Multiple myeloma

References

Key articles

Rajkumar SV, Dimopoulos MA, Palumbo A, et al. International Myeloma Working Group updated criteria for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Nov;15(12):e538-48.Full text  Abstract

Rajkumar SV. Updated diagnostic criteria and staging system for multiple myeloma. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2016;35:e418-23.Full text  Abstract

Dimopoulos MA, Moreau P, Terpos E, et al. Multiple myeloma: EHA-ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. Ann Oncol. 2021 Mar;32(3):309-22.Full text  Abstract

Terpos E, Kleber M, Engelhardt M, et al; European Myeloma Network. European Myeloma Network guidelines for the management of multiple myeloma-related complications. Haematologica. 2015 Oct;100(10):1254-66.Full text  Abstract

Greipp PR, San Miguel J, Durie BG, et al. International staging system for multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2005 May 20;23(15):3412-20. Abstract

Mikhael J, Ismaila N, Cheung MC, et al. Treatment of multiple myeloma: ASCO and CCO joint clinical practice guideline. J Clin Oncol. 2019 May 10;37(14):1228-63.Full text  Abstract

Gay F, Oliva S, Petrucci MT, et al. Chemotherapy plus lenalidomide versus autologous transplantation, followed by lenalidomide plus prednisone versus lenalidomide maintenance, in patients with multiple myeloma: a randomised, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):1617-29. Abstract

Palumbo A, Rajkumar SV, San Miguel JF, et al. International Myeloma Working Group consensus statement for the management, treatment, and supportive care of patients with myeloma not eligible for standard autologous stem-cell transplantation. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Feb 20;32(6):587-600.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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3. Rajkumar SV, Dimopoulos MA, Palumbo A, et al. International Myeloma Working Group updated criteria for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Nov;15(12):e538-48.Full text  Abstract

4. Rajkumar SV. Updated diagnostic criteria and staging system for multiple myeloma. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2016;35:e418-23.Full text  Abstract

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21. Bergsagel PL, Kuehl WM, Zhan F, et al. Cyclin D dysregulation: an early and unifying pathogenic event in multiple myeloma. Blood. 2005 Jul 1;106(1):296-303.Full text  Abstract

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24. Varma A, Sui D, Milton DR, et al. Outcome of multiple myeloma with chromosome 1q gain and 1p deletion after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: propensity score matched analysis. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2020 Apr;26(4):665-71.Full text  Abstract

25. Ouyang J, Gou X, Ma Y, et al. Prognostic value of 1p deletion for multiple myeloma: a meta-analysis. Int J Lab Hematol. 2014 Oct;36(5):555-65. Abstract

26. Bergsagel PL, Kuehl WM. Molecular pathogenesis and a consequent classification of multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Sep 10;23(26):6333-8. Abstract

27. Fonseca R, Bergsagel PL, Drach J, et al. International Myeloma Working Group molecular classification of multiple myeloma: spotlight review. Leukemia. 2009 Dec;23(12):2210-21.Full text  Abstract

28. Chapman MA, Lawrence MS, Keats JJ, et al. Initial genome sequencing and analysis of multiple myeloma. Nature. 2011 Mar 24;471(7339):467-72.Full text  Abstract

29. Kyle RA, Rajkumar SV. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma. 2005 Sep;6(2):102-14. Abstract

30. Kyle RA, Therneau TM, Rajkumar SV, et al. A long-term study of prognosis in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 21;346(8):564-9.Full text  Abstract

31. Landgren O, Hofmann JN, McShane CM, et al. Association of immune marker changes with progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to multiple myeloma. JAMA Oncol. 2019 Jul 18;5(9):1293-301.Full text  Abstract

32. Kyle RA, Larson DR, Therneau TM, et al. Long-term follow-up of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jan 18;378(3):241-9.Full text  Abstract

33. Bladé J. Clinical practice: monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 28;355(26):2765-70. Abstract

34. Cesana C, Klersy C, Barbarano L, et al. Prognostic factors for malignant transformation in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Mar 15;20(6):1625-34. Abstract

35. Kyle RA, Durie BG, Rajkumar SV, et al. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: IMWG consensus perspectives risk factors for progression and guidelines for monitoring and management. Leukemia. 2010 Jun;24(6):1121-7. Abstract

36. Rajkumar SV, Kyle RA, Therneau TM, et al. Serum free light chain ratio is an independent risk factor for progression in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Blood. 2005 Aug 1;106(3):812-7.Full text  Abstract

37. Bourguet CC, Grufferman S, Delzell E, et al. Multiple myeloma and family history of cancer: a case-control study. Cancer. 1985 Oct 15;56(8):2133-9. Abstract

38. Kuznetsova IS, Labutina EV, Hunter N. Radiation risks of leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma incidence in the Mayak cohort: 1948-2004. PLoS One. 2016 Sep 15;11(9):e0162710.Full text  Abstract

39. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: multiple myeloma [internet publication].Full text

40. Kyle RA. Multiple myeloma: review of 869 cases. Mayo Clin Proc. 1975 Jan;50(1):29-40. Abstract

41. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Myeloma: diagnosis and management. Oct 2018 [internet publication].Full text

42. Hillengass J, Usmani S, Rajkumar SV, et al. International Myeloma Working Group consensus recommendations on imaging in monoclonal plasma cell disorders. Lancet Oncol. 2019 Jun;20(6):e302-12. Abstract

43. Murray DL, Puig N, Kristinsson S, et al. Mass spectrometry for the evaluation of monoclonal proteins in multiple myeloma and related disorders: an International Myeloma Working Group Mass Spectrometry Committee Report. Blood Cancer J. 2021 Feb 1;11(2):24.Full text  Abstract

44. Zajec M, Jacobs JFM, Groenen PJTA, et al. Development of a targeted mass-spectrometry serum assay to quantify M-protein in the presence of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. J Proteome Res. 2018 Mar 2;17(3):1326-33. Abstract

45. Drayson M, Tang LX, Drew R, et al. Serum free light-chain measurements for identifying and monitoring patients with nonsecretory multiple myeloma. Blood. 2001 May 1;97(9):2900-2.Full text  Abstract

46. Dispenzieri A, Kyle R, Merlini G, et al. International Myeloma Working Group guidelines for serum-free light chain analysis in multiple myeloma and related disorders. Leukemia. 2009 Feb;23(2):215-24. Abstract

47. Terpos E, Kleber M, Engelhardt M, et al; European Myeloma Network. European Myeloma Network guidelines for the management of multiple myeloma-related complications. Haematologica. 2015 Oct;100(10):1254-66.Full text  Abstract

48. Hillengass J, Moulopoulos LA, Delorme S, et al. Whole-body computed tomography versus conventional skeletal survey in patients with multiple myeloma: a study of the International Myeloma Working Group. Blood Cancer J. 2017 Aug 25;7(8):e599.Full text  Abstract

49. Dimopoulos M, Terpos E, Comenzo RL, et al. International Myeloma Working Group consensus statement and guidelines regarding the current role of imaging techniques in the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 2009 Sep;23(9):1545-56. Abstract

50. Hillengass J, Fechtner K, Weber MA, et al. Prognostic significance of focal lesions in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with asymptomatic multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 20;28(9):1606-10.Full text  Abstract

51. Regelink JC, Minnema MC, Terpos E, et al. Comparison of modern and conventional imaging techniques in establishing multiple myeloma-related bone disease: a systematic review. Br J Haematol. 2013 Jul;162(1):50-61. Abstract

52. Cavo M, Terpos E, Nanni C, et al. Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders: a consensus statement by the International Myeloma Working Group. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Apr;18(4):e206-17. Abstract

53. Dimopoulos MA, Terpos E, Chanan-Khan A, et al. Renal impairment in patients with multiple myeloma: a consensus statement on behalf of the International Myeloma Working Group. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Nov 20;28(33):4976-84. Abstract

54. Durie BG, Salmon SE. A clinical staging system for multiple myeloma: correlation of measured myeloma cell mass with presenting clinical features, response to treatment, and survival. Cancer. 1975 Sep;36(3):842-54. Abstract

55. Greipp PR, San Miguel J, Durie BG, et al. International staging system for multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2005 May 20;23(15):3412-20. Abstract

56. Desikan R, Barlogie B, Sawyer J, et al. Results of high-dose therapy for 1000 patients with multiple myeloma: durable complete remissions and superior survival in the absence of chromosome 13 abnormalities. Blood. 2000 Jun 15;95(12):4008-10.Full text  Abstract

57. Jagannath S, Richardson PG, Sonneveld P, et al. Bortezomib appears to overcome the poor prognosis conferred by chromosome 13 deletion in phase 2 and 3 trials. Leukemia. 2007 Jan;21(1):151-7. Abstract

58. Munshi NC, Anderson KC, Bergsagel PL, et al. Consensus recommendations for risk stratification in multiple myeloma: report of the International Myeloma Workshop Consensus Panel 2. Blood. 2011 May 5;117(18):4696-700.Full text  Abstract

59. Palumbo A, Avet-Loiseau H, Oliva S, et al. Revised International Staging System for multiple myeloma: a report from International Myeloma Working Group. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Sep 10;33(26):2863-9.Full text  Abstract

60. Chen M, Zhao Y, Xu C, et al. Immunomodulatory drugs and the risk of serious infection in multiple myeloma: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies. Ann Hematol. 2018 Jun;97(6):925-44. Abstract

61. Teh BW, Harrison SJ, Worth LJ, et al. Infection risk with immunomodulatory and proteasome inhibitor-based therapies across treatment phases for multiple myeloma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer. 2016 Nov;67:21-37. Abstract

62. Wadhera RK, Rajkumar SV. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a systematic review. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010 Oct;85(10):933-42.Full text  Abstract

63. Bird J, Behrens J, Westin J; UK Myeloma Forum and Nordic Myeloma Study Group. Guidelines for the investigation of newly detected M-proteins and the management of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Br J Haematol. 2009 Oct;147(1):22-42. Abstract

64. Miguel JS, Mateos M-V, Gonzalez V, et al. Updated risk stratification model for smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) incorporating the revised IMWG diagnostic criteria. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2019 May;37(suppl 15):8000.Full text

65. Lakshman A, Rajkumar SV, Buadi FK, et al. Risk stratification of smoldering multiple myeloma incorporating revised IMWG diagnostic criteria. Blood Cancer J. 2018 Jun 12;8(6):59.Full text  Abstract

66. Raje N, Yee AJ. How we approach smoldering multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Apr 10;38(11):1119-25.Full text  Abstract

67. Bird JM, Owen RG, D'Sa S, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma 2011. Br J Haematol. 2011 Jul;154(1):32-75.Full text  Abstract

68. Koreth J, Cutler CS, Djulbegovic B, et al. High-dose therapy with single autologous transplantation versus chemotherapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007 Feb;13(2):183-96.Full text  Abstract

69. Mikhael J, Ismaila N, Cheung MC, et al. Treatment of multiple myeloma: ASCO and CCO joint clinical practice guideline. J Clin Oncol. 2019 May 10;37(14):1228-63.Full text  Abstract

70. Branagan A, Lei M, Lou U, et al. Current treatment strategies for multiple myeloma. JCO Oncol Pract. 2020 Jan;16(1):5-14. Abstract

71. Cavo M, Zamagni E, Tosi P, et al. Superiority of thalidomide and dexamethasone over vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone (VAD) as primary therapy in preparation for autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma. Blood. 2005 Jul 1;106(1):35-9.Full text  Abstract

72. Cavo M, Pantani L, Pezzi A, et al. Bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone (VTD) is superior to bortezomib-cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone (VCD) as induction therapy prior to autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 2015 Dec;29(12):2429-31. Abstract

73. Rajkumar SV, Blood E, Vesole D, et al. Phase III clinical trial of thalidomide plus dexamethasone compared with dexamethasone alone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a clinical trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jan 20;24(3):431-6. Abstract

74. Rajkumar SV, Jacobus S, Callander NS, et al. Lenalidomide plus high-dose dexamethasone versus lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone as initial therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: an open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010 Jan;11(1):29-37.Full text  Abstract

75. Sonneveld P, Goldschmidt H, Rosiñol L, et al. Bortezomib-based versus nonbortezomib-based induction treatment before autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma: a meta-analysis of phase III randomized, controlled trials. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Sep 10;31(26):3279-87.Full text  Abstract

76. Gay F, Cerrato C, Petrucci MT, et al. Efficacy of carfilzomib lenalidomide dexamethasone (KRd) with or without transplantation in newly diagnosed myeloma according to risk status: results from the FORTE trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2019 May;37(suppl 15):8002.

77. Palumbo A, Anderson K. Multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 17;364(11):1046-60. Abstract

78. Lokhorst HM, van der Holt B, Zweegman S, et al. A randomized phase 3 study on the effect of thalidomide combined with adriamycin, dexamethasone, and high-dose melphalan, followed by thalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma. Blood. 2010 Feb 11;115(6):1113-20.Full text  Abstract

79. Harousseau JL, Attal M, Avet-Loiseau H, et al. Bortezomib plus dexamethasone is superior to vincristine plus doxorubicin plus dexamethasone as induction treatment prior to autologous stem-cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of the IFM 2005-01 phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Oct 20;28(30):4621-9.Full text  Abstract

80. Cavo M, Tacchetti P, Patriarca F, et al. Bortezomib with thalidomide plus dexamethasone compared with thalidomide plus dexamethasone as induction therapy before, and consolidation therapy after, double autologous stem-cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a randomised phase 3 study. Lancet. 2010 Dec 18;376(9758):2075-85. Abstract

81. Moreau P, Hulin C, Macro M, et al. VTD is superior to VCD prior to intensive therapy in multiple myeloma: results of the prospective IFM2013-04 trial. Blood. 2016 May 26;127(21):2569-74.Full text  Abstract

82. Moreau P, Attal M, Facon T. Frontline therapy of multiple myeloma. Blood. 2015 May 14;125(20):3076-84.Full text  Abstract

83. Cavo M, Pantani L, Petrucci MT, et al. Bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone is superior to thalidomide-dexamethasone as consolidation therapy after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood. 2012 Jul 5;120(1):9-19.Full text  Abstract

84. Cavo M, Rajkumar SV, Palumbo A, et al. International Myeloma Working Group consensus approach to the treatment of multiple myeloma patients who are candidates for autologous stem cell transplantation. Blood. 2011 Jun 9;117(23):6063-73.Full text  Abstract

85. Moreau P, Avet-Loiseau H, Facon T, et al. Bortezomib plus dexamethasone versus reduced-dose bortezomib, thalidomide plus dexamethasone as induction treatment before autologous stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood. 2011 Nov 24;118(22):5752-8.Full text  Abstract

86. Rosiñol L, Oriol A, Teruel AI, et al. Superiority of bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (VTD) as induction pretransplantation therapy in multiple myeloma: a randomized phase 3 PETHEMA/GEM study. Blood. 2012 Aug 23;120(8):1589-96.Full text  Abstract

87. Roussel M, Lauwers-Cances V, Robillard N, et al. Front-line transplantation program with lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone combination as induction and consolidation followed by lenalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma: a phase II study by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Sep 1;32(25):2712-7.Full text  Abstract

88. Jakubowiak AJ, Dytfeld D, Griffith KA, et al. A phase 1/2 study of carfilzomib in combination with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone as a frontline treatment for multiple myeloma. Blood. 2012 Aug 30;120(9):1801-9.Full text  Abstract

89. Moreau P, Attal M, Hulin C, et al. Bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone with or without daratumumab before and after autologous stem-cell transplantation for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (CASSIOPEIA): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Lancet. 2019 Jul 6;394(10192):29-38. Abstract

90. Voorhees PM, Kaufman JL, Laubach J, et al. Daratumumab, lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone for transplant-eligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: the GRIFFIN trial. Blood. 2020 Aug 20;136(8):936-45.Full text  Abstract

91. Landgren O, Hultcrantz M, Diamond B, et al. Safety and effectiveness of weekly carfilzomib, lenalidomide, dexamethasone, and daratumumab combination therapy for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: the MANHATTAN nonrandomized clinical trial. JAMA Oncol. 2021 Jun 1;7(6):862-8.Full text  Abstract

92. Costa LJ, Chhabra S, Medvedova E, et al. Daratumumab, carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone with minimal residual disease response-adapted therapy in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2021 Dec 13;JCO2101935. Abstract

93. Mateos MV, Nahi H, Legiec W, et al. Subcutaneous versus intravenous daratumumab in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (COLUMBA): a multicentre, open-label, non-inferiority, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Haematol. 2020 May;7(5):e370-80. Abstract

94. Chari A, Rodriguez-Otero P, McCarthy H, et al. Subcutaneous daratumumab plus standard treatment regimens in patients with multiple myeloma across lines of therapy (PLEIADES): an open-label phase II study. Br J Haematol. 2021 Mar;192(5):869-78.Full text  Abstract

95. Alexanian R, Barlogie B, Tucker S. VAD-based regimens as primary treatment for multiple myeloma. Am J Hematol. 1990 Feb;33(2):86-9. Abstract

96. Mai EK, Bertsch U, Dürig J, et al. Phase III trial of bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD) versus bortezomib, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (PAd) in newly diagnosed myeloma. Leukemia. 2015 Aug;29(8):1721-9. Abstract

97. Yimer H, Melear J, Faber E, et al. Daratumumab, bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone in newly diagnosed and relapsed multiple myeloma: LYRA study. Br J Haematol. 2019 May;185(3):492-502.Full text  Abstract

98. DiPersio JF, Stadtmauer EA, Nademanee A, et al. Plerixafor and G-CSF versus placebo and G-CSF to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells for autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma. Blood. 2009 Jun 4;113(23):5720-6.Full text  Abstract

99. Micallef IN, Ho AD, Klein LM, et al. Plerixafor (Mozobil) for stem cell mobilization in patients with multiple myeloma previously treated with lenalidomide. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2011 Mar;46(3):350-5. Abstract

100. Douglas KW, Gilleece M, Hayden P, et al. UK consensus statement on the use of plerixafor to facilitate autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection to support high-dose chemoradiotherapy for patients with malignancy. J Clin Apher. 2018 Feb;33(1):46-59. Abstract

101. Attal M, Harousseau JL, Stoppa AM, et al. A prospective, randomized trial of autologous bone marrow transplantation and chemotherapy in multiple myeloma. Intergroupe Francais du Myelome. N Engl J Med. 1996 Jul 11;335(2):91-7.Full text  Abstract

102. Palumbo A, Bringhen S, Bruno B, et al. Melphalan 200 mg/m^2 versus melphalan 100 mg/m^2 in newly diagnosed myeloma patients: a prospective, multicenter phase 3 study. Blood. 2010 Mar 11;115(10):1873-9.Full text  Abstract

103. Gay F, Oliva S, Petrucci MT, et al. Chemotherapy plus lenalidomide versus autologous transplantation, followed by lenalidomide plus prednisone versus lenalidomide maintenance, in patients with multiple myeloma: a randomised, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):1617-29. Abstract

104. Attal M, Lauwers-Cances V, Hulin C, et al. Lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone with transplantation for myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 6;376(14):1311-20.Full text  Abstract

105. Palumbo A, Cavallo F, Gay F, et al. Autologous transplantation and maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2014 Sep 4;371(10):895-905.Full text  Abstract

106. Attal M, Harousseau JL, Facon T, et al. Single versus double autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 2003 Dec 25;349(26):2495-502.Full text  Abstract

107. Cavo M, Tosi P, Zamagni E, et al. Prospective, randomized study of single compared with double autologous stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: Bologna 96 clinical study. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Jun 10;25(17):2434-41. Abstract

108. Barlogie B, Anaissie E, van Rhee F, et al. Reiterative survival analyses of total therapy 2 for multiple myeloma elucidate follow-up time dependency of prognostic variables and treatment arms. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jun 20;28(18):3023-7.Full text  Abstract

109. Cook G, Williams C, Brown JM, et al; National Cancer Research Institute Haemato-oncology Clinical Studies Group. High-dose chemotherapy plus autologous stem-cell transplantation as consolidation therapy in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma after previous autologous stem-cell transplantation (NCRI Myeloma X Relapse [Intensive trial]): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Jul;15(8):874-85. Abstract

110. Ahmedzai SH, Snowden JA, Ashcroft AJ, et al. Patient-reported outcome results from the open-label, randomized phase III myeloma X trial evaluating salvage autologous stem-cell transplantation in relapsed multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2019 Jul 1;37(19):1617-28.Full text  Abstract

111. Lokhorst H, Einsele H, Vesole D, et al. International Myeloma Working Group consensus statement regarding the current status of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Oct 10;28(29):4521-30. Abstract

112. Palumbo A, Rajkumar SV, San Miguel JF, et al. International Myeloma Working Group consensus statement for the management, treatment, and supportive care of patients with myeloma not eligible for standard autologous stem-cell transplantation. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Feb 20;32(6):587-600.Full text  Abstract

113. Mina R, Bringhen S, Wildes TM, et al. Approach to the older adult with multiple myeloma. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2019 Jan;39:500-18.Full text  Abstract

114. Snowden JA, Greenfield DM, Bird JM, et al. Guidelines for screening and management of late and long-term consequences of myeloma and its treatment. Br J Haematol. 2017 Mar;176(6):888-907.Full text  Abstract

115. Piechotta V, Jakob T, Langer P, et al. Multiple drug combinations of bortezomib, lenalidomide, and thalidomide for first-line treatment in adults with transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma: a network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Nov 25;2019(11):CD013487.Full text  Abstract

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117. Facon T, Kumar SK, Plesner T, et al. Daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MAIA): overall survival results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 Nov;22(11):1582-96. Abstract

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