Acute epididymitis

References

Key articles

Taylor SN. Epididymitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 15;61 Suppl 8:S770-3.Full text  Abstract

Louette A, Krahn J, Caine V, et al. Treatment of acute epididymitis: a systematic review and discussion of the implications for treatment based on etiology. Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Dec;45(12):e104-8. Abstract

Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually transmitted infections treatment guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2021 Jul 23;70(4):1-187.Full text  Abstract

Tracy CR, Steers WD, Costabile R. Diagnosis and management of epididymitis. Urol Clin North Am. 2008 Feb;35(1):101-8;vii. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Taylor SN. Epididymitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 15;61 Suppl 8:S770-3.Full text  Abstract

2. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH). 2019 UK national guideline for the management of epididymo-orchitis. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

3. Gupta RK, Best J, MacMahon E. Mumps and the UK epidemic 2005. BMJ. 2005 May 14;330(7500):1132-5.Full text  Abstract

4. Shen Y, Liu H, Cheng J, et al. Amiodarone-induced epididymitis: a pathologically confirmed case report and review of the literature. Cardiology. 2014 Jun 18;128(4):349-51. Abstract

5. Kanakis MA, Vaiopoulos AG, Vaiopoulos GA, et al. Epididymo-orchitis in Bechet's disease: a review of the wide spectrum of the disease. Acta Med Iran. 2017 Aug;55(8):482-5.Full text  Abstract

6. Modi S, Mohan M, Jennings A. Acute scrotal swelling in Henoch-Schonlein purpura: case report and review of the literature. Urol Case Rep. 2016 Feb 21;6:9-11.Full text  Abstract

7. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: acute onset of scrotal pain - without trauma, without antecedent mass. 2014 (revised 2018) [internet publication].Full text

8. Trojian TH, Lishnak TS, Heiman D. Epididymitis and orchitis: an overview. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Apr 1;79(7):583-7. Abstract

9. Nickel JC, Teichman JM, Gregoire M, et al. Prevalence, diagnosis, characterization, and treatment of prostatitis, interstitial cystitis, and epididymitis in outpatient urological practice: the Canadian PIE Study. Urology. 2005 Nov;66(5):935-40. Abstract

10. Nicholson A, Rait G, Murray-Thomas T, et al. Management of epididymo-orchitis in primary care: results from a large UK primary care database. Br J Gen Pract. 2010 Oct;60(579):e407-22.Full text  Abstract

11. Somekh E, Gorenstein A, Serour F. Acute epididymitis in boys: evidence of a post-infectious etiology. J Urol. 2004 Jan;171(1):391-4. Abstract

12. Tracy CR, Steers WD, Costabile R. Diagnosis and management of epididymitis. Urol Clin North Am. 2008 Feb;35(1):101-8;vii. Abstract

13. Redshaw JD, Tran TL, Wallis MC, et al. Epididymitis: a 21-year retrospective review of presentations to an outpatient urology clinic. J Urol. 2014 Oct;192(4):1203-7. Abstract

14. Louette A, Krahn J, Caine V, et al. Treatment of acute epididymitis: a systematic review and discussion of the implications for treatment based on etiology. Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Dec;45(12):e104-8. Abstract

15. Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually transmitted infections treatment guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2021 Jul 23;70(4):1-187.Full text  Abstract

16. Pilatz A, Hossain H, Kaiser R, et al. Acute epididymitis revisited: impact of molecular diagnostics on etiology and contemporary guideline recommendations. Eur Urol. 2015 Sep;68(3):428-35. Abstract

17. Yadav S, Singh P, Hemal A, et al. Genital tuberculosis: current status of diagnosis and management. Transl Androl Urol. 2017 Apr;6(2):222-33.Full text  Abstract

18. Gómez García I, Gómez Mampaso E, Burgos Revilla J, et al. Tuberculous orchiepididymitis during 1978-2003 period: review of 34 cases and role of 16S rRNA amplification. Urology. 2010 Oct;76(4):776-81. Abstract

19. Liu Y, Lu J, Huang Y, et al. Clinical spectrum of complications induced by intravesical immunotherapy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin for bladder cancer. J Oncol. 2019;2019:6230409.Full text  Abstract

20. Hagley M. Epididymo-orchitis and epididymitis: a review of causes and management of unusual forms. Int J STD AIDS. 2003 Jun;14(6):372-7;quiz 378. Abstract

21. Jenkin GA, Choo M, Hosking P, et al. Candidal epididymo-orchitis: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Apr;26(4):942-5.Full text  Abstract

22. Gkentzis A, Lee L. The aetiology and current management of prepubertal epididymitis. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2014 Apr;96(3):181-3.Full text  Abstract

23. Tracy CR, Steers WD, Costabile R. Diagnosis and management of epididymitis. Urol Clin North Am. 2008 Feb;35(1):101-8;vii. Abstract

24. Thind P, Brandt B, Kristensen JK. Assessment of voiding dysfunction in men with acute epididymitis. Urol Int. 1992;48(3):320-2. Abstract

25. Tracy CR, Costabile RA. The evaluation and treatment of acute epididymitis in a large university based population: are CDC guidelines being followed? World J Urol. 2009 Apr;27(2):259-63. Abstract

26. Zeng S, Zhang Z, Bai Y, et al. Antimicrobial agents for preventing urinary tract infections in adults undergoing cystoscopy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Feb 21;(2):CD012305.Full text  Abstract

27. Street EJ, Justice ED, Kopa Z, et al. The 2016 European guideline on the management of epididymo-orchitis. Int J STD AIDS. 2017 Jul;28(8):744-9. Abstract

28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for the laboratory-based detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae - 2014. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2014 Mar 14;63(rr-02):1-19.Full text  Abstract

29. Soni S, Horner P, Rayment M, et al. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV national guideline for the management of infection with Mycoplasma genitalium (2018). Int J STD AIDS. 2019 Sep;30(10):938-50.Full text  Abstract

30. Jensen JS, Cusini M, Gomberg M, et al. 2016 European guideline on Mycoplasma genitalium infections. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016 Oct;30(10):1650-6.Full text  Abstract

31. Gaydos CA. Mycoplasma genitalium: accurate diagnosis is necessary for adequate treatment. J Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 15;216(suppl 2):S406-11.Full text  Abstract

32. Unemo M, Jensen JS. Antimicrobial-resistant sexually transmitted infections: gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium. Nat Rev Urol. 2017 Mar;14(3):139-52. Abstract

33. Ota K, Fukui K, Oba K, et al. The role of ultrasound imaging in adult patients with testicular torsion: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Ultrason (2001). 2019 Jul;46(3):325-34.Full text  Abstract

34. Karmazyn B, Steinberg R, Livne P, et al. Duplex sonographic findings in children with torsion of the testicular appendages: overlap with epididymitis and epididymoorchitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Mar;41(3):500-4. Abstract

35. Santi M, Lava SAG, Simonetti GD, et al. Acute idiopathic scrotal edema: systematic literature review. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2018 Jun;28(3):222-6.Full text  Abstract

36. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

37. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics: new restrictions and precautions for use due to very rare reports of disabling and potentially long-lasting or irreversible side effects. Mar 2019 [internet publication].Full text

38. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA advises restricting fluoroquinolone antibiotic use for certain uncomplicated infections; warns about disabling side effects that can occur together. 2016 [internet publication].Full text

39. Food and Drug Administration. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Full text

40. Food and Drug Administration. FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes. Jul 2018 [internet publication].Full text

41. Luzzi GA, O'Brien TS. Acute epididymitis. BJU Int. 2001 May;87(8):747-55. Abstract

42. Moore CA, Lockett BL, Lennox KW, et al. Prednisone in the treatment of acute epididymitis: a cooperative study. J Urol. 1971 Oct;106(4):578-80. Abstract

43. Nickel JC. Chronic epididymitis: a practical approach to understanding and managing a difficult urologic enigma. Rev Urol. 2003 Fall;5(4):209-15.Full text  Abstract

44. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on urological infections. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

45. European Association of Urology. Sexual and reproductive health. 2021 [internet publication].Full text

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