References

Key articles

Cunha BA, Burillo A, Bouza E. Legionnaires' disease. Lancet. 2016 Jan 23;387(10016):376-85.Abstract external link opens in a new window

Lim WS, Baudouin SV, George RC, et al; Pneumonia Guidelines Committee of the BTS Standards of Care Committee. BTS guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults: update 2009. Thorax. 2009 Oct;64 Suppl 3:iii1-55.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jan 23;336(4):243-50.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Reference articles

1. Marchello C, Dale AP, Thai TN, et al. Prevalence of atypical pathogens in patients with cough and community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Ann Fam Med. 2016 Nov;14(6):552-66.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

2. Arnold FW, Summersgill JT, Ramirez JA. Role of atypical pathogens in the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Dec;37(6):819-28.Abstract external link opens in a new window

3. Jain S, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, et al; CDC EPIC Study Team. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among US children. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 26;372(9):835-45.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

4. Kutty PK, Jain S, Taylor TH, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae among children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Jan 1;68(1):5-12.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

5. Waites KB, Talkington DF. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its role as a human pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Oct;17(4):697-728.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

6. File TM. Community-acquired pneumonia. Lancet. 2003 Dec 13;362(9400):1991-2001.Abstract external link opens in a new window

7. Klement E, Talkington DF, Wasserzug O, et al. Identification of risk factors for infection in an outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory tract disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Nov 15;43(10):1239-45.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

8. Feikin DR, Moroney JF, Talkington DF, et al. An outbreak of acute respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and adenovirus at a federal service training academy: new implications from an old scenario. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Dec;29(6):1545-50.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

9. File TM Jr, Tan JS. Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia. Semin Respir Critical Care Med. 2000;21(4):285-94.Abstract external link opens in a new window

10. Conklin L, Adjemian J, Loo J, et al. Investigation of a Chlamydia pneumoniae outbreak in a Federal correctional facility in Texas. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Sep;57(5):639-47.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

11. Spoorenberg SM, Bos WJ, van Hannen EJ, et al. Chlamydia psittaci: a relevant cause of community-acquired pneumonia in two Dutch hospitals. Neth J Med. 2016 Feb;74(2):75-81.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

12. Lanternier F, Tubach F, Ravaud P, et al. Incidence and risk factors of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia during anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy: a prospective French study. Chest. 2013 Sep;144(3):990-8.Abstract external link opens in a new window

13. Arcavi L, Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and infection. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Nov 8;164(20):2206-16.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

14. Den Boer JW, Nijhof J, Friesema I. Risk factors for sporadic community-acquired Legionnaires' disease. A 3-year national case-control study. Public Health. 2006 Jun;120(6):566-71.Abstract external link opens in a new window

15. England AC III, Fraser DW, Plikaytis BD, et al. Sporadic legionellosis in the United States: the first thousand cases. Ann Intern Med. 1981 Feb;94(2):164-70.Abstract external link opens in a new window

16. von Baum H, Schweiger B, Welte T, et al; the THE CAPNETZ STUDY GROUP. How deadly is seasonal influenza associated pneumonia? The German Competence Network for Community-acquired pneumonia (CAPNETZ). Eur Respir J. 2011 May;37(5):1151-7.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

17. Niederman MS. Viral community-acquired pneumonia: if we do not diagnose it and do not treat it, can it still hurt us? Chest. 2010 Oct;138(4):767-9.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

18. Metlay JP, Waterer GW, Long AC, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. An official clinical practice guideline of the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Oct 1;200(7):e45-67.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

19. Lieberman D, Shimoni A, Shemer-Avni Y, et al. Respiratory viruses in adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2010 Oct;138(4):811-6.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

20. Alimi Y, Lim WS, Lansbury L, et al. Systematic review of respiratory viral pathogens identified in adults with community-acquired pneumonia in Europe. J Clin Virol. 2017 Oct;95:26-35.Abstract external link opens in a new window

21. Marrie TJ. Coxiella burnetii pneumonia. Eur Respir J. 2003 Apr;21(4):713-9.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

22. Gadsby NJ, Russell CD, McHugh MP, et al. Comprehensive molecular testing for respiratory pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 1;62(7):817-23.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

23. Jain S, Self WH, Wunderink RG, et al; CDC EPIC Study Team. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among US adults. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 30;373(5):415-27.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

24. Dumke R, Schnee C, Pletz MW, et al; Capnetz Study Group. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. infection in community-acquired pneumonia, Germany, 2011-2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Mar;21(3):426-34.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

25. Fields BS, Benson RF, Besser RE. Legionella and Legionnaires' disease: 25 years of investigation. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002 Jul;15(3):506-26.Abstract external link opens in a new window

26. Kannan TR, Baseman JB. ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin of Mycoplasma pneumoniae represents unique virulence determinant among bacterial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006 Apr 25;103(17):6724-9.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

27. Johnston SL, Martin RJ. Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a role in asthma pathogenesis? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Nov 1;172(9):1078-89.Abstract external link opens in a new window

28. Correia AM, Ferreira JS, Borges V, et al. Probable person-to-person transmission of legionnaires' disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 Feb 4;374(5):497-8.Abstract external link opens in a new window

29. Cunha BA, Burillo A, Bouza E. Legionnaires' disease. Lancet. 2016 Jan 23;387(10016):376-85.Abstract external link opens in a new window

30. Nakashima K, Tanaka T, Kramer MH, et al. Outbreak of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a Japanese nursing home, 1999-2000. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006 Nov;27(11):1171-7.Abstract external link opens in a new window

31. Sopena N, Force L, Pedro-Botet ML, et al. Sporadic and epidemic community legionellosis: two faces of the same illness. Eur Respir J. 2007 Jan;29(1):138-42.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

32. Yu VL. A clinical solution to antimicrobial resistance in community-acquired pneumonia: narrowing the spectrum of antimicrobial therapy: comment on "Current and potential usefulness of pneumococcal urinary antigen detection in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia to guide antimicrobial therapy". Arch Intern Med. 2011 Jan 24;171(2):172-3.Abstract external link opens in a new window

33. Blasi F, Tarsia P, Aliberti S. Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009 Jan;15(1):29-35.Abstract external link opens in a new window

34. Spuesens EBM, Fraaij PLA, Visser EG, et al. Carriage of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract of symptomatic and asymptomatic children: an observational study. PLoS Med. 2013;10(5):e1001444.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

35. Harvey JJ, Chester S, Burke SA, et al. Comparative analytical evaluation of the respiratory TaqMan Array Card with real-time PCR and commercial multi-pathogen assays. J Virol Methods. 2016 Feb;228:151-7.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

36. Keijmel SP, Krijger E, Delsing CE, et al. Differentiation of acute Q fever from other infections in patients presenting to hospitals, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Aug;21(8):1348-56.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

37. World Health Organization. Laboratory testing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in suspected human cases. 2020 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

38. Yin YD, Zhao F, Ren LL, et al. Evaluation of the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines for the identification of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Respirology. 2012 Oct;17(7):1131-6.Abstract external link opens in a new window

39. Watanabe A, Goto H, Kohno S, et al. Nationwide survey on the 2005 guidelines for the management of community-acquired adult pneumonia: validation of differentiation between bacterial pneumonia and atypical pneumonia. Respir Investig. 2012 Mar;50(1):23-32.Abstract external link opens in a new window

40. Lim WS, Baudouin SV, George RC, et al; Pneumonia Guidelines Committee of the BTS Standards of Care Committee. BTS guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults: update 2009. Thorax. 2009 Oct;64 Suppl 3:iii1-55.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

41. Eliakim-Raz N, Robenshtok E, Shefet D, et al. Empiric antibiotic coverage of atypical pathogens for community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;2012(9):CD004418.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

42. Sligl WI, Asadi L, Eurich DT, et al. Macrolides and mortality in critically ill patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2014 Feb;42(2):420-32.Abstract external link opens in a new window

43. König R, Cao X, Oswald M, et al. Macrolide combination therapy for hospitalised CAP patients? An individualised approach supported by machine learning. Eur Respir J. 2019 Dec 12;54(6):1900824.Abstract external link opens in a new window

44. Postma DF, van Werkhoven CH, Oosterheert JJ. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization: rational decision making and interpretation of guidelines. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2017 May;23(3):204-10.Abstract external link opens in a new window

45. Naucler P, Strålin K. Routine atypical antibiotic coverage is not necessary in hospitalised patients with non-severe community-acquired pneumonia. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2016 Aug;48(2):224-5.Abstract external link opens in a new window

46. File TM Jr, Marrie TJ. Does empiric therapy for atypical pathogens improve outcomes for patients with CAP? Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2013 Mar;27(1):99-114.Abstract external link opens in a new window

47. File TM Jr, Eckburg PB, Talbot GH, et al. Macrolide therapy for community-acquired pneumonia due to atypical pathogens: outcome assessment at an early time point. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017 Aug;50(2):247-51.Abstract external link opens in a new window

48. Eljaaly K, Alshehri S, Aljabri A, et al. Clinical failure with and without empiric atypical bacteria coverage in hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Jun 2;17(1):385.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

49. Liu Y, Ye X, Zhang H, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates and molecular analysis of macrolide-resistant strains from Shanghai, China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 May;53(5):2160-2.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

50. Averbuch D, Hidalgo-Grass C, Moses AE, et al. Macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Israel, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Jun; 17(6):1079-82.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

51. Peuchant O, Ménard A, Renaudin H, et al. Increased macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in France directly detected in clinical specimens by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009 Jul;64(1):52-8.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

52. Spuesens EB, Meijer A, Bierschenk D, et al. Macrolide resistance determination and molecular typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in respiratory specimens collected between 1997 and 2008 in the Netherlands. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Jun;50(6):1999-2004.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

53. Uldum SA, Bangsborg JM, Gahrn-Hansen B, et al. Epidemic of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Denmark, 2010 and 2011. Euro Surveill. 2012 Feb 2;17(5):20073.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

54. Wolff BJ, Thacker WL, Schwartz SB, et al. Detection of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae by real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Oct;52(10):3542-9.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

55. Cao B, Qu JX, Yin YD, et al. Overview of antimicrobial options for Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: focus on macrolide resistance. Clin Respir J. 2017 Jul;11(4):419-29.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

56. Waites KB, Xiao L, Liu Y, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae from the respiratory tract and beyond. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2017 Jul;30(3):747-809.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

57. Gershengorn HB, Keene A, Dzierba AL, et al. The association of antibiotic treatment regimen and hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with Legionella pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Jun 1;60(11):e66-79.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

58. Schuetz P, Wirz Y, Sager R, et al. Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct 12;10(10):CD007498.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

59. Schuetz P, Wirz Y, Sager R, et al. Effect of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment on mortality in acute respiratory infections: a patient level meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Jan;18(1):95-107.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

60. Lam SW, Bauer SR, Fowler R, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of procalcitonin-guidance versus usual care for antimicrobial management in critically ill patients: focus on subgroups based on antibiotic initiation, cessation, or mixed strategies. Crit Care Med. 2018 May;46(5):684-90.Abstract external link opens in a new window

61. Huang DT, Yealy DM, Filbin MR, et al. Procalcitonin-guided use of antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infection. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jul 19;379(3):236-49.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

62. Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jan 23;336(4):243-50.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

63. Yandiola PP, Capelastegui A, Quintana J, et al. Prospective comparison of severity scores for predicting clinically relevant outcomes for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2009 Jun;135(6):1572-9.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

64. España PP, Capelastegui A, Gorordo I, et al. Development and validation of a clinical prediction rule for severe community-acquired pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Dec 1;174(11):1249-56.Abstract external link opens in a new window

65. Charles PG, Wolfe R, Whitby M, et al; Australian Community-Acquired Pneumonia Study Collaboration. SMART-COP: a tool for predicting the need for intensive respiratory or vasopressor support in community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Aug 1;47(3):375-84.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

66. Ewig S, Woodhead M, Torres A. Towards a sensible comprehension of severe community-acquired pneumonia. Intensive Care Med. 2011 Feb;37(2):214-23.Abstract external link opens in a new window

67. Majumdar SR, Eurich DT, Gamble JM, et al. Oxygen saturations less than 92% are associated with major adverse events in outpatients with pneumonia: a population-based cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 1;52(3):325-31.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

68. Siemieniuk RA, Meade MO, Alonso-Coello P, et al. Corticosteroid therapy for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Oct 6;163(7):519-28.Abstract external link opens in a new window

69. Bi J, Yang J, Wang Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive corticosteroids therapy for severe community-acquired pneumonia in adults: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0165942.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

70. Briel M, Spoorenberg SMC, Snijders D, et al. Corticosteroids in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jan 18;66(3):346-54.Abstract external link opens in a new window

71. Stern A, Skalsky K, Avni T, et al. Corticosteroids for pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 13;(12):CD007720.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

72. Wu WF, Fang Q, He GJ. Efficacy of corticosteroid treatment for severe community-acquired pneumonia: A meta-analysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2018 Feb;36(2):179-84.Abstract external link opens in a new window

73. Huang J, Guo J, Li H, et al. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive corticosteroids therapy for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Mar;98(13):e14636.Abstract external link opens in a new window

74. Jiang S, Liu T, Hu Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of glucocorticoids in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jun;98(26):e16239.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

75. Okubo Y, Michihata N, Morisaki N, et al. Recent trends in practice patterns and impact of corticosteroid use on pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related respiratory infections. Respir Investig. 2018 Mar;56(2):158-65.Abstract external link opens in a new window

76. Food and Drug Administration. FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes. July 2018 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

77. Food and Drug Administration. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. December 2018 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

78. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. March 2019 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

79. Perkins GD, Olasveengen TM, Maconochie I, et al. European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation: 2017 update. Resuscitation. 2018 Feb;123:43-50.Abstract external link opens in a new window

80. Colquhoun MC, Handley AJ, Evans TR, eds. ABC of resuscitation. 5th ed. Wiley-Blackwell; 2004.

81. Soar J, Nolan JP, Böttiger BW, et al. European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation 2015: Section 3. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation. 2015;95:100-147.Abstract external link opens in a new window

82. Dillon C, Guarascio AJ, Covvey JR. Lefamulin: a promising new pleuromutilin antibiotic in the pipeline. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2019 Jan;17(1):5-15.Abstract external link opens in a new window

83. Paukner S, Gelone SP, Arends SJR, et al. Antibacterial activity of lefamulin against pathogens most commonly causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (2015-2016). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Mar 27;63(4).Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

84. Veve MP, Wagner JL. Lefamulin: review of a promising novel pleuromutilin antibiotic. Pharmacotherapy. 2018 Sep;38(9):935-46.Abstract external link opens in a new window

85. File TM, Goldberg L, Das A, et al. Efficacy and safety of intravenous-to-oral lefamulin, a pleuromutilin antibiotic, for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: the phase III lefamulin evaluation against pneumonia (LEAP 1) trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Nov 13;69(11):1856-67.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

86. Alexander E, Goldberg L, Das AF, et al. Oral lefamulin vs moxifloxacin for early clinical response among adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: the LEAP 2 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019 Sep 27;322(17):1661-71.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

87. ClinicalTrials.gov. Study to compare delafloxacin to moxifloxacin for the treatment of adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (DEFINE-CABP). February 2020 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

88. Stets R, Popescu M, Gonong JR, et al. Omadacycline for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2019 Feb 7;380(6):517-27.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

89. Barrera CM, Mykietiuk A, Metev H, et al; SOLITAIRE-ORAL Pneumonia Team. Efficacy and safety of oral solithromycin versus oral moxifloxacin for treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: a global, double-blind, multicentre, randomised, active-controlled, non-inferiority trial (SOLITAIRE-ORAL). Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Apr;16(4):421-30.Abstract external link opens in a new window

90. Zhanel GG, Hartel E, Adam H, et al. Solithromycin: a novel fluoroketolide for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Drugs. 2016 Dec;76(18):1737-57.Abstract external link opens in a new window

91. Viasus D, Ramos O, Ramos L, et al. Solithromycin for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2017 Jan;11(1):5-12.Abstract external link opens in a new window

92. Hastings DL, Harrington KJ, Kutty PK, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae outbreak in a long-term care facility - Nebraska, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Mar 27;64(11):296-9.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

93. Light RW. Parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2006;3(1):75-80.Abstract external link opens in a new window

94. Shuvy M, Rav-Acha M, Izhar U, et al. Massive empyema caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in an adult: a case report. BMC Infect Dis. 2006 Feb 1;6:18.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

95. Martínez-Pérez M, Imbernón-Moya A, Lobato-Berezo A, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced mucocutaneous rash: a new syndrome distinct from erythema multiforme? Report of a new case and review of the literature. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2016 Sep;107(7):e47-51.Abstract external link opens in a new window

96. Scerpella EG, Whimbey EE, Champlin RE, et al. Pericarditis associated with Legionnaires' disease in a bone marrow transplant recipient. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Dec;19(6):1168-70.Abstract external link opens in a new window

97. Ieven MM, Hoymans VY. Involvement of Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerosis: more evidence for lack of evidence. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Jan;43(1):19-24.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

98. Grayston JT. Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 15;40(8):1131-2.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

99. Arcari CM, Gaydos CA, Nieto FJ, et al. Association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and acute myocardial infarction in young men in the United States military: the importance of timing of exposure measurement. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 15;40(8):1123-30.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

100. Mentasti M, Afshar B, Collins S, et al. Rapid investigation of cases and clusters of legionnaires' disease in England and Wales using direct molecular typing. J Med Microbiol. 2016 Jun;65(6):484-93.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

101. Bartley PB, Ben Zakour NL, Stanton-Cook M, et al. Hospital-wide eradication of a nosocomial Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 1;62(3):273-9.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

102. Demirjian A, Lucas CE, Garrison LE, et al. The importance of clinical surveillance in detecting legionnaires' disease outbreaks: a large outbreak in a hospital with a Legionella disinfection system-Pennsylvania, 2011-2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Jun 1;60(11):1596-602.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer