et al. Digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: prevention by treatment with bosentan, an oral endothelin receptor antagonist. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:3985-3993.Full text  Abstract

67. Seibold JR, Matucci-Cerinic M, Denton CP, et al. Bosentan reduces the number of new digital ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65(suppl II):90.

68. Wigley FM, Seibold JR, Wise RA, et al. Intravenous iloprost treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon and ischemic ulcers secondary to systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol. 1992;19:1407-1414. Abstract

69. Wigley FM, Wise RA, Seibold JR, et al. Intravenous iloprost infusion in patients with Raynaud phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120:199-206. Abstract

70. Wasserman A, Brahn E. Systemic sclerosis: bilateral improvement of Raynaud's phenomenon with unilateral digital sympathectomy. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2010;40:137-146. Abstract

71. Belch JJ, Shaw B, O'Dowd A, et al. Evening primrose oil (Efamol) in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: a double blind study. J Thromb Haemost. 1985;54:490. Abstract

72. DiGiacomo RA, Kremer JM, Shah DM. Fish-oil dietary supplementation in patients with Raynaud's: a double-blind, controlled, prospective study. Am J Med. 1989;68:158-164. Abstract

73. Muir AH, Robb R, McLaren M, et al. The use of Ginkgo biloba in Raynaud's disease: a double-blind placebo controlled trial. Vasc Med. 2002;7:265-267. Abstract

74. Bredie SJ, Jong MC. No significant effect of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of primary Raynaud phenomenon: a randomized controlled trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012;59:215-221. Abstract

75. Appiah R, Hiller S, Caspary L, et al. Treatment of primary Raynaud's syndrome with traditional Chinese acupuncture. J Intern Med. 1997;241:119. Abstract

76. Al-Awami M, Schillinger M, Maca T, et al. Low-level laser therapy treatment of primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. Vasa. 2004;33:25-29. Abstract

77. Malenfant D, Catton M, Pope JE. The efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: a literature review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48:791-795. Abstract

78. Hélou J, Moutran R, Maatouk I, et al. Raynaud's phenomenon and vitamin D. Rheumatol Int. 2013;33:751-755. Abstract

79. Fernández-Codina A, Walker KM, Pope JE, et al. Treatment algorithms for systemic sclerosis according to experts. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Nov;70(11):1820-8.Full text  Abstract

80. Pope JE, Black C, Matucci-Cerinic M, et al. Functional correlates of reduction of digital ulcers by bosentan therapy in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54(suppl):S740.Full text

81. Bello RJ, Cooney CM, Melamed E, et al. The therapeutic efficacy of botulinum toxin in treating scleroderma-associated Raynaud's phenomenon: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69:1661-1669. Abstract

82. Iorio ML, Masden DL, Higgins JP. Botulinum toxin A treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: a review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2012;41:599-603. Abstract

83. Neumeister MW, Chambers CB, Herron MS, et al. Botox therapy for ischemic digits. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124:191-201. Abstract

84. Jenkins SN, Neyman KM, Veledar E, et al. A pilot study evaluating the efficacy of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;69:834-835.Full text  Abstract

85. Kim DC, Lee CE. NXCL-4950, a novel composite applicable to peripheral skin, is capable of increasing skin temperature by enhancing capillary circulation. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2013;38:244-250. Abstract

86. Pope J, Fenlon D, Thompson A, et al. Ketanserin for Raynaud's phenomenon in progressive systemic sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1998;(2):CD000954.Full text  Abstract

87. Fava A, Wung PK, Wigley FM, et al. Efficacy of Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil in secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012;64:925-929. Abstract

88. Spencer-Green G. Outcomes in primary Raynaud phenomenon: a meta-analysis of the frequency, rates, and predictors of transition to secondary diseases. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:595-600.Full text  Abstract

89. Khanna D, Denton C, Merkel PA, et al. Macitentan in systemic sclerosis associated with ischemic digital ulcers: results from two large randomized controlled trials. JAMA. In press.

90. Black C, Denton CP, Furst DE, et al. Bosentan reduces the number of new digital ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis: open-label extension to a double-blind trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65(suppl II):384.

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