Ectopic pregnancy

References

Key articles

Kirk E, Bottomley C, Bourne T. Diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and current concepts in the management of pregnancy of unknown location. Hum Reprod Update. 2014 Mar-Apr;20(2):250-61.Full text  Abstract

Barnhart KT. Clinical practice: ectopic pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 23;361(4):379-87. Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage: diagnosis and initial management. Nov 2021 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

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2. Ankum WM, Mol BW, Van Der Veen F, et al. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 1996 Jun;65(6):1093-9. Abstract

3. Comstock C, Huston K, Lee W. The ultrasonographic appearance of ovarian ectopic pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jan;105(1):42-5. Abstract

4. Cepni I, Ocal P, Erkan S, Erzik B. Conservative treatment of cervical ectopic pregnancy with transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration and single-dose methotrexate. Fertil Steril. 2004 Apr;81(4):1130-2. Abstract

5. Benson CB, Doubilet PM. Strategies for conservative treatment of cervical ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Dec;8(6):371-2. Abstract

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9. Fylstra DL. Ectopic pregnancy after hysterectomy: a review and insight into etiology and prevention. Fertil Steril. 2010 Jul;94(2):431-5. Abstract

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13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ectopic pregnancy - United States, 1990-1992. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1995 Jan 27;44(3):46-8.Full text  Abstract

14. Hoover KW, Tao G, Kent CK. Trends in the diagnosis and treatment of ectopic pregnancy in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Mar;115(3):495-502. Abstract

15. Creanga AA, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Bish CL, et al. Trends in ectopic pregnancy mortality in the United States: 1980-2007. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Apr;117(4):837-43. Abstract

16. Dart RG, Kaplan B, Varaklis K. Predictive value of history and physical examination in patients with suspected ectopic pregnancy. Ann Emerg Med. 1999 Mar;33(3):283-90. Abstract

17. Seeber BE, Barnhart KT. Suspected ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Feb;107(2 Pt 1):399-413. Abstract

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20. Kutluay L, Vicdan K, Turan C, et al. Tubal histopathology in ectopic pregnancies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1994; 57:91-94. Abstract

21. Attar E. Endocrinology of ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2004;31:779-794. Abstract

22. Goddijn M, van der Veen F, Schuring-Blom GH, et al. Cytogenetic characteristics of ectopic pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 1996;11:2769-2771. Abstract

23. Ruderman RS, McQueen DB, Robins JC, et al. Novel ploidy analysis in ectopic pregnancy. F S Rep. 2021 Mar;2(1):67-71.Full text  Abstract

24. Barnhart KT, Sammel MD, Gracia CR, et al. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in women with symptomatic first-trimester pregnancies. Fertil Steril. 2006 Jul;86(1):36-43. Abstract

25. Yao M, Tulandi T. Current status of surgical and non-surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 1997 Mar;67(3):421-33. Abstract

26. Peterson HB, Xia Z, Hughes JM, et al. The risk of ectopic pregnancy after tubal sterilization. US Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group. N Engl J Med. 1997 Mar 13;336(11):762-7.Full text  Abstract

27. Goldberg JM, Falcone T. Effect of diethylstilbesterol on reproductive function. Fertil Steril. 1999 Jul;72(1):1-7. Abstract

28. Sivin I. Dose- and age-dependent ectopic pregnancy risks with intrauterine contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Aug;78(2):291-8. Abstract

29. Hillis SD, Owens LM, Marchbanks PA, et al. Recurrent Chlamydia infections increase the risks of hospitalization for ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Jan;176(1 Pt 1):103-7. Abstract

30. Saraiya M, Berg CJ, Kendrick JS, et al. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for ectopic pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Mar;178(3):493-8. Abstract

31. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee opinion: tobacco and nicotine cessation during pregnancy. May 2020 [internet publication].Full text

32. Strandell A, Thorburn J, Hamberger L. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in assisted reproduction. Fertil Steril. 1999 Feb;71(2):282-6. Abstract

33. Muller V, Makhmadalieva M, Kogan I, et al. Ectopic pregnancy following in vitro fertilization: meta-analysis and single-center experience during 6 years. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2016 Oct;32(suppl 2):69-74.Full text  Abstract

34. Perkins KM, Boulet SL, Kissin DM, et al; National ART Surveillance (NASS) Group. Risk of ectopic pregnancy associated with assisted reproductive technology in the United States, 2001-2011. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jan;125(1):70-8.Full text  Abstract

35. Shapiro BS, Daneshmand ST, De Leon L, et al. Frozen-thawed embryo transfer is associated with a significantly reduced incidence of ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2012 Dec;98(6):1490-4. Abstract

36. Pisarska MD, Carson SA, Buster JE. Ectopic pregnancy. Lancet. 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1115-20. Abstract

37. Storeide O, Veholmen M, Eide M, et al. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in Hordaland county, Norway 1976-1993. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1997 Apr;76(4):345-9. Abstract

38. Sheele JM, Bernstein R, Counselman FL. A ruptured ectopic pregnancy presenting with a negative urine pregnancy test. Case Rep Emerg Med. 2016;2016:7154713.Full text  Abstract

39. Huchon C, Panel P, Kayem G, et al. Is a standardized questionnaire useful for tubal rupture screening in patients with ectopic pregnancy? Acad Emerg Med. 2012 Jan;19(1):24-30. Abstract

40. Kruszka PS, Kruszka SJ. Evaluation of acute pelvic pain in women. Am Fam Physician. 2010 Jul 15;82(2):141-7.Full text  Abstract

41. Bhavsar AK, Gelner EJ, Shorma T. Common questions about the evaluation of acute pelvic pain. Am Fam Physician. 2016 Jan 1;93(1):41-8.Full text  Abstract

42. Crochet JR, Bastian LA, Chireau MV. Does this woman have an ectopic pregnancy? The rational clinical examination systematic review. JAMA. 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1722-9. Abstract

43. ACOG practice bulletin no. 193: tubal ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Mar;131(3):e91-103. Abstract

44. Kirk E, Bottomley C, Bourne T. Diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and current concepts in the management of pregnancy of unknown location. Hum Reprod Update. 2014 Mar-Apr;20(2):250-61.Full text  Abstract

45. Barnhart K, van Mello NM, Bourne T, et al. Pregnancy of unknown location: a consensus statement of nomenclature, definitions, and outcome. Fertil Steril. 2011 Mar 1;95(3):857-66. Abstract

46. Sivalingam VN, Duncan WC, Kirk E, et al. Diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2011 Oct;37(4):231-40.Full text  Abstract

47. Connolly A, Ryan DH, Stuebe AM, et al. Reevaluation of discriminatory and threshold levels for serum β-hCG in early pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan;121(1):65-70. Abstract

48. Condous G, Kirk E, Lu C, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of varying discriminatory zones for the prediction of ectopic pregnancy in women with a pregnancy of unknown location. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Dec;26(7):770-5.Full text  Abstract

49. Barnhart KT, Guo W, Cary MS, et al. Differences in serum human chorionic gonadotropin rise in early pregnancy by race and value at presentation. Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Sep;128(3):504-11.Full text  Abstract

50. Barnhart KT, Senapati S, Sammel MD. Declaring a gestation nonviable: when 99% certainty is not enough. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Feb;224(2):232-3.Full text  Abstract

51. Silva C, Sammel MD, Zhou L, et al. Human chorionic gonadotropin profile for women with ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Mar;107(3):605-10. Abstract

52. Dillon KE, Sioulas VD, Sammel MD, et al. How and when human chorionic gonadotropin curves in women with an ectopic pregnancy mimic other outcomes: differences by race and ethnicity. Fertil Steril. 2012 Oct;98(4):911-6. Abstract

53. Hendriks E, Rosenberg R, Prine L. Ectopic pregnancy: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2020 May 15;101(10):599-606.Full text  Abstract

54. Barnhart K, Sammel MD, Chung K, et al. Decline of serum human chorionic gonadotropin and spontaneous complete abortion: defining the normal curve. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Nov;104(5 Pt 1):975-81. Abstract

55. Barnhart KT. Clinical practice: ectopic pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 23;361(4):379-87. Abstract

56. Elson CJ, Salim R, Potdar N, et al; Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy: Green-top Guideline No. 21. BJOG. 2016 Dec;123(13):e15-e55.Full text  Abstract

57. Rausch ME, Sammel MD, Takacs P, et al. Development of a multiple marker test for ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Mar;117(3):573-82. Abstract

58. Teixeira JL, Rabaioli P, Savaris RF. Sensitivity and specificity of a urinary screening test used in an emergency setting to detect abnormal first trimester pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jan;212(1):58.e1-5. Abstract

59. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage: diagnosis and initial management. Nov 2021 [internet publication].Full text

60. Goldstein SR, Snyder JR, Watson C, et al. Very early pregnancy detection with endovaginal ultrasound. Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Aug;72(2):200-4. Abstract

61. Barnhart KT, Hansen KR, Stephenson MD, et al. Effect of an active vs expectant management strategy on successful resolution of pregnancy among patients with a persisting pregnancy of unknown location: the ACT or NOT randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2021 Aug 3;326(5):390-400.Full text  Abstract

62. Morse CB, Sammel MD, Shaunik A, et al. Performance of human chorionic gonadotropin curves in women at risk for ectopic pregnancy: exceptions to the rules. Fertil Steril. 2012 Jan;97(1):101-6.e2. Abstract

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64. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). Miller R, Timor-Tritsch IE, et al. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) Consult Series #49: Cesarean scar pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May;222(5):B2-B14.Full text  Abstract

65. Long Y, Zhu H, Hu Y, et al. Interventions for non-tubal ectopic pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jul 1;7:CD011174.Full text  Abstract

66. Po L, Thomas J, Mills K, et al. Guideline no. 414: management of pregnancy of unknown location and tubal and nontubal ectopic pregnancies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2021 May;43(5):614-30.e1.Full text  Abstract

67. Korhonen J, Stenman UH, Ylöstalo P. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin dynamics during spontaneous resolution of ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 1994 Apr;61(4):632-6. Abstract

68. van Mello NM, Mol F, Verhoeve HR, et al. Methotrexate or expectant management in women with an ectopic pregnancy or pregnancy of unknown location and low serum hCG concentrations? A randomized comparison. Hum Reprod. 2013 Jan;28(1):60-7.Full text  Abstract

69. Menon S, Colins J, Barnhart KT. Establishing a human chorionic gonadotropin cutoff to guide methotrexate treatment of ectopic pregnancy: a systematic review. Fertil Steril. 2007 Mar;87(3):481-4. Abstract

70. Karadeniz RS, Tasci Y, Altay M, et al. Tubal rupture in ectopic pregnancy: is it predictable? Minerva Ginecol. 2015 Feb;67(1):13-9. Abstract

71. Barnhart KT, Gosman G, Ashby R, et al. The medical management of ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis comparing "single dose" and "multidose" regimens. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Apr;101(4):778-84.Full text  Abstract

72. Alur-Gupta S, Cooney LG, Senapati S, et al. Two-dose versus single-dose methotrexate for treatment of ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Aug;221(2):95-108.e2. Abstract

73. Wang M, Chen B, Wang J, et al. Nonsurgical management of live tubal ectopic pregnancy by ultrasound-guided local injection and systemic methotrexate. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2014 Jul-Aug;21(4):642-9. Abstract

74. Gao M-XG. Laparoscopy versus laparotomy for ectopic pregnancy: a systematic review. Chin J Evid Based Med. 2008 Jul-Aug;14(4):309-19.

75. Mol F, Mol BW, Ankum WM, et al. Current evidence on surgery, systemic methotrexate and expectant management in the treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2008 Jul-Aug;14(4):309-19.Full text  Abstract

76. Hajenius PJ, Mol BW, Mol BWJ, et al. Interventions for tubal ectopic pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(1):CD000324.Full text  Abstract

77. Mol F, van Mello NM, Strandell A, et al. Salpingotomy versus salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy (ESEP study): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2014 Apr 26;383(9927):1483-9. Abstract

78. Yong PJ, Thurston J, Singh SS, et al. Guideline No. 386-Gynaecologic surgery in the obese patient. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2019 Sep;41(9):1356-70.e7.Full text  Abstract

79. American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Subcommittee (Writing Committee) on Early Pregnancy: Hahn SA, Promes SB, Brown MD. Clinical policy: critical issues in the initial evaluation and management of patients presenting to the emergency department in early pregnancy. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Feb;69(2):241-250.e20.Full text  Abstract

80. Trio D, Strobelt N, Picciolo C, et al. Prognostic factors for successful expectant management of ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 1995 Mar;63(3):469-72. Abstract

81. Shalev E, Peleg D, Tsabari A, et al. Spontaneous resolution of ectopic tubal pregnancy: natural history. Fertil Steril. 1995 Jan;63(1):15-9. Abstract

82. Lipscomb GH, McCord ML, Stovall TG, et al. Predictors of success of methotrexate treatment in women with tubal ectopic pregnancies. N Engl J Med. 1999 Dec 23;341(26):1974-8.Full text  Abstract

83. Tenore JL. Ectopic pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Feb 15;61(4):1080-8.Full text  Abstract

84. Tay JI, Moore J, Walker JJ. Ectopic pregnancy. BMJ. 2000 Apr 1;320(7239):916-9.Full text  Abstract

85. Fernandez H, Capmas P, Lucot JP, et al. Fertility after ectopic pregnancy: the DEMETER randomized trial. Hum Reprod. 2013 May;28(5):1247-53.Full text  Abstract

86. Desroque D, Capmas P, Legendre G, et al. Fertility after ectopic pregnancy [in French]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2010 Sep;39(5):395-400. Abstract

87. Cheng X, Tian X, Yan Z, et al. Comparison of the fertility outcome of salpingotomy and salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152343.Full text  Abstract

88. Wiser A, Gilbert A, Nahum R, et al. Effects of treatment of ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate or salpingectomy in the subsequent IVF cycle. Reprod Biomed Online. 2013 May;26(5):449-53.Full text  Abstract

89. Boots CE, Hill MJ, Feinberg EC, et al. Methotrexate does not affect ovarian reserve or subsequent assisted reproductive technology outcomes. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2016 May;33(5):647-56.Full text  Abstract

90. Yoon SH, Lee JY, Kim SN, et al. Does salpingectomy have a deleterious impact on ovarian response in in vitro fertilization cycles? Fertil Steril. 2016 Oct;106(5):1083-92.e5.Full text  Abstract

91. Farquhar CM. Ectopic pregnancy. Lancet. 2005 Aug 13-19;366(9485):583-91. Abstract

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