Acute prostatitis

References

Key articles

Rothman JR, Jaffe WI. Prostatitis: updates on diagnostic evaluation. Curr Urol Rep. 2007 Jul;8(4):301-6. Abstract

Krieger JN, Lee SW, Jeon J, et al. Epidemiology of prostatitis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008 Feb;31(suppl 1):S85-90.Full text  Abstract

European Association of Urology. Guidelines on urological infections. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

Nickel JC. Prostatitis. Can Urol Assoc J. 2011 Oct;5(5):306-15.Full text  Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostatitis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing. Oct 2018 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

1. Rothman JR, Jaffe WI. Prostatitis: updates on diagnostic evaluation. Curr Urol Rep. 2007 Jul;8(4):301-6. Abstract

2. Krieger JN, Lee SW, Jeon J, et al. Epidemiology of prostatitis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008 Feb;31(suppl 1):S85-90.Full text  Abstract

3. Meares EM Jr. Prostatitis. Med Clin North Am. 1991 Mar;75(2):405-24.Full text  Abstract

4. Krieger JN, Nyberg L Jr, Nickel JC. NIH consensus definition and classification of prostatitis. JAMA. 1999 Jul 21;282(3):236-7. Abstract

5. Karlovsky ME, Pontari MA. Theories of prostatitis etiology. Curr Urol Rep. 2002 Aug;3(4):307-12. Abstract

6. Potts J, Payne RE. Prostatitis: infection, neuromuscular disorder, or pain syndrome? Proper patient classification is key. Cleve Clin J Med. 2007 May;74(suppl 3):S63-71. Abstract

7. Pontari MA, Joyce GF, Wise M, et al. Prostatitis. J Urol. 2007 Jun;177(6):2050-7. Abstract

8. Gasperi M, Krieger JN, Panizzon MS, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on urinary conditions in men: a classical twin study. Urology. 2019 Jul;129:54-9.Full text  Abstract

9. Lipsky BA, Byren I, Hoey CT. Treatment of bacterial prostatitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Jun 15;50(12):1641-52.Full text  Abstract

10. Brede CM, Shoskes DA. The etiology and management of acute prostatitis. Nat Rev Urol. 2011 Apr;8(4):207-12.Full text  Abstract

11. Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2021 Jul 23;70(4):1-187.Full text  Abstract

12. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on urological infections. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

13. Lummus WE, Thompson I. Prostatitis. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2001 Aug;19(3):691-707. Abstract

14. Terai A, Ishitoya S, Mitsumori K, et al. Molecular epidemiological evidence for ascending urethral infection in acute bacterial prostatitis. J Urol. 2000 Dec;164(6):1945-7. Abstract

15. Weidner W, Schiefer HG, Krauss H, et al. Chronic prostatitis: a thorough search for etiologically involved microorganisms in 1,461 patients. Infection. 1991;19(suppl 3):S119-25. Abstract

16. Meares EM Jr. Prostatitis and related disorders. In: Walsh PC, Retik AB, Vaughan ED, et al, eds. Campbell's urology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1998:615-30.

17. Kumon H. Detection of a local prostatic immune response to bacterial prostatitis. Infection. 1992;20(suppl 3):S236-8. Abstract

18. Schneider H, Ludwig M, Hossain HM, et al. The 2001 Giessen Cohort Study on patients with prostatitis syndrome: an evaluation of inflammatory status and search for microorganisms 10 years after a first analysis. Andrologia. 2003 Oct;35(5):258-62. Abstract

19. Bergman B. On the relevance of gram-positive bacteria in prostatitis. Infection. 1994;22(suppl 1):S22. Abstract

20. Wallner LP, Clemens JQ, Sarma AV. Prevalence of and risk factors for prostatitis in African American men: the Flint Men's Health Study. Prostate. 2009 Jan 1;69(1):24-32. Abstract

21. Kang CI, Kim J, Park DW, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the antibiotic treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infections. Infect Chemother. 2018 Mar;50(1):67-100.Full text  Abstract

22. Karakonstantis S, Kalemaki D. A significant percentage of patients with transrectal biopsy-related infections have positive blood cultures but negative urine cultures. A literature review and meta-analysis. Infect Dis (Lond). 2018 Nov - Dec;50(11-12):791-803.Full text  Abstract

23. Seo Y, Lee G. New bacterial infection in the prostate after transrectal prostate biopsy. J Korean Med Sci. 2018 Apr 23;33(17):e126.Full text  Abstract

24. Liang CZ, Li HJ, Wang ZP, et al. The prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms in China. J Urol. 2009 Aug;182(2):558-63. Abstract

25. Moreira DM, Nickel JC, Gerber L, et al. Smoking is associated with acute and chronic prostatic inflammation: results from the REDUCE study. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 Apr;8(4):312-7.Full text  Abstract

26. Gasperi M, Krieger JN, Panizzon MS, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on urinary conditions in men: a classical twin study. Urology. 2019 Jul;129:54-9.Full text  Abstract

27. Nickel JC. Prostatitis. Can Urol Assoc J. 2011 Oct;5(5):306-15.Full text  Abstract

28. Coker TJ, Dierfeldt DM. Acute bacterial prostatitis: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2016 Jan 15;93(2):114-20.Full text  Abstract

29. Zermann DH, Ishigooka M, Doggweiler R, et al. Neurourological insights into the etiology of genitourinary pain in men. J Urol. 1999 Mar;161(3):903-8. Abstract

30. Meares EM, Stamey TA. Bacteriologic localization patterns in bacterial prostatitis and urethritis. Invest Urol. 1968 Mar;5(5):492-518. Abstract

31. Nickel JC, Shoskes D, Wang Y, et al. How does the pre-massage and post-massage 2-glass test compare to the Meares-Stamey 4-glass test in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome? J Urol. 2006 Jul;176(1):119-24. Abstract

32. Sindhwani P, Wilson CM. Prostatitis and serum prostate-specific antigen. Curr Urol Rep. 2005 Jul;6(4):307-12. Abstract

33. Stopiglia RM, Ferreira U, Silva MM Jr, et al. Prostate specific antigen decrease and prostate cancer diagnosis: antibiotic versus placebo prospective randomized clinical trial. J Urol. 2010 Mar;183(3):940-4. Abstract

34. Nickel JC, Ardern D, Downey J. Cytologic evaluation of urine is important in evaluation of chronic prostatitis. Urology. 2002 Aug;60(2):225-7. Abstract

35. Langer JE, Cornud F. Inflammatory disorders of the prostate and the distal genital tract. Radiol Clin North Am. 2006 Sep;44(5):665-77. Abstract

36. Wasserman NF. Prostatitis: clinical presentations and transrectal ultrasound findings. Semin Roentgenol. 1999 Oct;34(4):325-37. Abstract

37. Ackerman AL, Parameshwar PS, Anger JT. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostatic abscess in the post-antibiotic era. Int J Urol. 2018 Feb;25(2):103-10.Full text  Abstract

38. Zaidi S, Gandhi J, Seyam O, et al. Etiology, diagnosis, and management of seminal vesicle stones. Curr Urol. 2019 May 10;12(3):113-20.Full text  Abstract

39. Lee JC, Muller CH, Rothman I, et al. Prostate biopsy culture findings of men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome do not differ from those of healthy controls. J Urol. 2003 Feb;169(2):584-7. Abstract

40. Collins MM, Stafford RS, O'Leary MP, et al. How common is prostatitis? A national survey of physician visits. J Urol. 1998 Apr;159(4):1224-8. Abstract

41. Schiller DS, Parikh A. Identification, pharmacologic considerations, and management of prostatitis. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2011 Feb;9(1):37-48. Abstract

42. Ludwig M. Diagnosis and therapy of acute prostatitis, epididymitis and orchitis. Andrologia. 2008 Apr;40(2):76-80.Full text  Abstract

43. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostatitis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing. Oct 2018 [internet publication].Full text

44. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostatitis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing. Oct 2018 [internet publication].Full text

45. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. Mar 2019 [internet publication].Full text

46. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics: new restrictions and precautions for use due to very rare reports of disabling and potentially long-lasting or irreversible side effects. Mar 2019 [internet publication].Full text

47. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA advises restricting fluoroquinolone antibiotic use for certain uncomplicated infections; warns about disabling side effects that can occur together. Sept 2018 [internet publication].Full text

48. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Full text

49. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes. Oct 2018 [internet publication].Full text

50. Barbalias GA, Nikiforidis G, Liatsikos EN. Alpha-blockers for the treatment of chronic prostatitis in combination with antibiotics. J Urol. 1998 Mar;159(3):883-7. Abstract

51. Schaeffer AJ. Prostatitis: US perspective. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1999 May;11(3-4):205-11. Abstract

52. European Medicines Agency. Disabling and potentially permanent side effects lead to suspension or restrictions of quinolone and fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Nov 2018 [internet publication].Full text

53. Sahin A, Eiley D, Goldfischer ER, et al. The in vitro bactericidal effect of microwave energy on bacteria that cause prostatitis. Urology. 1998 Sep;52(3):411-5. Abstract

54. Nickel JC, Sorenson R. Transurethral microwave thermotherapy for nonbacterial prostatitis: a randomized double-blind sham controlled study using new prostatitis specific assessment questionnaires. J Urol. 1996 Jun;155(6):1950-4. Abstract

55. Rees J, Abrahams M, Doble A, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a consensus guideline. BJU Int. 2015 Oct;116(4):509-25.Full text  Abstract

56. Abdelmoteleb H, Rashed F, Hawary A. Management of prostate abscess in the absence of guidelines. Int Braz J Urol. 2017 Sep-Oct;43(5):835-40.Full text  Abstract

57. Ackerman AL, Parameshwar PS, Anger JT. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostatic abscess in the post-antibiotic era. Int J Urol. 2018 Feb;25(2):103-110.Full text  Abstract

58. Franco JV, Turk T, Jung JH, et al. Pharmacological interventions for treating chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Oct 6;10:CD012552.Full text  Abstract

59. Bowen DK, Dielubanza E, Schaeffer AJ. Chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. BMJ Clin Evid. 2015 Aug 27;2015.Full text  Abstract

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