Hypercholesterolaemia

References

Key articles

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National health and nutritional survey III (NHANES III). October 2018 [internet publication].Full text

Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019 Jun 18;139(25):e1082-143.Full text  Abstract

Baigent C, Blackwell L, Emberson J, et al; Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' (CTT) Collaborators. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet. 2010 Nov 13;376(9753):1670-81.Full text  Abstract

Byington RP, Jukema JW, Salonen JT, et al. Reduction in cardiovascular events during pravastatin therapy: pooled analysis of clinical events of the Pravastatin Atherosclerosis Intervention Program. Circulation. 1995 Nov 1;92(9):2419-25.Full text  Abstract

Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH, et al; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jul 1;63(25 Pt B):2889-934.Full text  Abstract

Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Mertz CN, et al; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American College of Cardiology Foundation; American Heart Association. Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Circulation. 2004 Jul 13;110(2):227-39.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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27. Anderson TJ, Grégoire J, Pearson GJ, et al. 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in the adult. Can J Cardiol. 2016 Nov;32(11):1263-82. Abstract

28. Sathiyakumar V, Park J, Golozar A, et al. Fasting versus nonfasting and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol accuracy. Circulation. 2018 Jan 2;137(1):10-9. Abstract

29. Akioyamen LE, Genest J, Shan SD, et al. Estimating the prevalence of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2017 Sep 1;7(9):e016461.Full text  Abstract

30. World Health Organization. Familial hypercholesterolaemia (‎‎‎‎FH)‎‎‎: report of a second WHO consultation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1999.Full text

31. Brunham LR, Ruel I, Aljenedil S, et al. Canadian Cardiovascular Society position statement on familial hypercholesterolemia: Update 2018. Can J Cardiol. 2018 Dec;34(12):1553-1563.Full text  Abstract

32. Public Health England. Familial Hypercholesterolaemia: Implementing a systems approach to detection and management. Aug 2018 [internet publication].Full text

33. Khera AV, Won HH, Peloso GM, et al. Diagnostic yield and clinical utility of sequencing familial hypercholesterolemia genes in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Jun 7;67(22):2578-89.Full text  Abstract

34. Carson JAS, Lichtenstein AH, Anderson CAM, et al. Dietary cholesterol and cardiovascular risk: A science advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2020 Jan 21;141(3):e39-e53.Full text  Abstract

35. Vermeer BJ, van Gent CM, Goslings B, et al. Xanthomatosis and other clinical findings in patients with elevated levels of very low density lipoproteins. Br J Dermatol. 1979 Jun;100(6):657-66. Abstract

36. Cooper GR, Myers GL, Smith SJ, et al. Blood lipid measurements. Variations and practical utility. JAMA. 1992 Mar 25;267(12):1652-60. Abstract

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39. Diekman T, Lansberg PJ, Kastelein JP, et al. Prevalence and correction of hypothyroidism in a large cohort of patients referred for dyslipidemia. Arch Intern Med. 1995 Jul 24;155(14):1490-5. Abstract

40. Piepoli MF, Hoes AW, Agewall S, et al. 2016 European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Eur Heart J. 2016 Aug 1;37(29):2315-81.Full text  Abstract

41. US Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement: statin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults - preventive medication. November 2016 [internet publication].Full text

42. US Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement: lipid disorders in adults (cholesterol, dyslipidemia) - screening. December 2014 [internet publication].Full text

43. Pignone MP, Phillips CJ, Lannon CM, et al; Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Screening for lipid disorders: systematic evidence review number 4. April 2001 [internet publication].Full text

44. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National health and nutritional survey III (NHANES III). October 2018 [internet publication].Full text

45. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification. September 2016 [internet publication].Full text

46. Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019 Jun 18;139(25):e1082-143.Full text  Abstract

47. Expert Dyslipidemia Panel of the International Atherosclerosis Society Panel members. An International Atherosclerosis Society position paper: global recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia - full report. J Clin Lipidol. 2014 Jan-Feb;8(1):29-60.Full text  Abstract

48. Lloyd-Jones DM, Braun LT, Ndumele CE, et al. Use of risk assessment tools to guide decision-making in the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a special report from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Jun 25;73(24):3153-67.Full text  Abstract

49. Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2019 Mar 17 [epub ahead of print].Full text  Abstract

50. Baigent C, Blackwell L, Emberson J, et al; Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' (CTT) Collaborators. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet. 2010 Nov 13;376(9753):1670-81.Full text  Abstract

51. Chou R, Dana T, Blazina I, et al. Statins for prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2016 Nov 15;316(19):2008-24.Full text  Abstract

52. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' (CTT) Collaboration; Fulcher J, O'Connell R, Voysey M, et al. Efficacy and safety of LDL-lowering therapy among men and women: meta-analysis of individual data from 174,000 participants in 27 randomised trials. Lancet. 2015 Apr 11;385(9976):1397-405. Abstract

53. Huang J, Frohlich J, Ignaszewski AP. The impact of dietary changes and dietary supplements on lipid profile [in French]. Can J Cardiol. 2011 Jul-Aug;27(4):488-505. Abstract

54. Gupta AK, Savopoulos CG, Ahuja J, et al. Role of phytosterols in lipid-lowering: current perspectives. QJM. 2011 Apr;104(4):301-8.Full text  Abstract

55. Jenkins DJ, Jones PJ, Lamarche B, et al. Effect of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods given at 2 levels of intensity of dietary advice on serum lipids in hyperlipidemia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2011 Aug 24;306(8):831-9.Full text  Abstract

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58. Buckley DM. How effective are dietary interventions in lowering lipids in adults with dyslipidemia? J Fam Pract. 2007 Jan;56(1):46-8. Abstract

59. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, et al. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. JAMA. 2003 Jul 23;290(4):502-10.Full text  Abstract

60. Stefanick ML, Mackey S, Sheehan M, et al. Effects of diet and exercise in men and postmenopausal women with low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of LDL cholesterol. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jul 2;339(1):12-20.Full text  Abstract

61. Byington RP, Jukema JW, Salonen JT, et al. Reduction in cardiovascular events during pravastatin therapy: pooled analysis of clinical events of the Pravastatin Atherosclerosis Intervention Program. Circulation. 1995 Nov 1;92(9):2419-25.Full text  Abstract

62. Yusuf S, Bosch J, Dagenais G, et al. Cholesterol lowering in intermediate-risk persons without cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 May 26;374(21):2021-31.Full text  Abstract

63. Jones PH, Davidson MH, Stein EA, et al; STELLAR Study Group. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin across doses (STELLAR* Trial). Am J Cardiol. 2003 Jul 15;92(2):152-60. Abstract

64. Mach F, Baigent C, Catapano AL, et al. 2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J. 2019 Aug 31 [Epub ahead of print].Full text  Abstract

65. Sattar N, Preiss D, Murray HM, et al. Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomised statin trials. Lancet. 2010 Feb 27;375(9716):735-42. Abstract

66. Preiss D, Seshasai SR, Welsh P, et al. Risk of incident diabetes with intensive-dose compared with moderate-dose statin therapy: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2011 Jun 22;305(24):2556-64.Full text  Abstract

67. Waters DD, Ho JE, DeMicco DA, et al. Predictors of new-onset diabetes in patients treated with atorvastatin: results from 3 large randomized clinical trials. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Apr 5;57(14):1535-45.Full text  Abstract

68. Baigent C, Landray MJ, Reith C, et al. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2011 Jun 25;377(9784):2181-92.Full text  Abstract

69. Ford I, Murray H, McCowan C, et al. Long-term safety and efficacy of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with statin therapy: 20-year follow-up of west of Scotland coronary prevention study. Circulation. 2016 Mar 15;133(11):1073-80.Full text  Abstract

70. Hague WE, Simes J, Kirby A, et al. Long-term effectiveness and safety of pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease: sixteen years of follow-up of the LIPID study. Circulation. 2016 May 10;133(19):1851-60.Full text  Abstract

71. Reindl EK, Wright BM, Wargo KA. Alternate-day statin therapy for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Sep;44(9):1459-70. Abstract

72. Lloyd-Jones DM, Morris PB, Ballantyne CM, et al. 2017 focused update of the 2016 ACC expert consensus decision pathway on the role of non-statin therapies for LDL-cholesterol lowering in the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Expert Consensus Decision Pathways. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Oct 3;70(14):1785-822.Full text  Abstract

73. Dujovne CA, Ettinger MP, McNeer JF, et al. Efficacy and safety of a potent new selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor, ezetimibe, in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol. 2002 Nov 15;90(10):1092-7. Abstract

74. Davidson MH, McGarry T, Bettis R, et al. Ezetimibe coadministered with simvastatin in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Dec 18;40(12):2125-34.Full text  Abstract

75. Cannon CP, Blazing MA, Giugliano RP, et al. Ezetimibe added to statin therapy after acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jun 18;372(25):2387-97.Full text  Abstract

76. Bohula EA, Wiviott SD, Giugliano RP, et al. Prevention of stroke with the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome in IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial). Circulation. 2017 Dec 19;136(25):2440-50. Abstract

77. Ito MK, Santos RD. PCSK9 inhibition with monoclonal antibodies: modern management of hypercholesterolemia. J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Jan;57(1):7-32.Full text  Abstract

78. Kastelein JJ, Ginsberg HN, Langslet G, et al. ODYSSEY FH I and FH II: 78 week results with alirocumab treatment in 735 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. Eur Heart J. 2015 Nov 14;36(43):2996-3003.Full text  Abstract

79. Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Keech AC, et al. Evolocumab and clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2017 May 4;376(18):1713-22.Full text  Abstract

80. Ridker PM, Revkin J, Amarenco P, et al. Cardiovascular efficacy and safety of bococizumab in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 20;376(16):1527-39.Full text  Abstract

81. Schwartz GG, Steg PG, Szarek M, et al; ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Committees and Investigators. Alirocumab and cardiovascular outcomes after acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 29;379(22):2097-107.Full text  Abstract

82. Szarek M, White HD, Schwartz GG, et al; ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Committees and Investigators. Alirocumab reduces total nonfatal cardiovascular and fatal events: the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Feb 5;73(4):387-96.Full text  Abstract

83. Murphy SA, Pedersen TR, Gaciong ZA, et al. Effect of the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab on total cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular disease: a prespecified analysis from the FOURIER trial. JAMA Cardiol. 2019 Jul 1;4(7):613-9. Abstract

84. Giugliano RP, Pedersen TR, Park JG, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of achieving very low LDL-cholesterol concentrations with the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab: a prespecified secondary analysis of the FOURIER trial. Lancet. 2017 Oct 28;390(10106):1962-71. Abstract

85. Giugliano RP, Mach F, Zavitz K, et al. Cognitive function in a randomized trial of evolocumab. N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 17;377(7):633-43.Full text  Abstract

86. Qamar A, Giugliano RP, Keech AC, et al. Interindividual variation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level reduction with evolocumab: an analysis of FOURIER trial data. JAMA Cardiol. 2019 Jan 1;4(1):59-63. Abstract

87. Steg PG, Szarek M, Bhatt DL, et al. Effect of alirocumab on mortality after acute coronary syndromes. Circulation. 2019 Jul 9;140(2):103-12.Full text  Abstract

88. Bai J, Gong LL, Li QF, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 monoclonal antibodies: A meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials. J Clin Lipidol. 2018 Mar - Apr;12(2):277-291.e3.Full text  Abstract

89. Insull W Jr, Toth P, Mullican W, et al. Effectiveness of colesevelam hydrochloride in decreasing LDL cholesterol in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia: a 24-week randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001 Oct;76(10):971-82. Abstract

90. McMurray JJ, Adamopoulos S, Anker SD, et al. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2012 Jul;33(14):1787-847.Full text  Abstract

91. Packard CJ, Ford I, Robertson M, et al. Plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins as predictors of cardiovascular risk and treatment benefit in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). Circulation. 2005 Nov 15;112(20):3058-65.Full text  Abstract

92. Savarese G, Gotto AM Jr, Paolillo S, et al. Benefits of statins in elderly subjects without established cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Dec 3;62(22):2090-9.Full text  Abstract

93. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Efficacy and safety of statin therapy in older people: a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 28 randomised controlled trials. Lancet. 2019 Feb 2;393(10170):407-415.Full text  Abstract

94. Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH, et al; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jul 1;63(25 Pt B):2889-934.Full text  Abstract

95. Burton BK, Balwani M, Feillet F, et al. A phase 3 trial of sebelipase alfa in lysosomal acid lipase deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2015 Sep 10;373(11):1010-20.Full text  Abstract

96. Gaudet D, Gipe DA, Pordy R, et al. ANGPTL3 inhibition in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 20;377(3):296-7.Full text  Abstract

97. Goldberg AC, Leiter LA, Stroes ESG, et al. Effect of bempedoic acid vs placebo added to maximally tolerated statins on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease: The CLEAR Wisdom randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019 Nov 12;322(18):1780-1788.Full text  Abstract

98. Ray KK, Stoekenbroek RM, Kallend D, et al. Effect of 1 or 2 doses of inclisiran on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels: One-year follow-up of the ORION-1 randomized clinical trial. JAMA Cardiol. 2019 Nov 1;4(11):1067-1075.Full text  Abstract

99. Raal FJ, Kallend D, Ray KK, et al. Inclisiran for the treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 16;382(16):1520-1530.Full text  Abstract

100. Ray KK, Wright RS, Kallend D, et al. Two Phase 3 trials of inclisiran in patients with elevated LDL cholesterol. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 16;382(16):1507-1519.Full text  Abstract

101. Newman CB, Preiss D, Tobert JA, et al; American Heart Association Clinical Lipidology, Lipoprotein, Metabolism and Thrombosis Committee, a Joint Committee of the Council on Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology and Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health; Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Clinical Cardiology; and Stroke Council. Statin safety and associated adverse events: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2019 Feb;39(2):e38-81.Full text  Abstract

102. Collins R, Reith C, Emberson J, et al. Interpretation of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of statin therapy. Lancet. 2016 Nov 19;388(10059):2532-61.Full text  Abstract

103. Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Mertz CN, et al; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American College of Cardiology Foundation; American Heart Association. Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Circulation. 2004 Jul 13;110(2):227-39.Full text  Abstract

104. O'Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2013 Jul 1;82(1):E1-27.Full text  Abstract

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106. Manktelow BN, Potter JF. Interventions in the management of serum lipids for preventing stroke recurrence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jul 8;(3):CD002091.Full text  Abstract

107. Kim JH, Kim IK, Seo KK, et al. Involvement of superoxide radical in the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of cavernous smooth muscle in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Urol Res. 1997;25(5):341-6. Abstract

108. Esposito K, Ciotola M, Giugliano F, et al. Effects of intensive lifestyle changes on erectile dysfunction in men. J Sex Med. 2009 Jan;6(1):243-50. Abstract

109. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: important safety label changes to cholesterol-lowering statin drugs. February 2012 [internet publication].Full text

110. Smith CC, Bernstein LI, Davis RB, et al. Screening for statin-related toxicity: the yield of transaminase and creatine kinase measurements in a primary care setting. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Mar 24;163(6):688-92.Full text  Abstract

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