Marine toxins (saxitoxin, tetrodotoxin, conotoxin)


Reference articles

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories (BMBL) 5th edition. Agent summary statements: toxin agents. Dec 2009 [internet publication].Full text

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC health information for international travel (Yellow Book): food poisoning from marine toxins. Jun 2019 [internet publication].Full text

3. Alberta Health, Government of Alberta. Public health disease management guidelines: shellfish poisoning. Feb 2020 [internet publication].Full text

4. Etheridge SM. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: seafood safety and human health perspectives. Toxicon. 2010;56:108-122. Abstract

5. Cole JB, Heegaard WG, Deeds JR, et al. Tetrodotoxin poisoning outbreak from imported dried puffer fish - Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;63:1222-1225.Full text  Abstract

6. Katikou P. Public health risks associated with tetrodotoxin and its analogues in European waters: recent advances after the EFSA scientific opinion. Toxins (Basel). 2019 Apr 26;11(5):240.Full text  Abstract

7. Anderson PD, Bokor G. Conotoxins: potential weapons from the sea. J Bioterr Biodef. 2012;3:120.Full text

8. Fenner P. Marine envenomation: an update - a presentation on the current status of marine envenomation first aid and medical treatments. Emerg Med Australas. 2000;12:295-302.Full text

9. Fegan D, Andresen D. Conus geographus envenomation. Lancet. 1997;349:1672. Abstract

10. Gessner BD, Middaugh JP. Paralytic shellfish poisoning in Alaska: a 20-year retrospective analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;141:766-770. Abstract

11. Hurley W, Wolterstorff C, MacDonald R, et al. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: a case series. West J Emerg Med. 2014;15:378-381.Full text  Abstract

12. Bane V, Lehane M, Dikshit M, et al. Tetrodotoxin: chemistry, toxicity, source, distribution and detection. Toxins (Basel). 2014;6:693-755.Full text  Abstract

13. Lago J, Rodriguez LP, Blanco L, et al. Tetrodotoxin, an extremely potent marine neurotoxin: distribution, toxicity, origin and therapeutical uses. Mar Drugs. 2015;13:6384-6406.Full text  Abstract

14. Cavazzoni E, Lister B, Sargent P, et al. Blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena sp.) envenomation of a 4-year-old boy: a case report. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008;46:760-761. Abstract

15. Norton RS, Olivera BM. Conotoxins down under. Toxicon. 2006;48:780-798. Abstract

16. Olivera BM, Gray WR, Zeikus R, et al. Peptide neurotoxins from fish-hunting cone snails. Science. 1985;230:1338-1343. Abstract

17. van Gorcum TF, Janse M, Leenders ME, et al. Intoxication following minor stabs from the spines of a porcupine fish. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2006;44:391-393. Abstract

18. Vilariño N, Louzao MC, Abal P, et al. Human poisoning from marine toxins: unknowns for optimal consumer protection. Toxins (Basel). 2018 Aug 9;10(8):324.Full text  Abstract

19. Lebbe EK, Peigneur S, Wijesekara I, et al. Conotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: an overview. Mar Drugs. 2014;12:2970-3004.Full text  Abstract

20. McCarthy M, Bane V, García-Altares M, et al. Assessment of emerging biotoxins (pinnatoxin G and spirolides) at Europe's first marine reserve: Lough Hyne. Toxicon. 2015;108:202-209. Abstract

21. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories (BMBL) 5th Edition. Dec 2009 [internet publication].Full text

22. Federal Select Agent Program. Select agents and toxins list. 2014 [internet publication].Full text

23. Hoffman RS, Howland MA, Lewin NA, et al. Goldfrank’s toxicologic emergencies. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015.

24. Isbister GK, Kiernan MC. Neurotoxic marine poisoning. Lancet Neurol. 2005;4:219-228. Abstract

25. Sobel J, Painter J. Illnesses caused by marine toxins. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1290-1296.Full text  Abstract

26. Deng JF, Tominack RL, Chung HM, et al. Hypertension as an unusual feature in an outbreak of tetrodotoxin poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1991;29:71-79. Abstract

27. Minns A, Matteucci M, Ly B, et al. Seafood toxidromes. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness medicine. 6th ed. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier; 2012:1444-1469.

28. Islam QT, Razzak MA, Islam MA, et al. Puffer fish poisoning in Bangladesh: clinical and toxicological results from large outbreaks in 2008. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011;105:74-80. Abstract

29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Harmful algal blooms (HABs): ciguatera fish poisoning [internet publication].Full text

30. Washington State Department of Health. Shellfish poisoning: paralytic, domoic acid, or diarrhetic. Mar 2018 [internet publication].Full text

31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guide to confirming an etiology in foodborne disease outbreak. Oct 2015 [internet publication].Full text

32. How CK, Chern CH, Huang YC, et al. Tetrodotoxin poisoning. Am J Emerg Med. 2003;21:51-54. Abstract

33. Clark RF, Williams SR, Nordt SP, et al. A review of selected seafood poisonings. Undersea Hyperb Med. 1999;26:175-184. Abstract

34. Nakashima R, Nakata Y, Kameoka M, et al. Case of tetrodotoxin intoxication in a uremic patient [in Japanese]. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2007;20:141-145. Abstract

35. Liu SH, Tseng CY, Lin CC. Is neostigmine effective in severe pufferfish-associated tetrodotoxin poisoning? Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2015;53:13-21. Abstract

36. Halford ZA, Yu PY, Likeman RK, et al. Cone shell envenomation: epidemiology, pharmacology and medical care. Diving Hyperb Med. 2015;45:200-207. Abstract

37. Queensland Government. Clinical practice guidelines: toxicology and toxinology - marine envenomation. Jan 2020 [internet publication].Full text

38. Havers FP, Moro PL, Hunter P, et al. Use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis caccines: updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Jan 24;69(3):77-83.Full text  Abstract

39. Hack JB, Hoffman RS. General management of poisoned patients. In: Tintinalli JE, Stapczynski J, Ma O, Cline DM, Cydulka RK, Meckler GD, eds. Tintinalli's emergency medicine: a comprehensive study guide. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2011.

40. Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, et al. Bites, venoms, stings, and marine poisonings. In: Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson J, Loscalzo J, eds. Harrison's manual of medicine. 19th edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education; 2016.

41. Kohn AJ. Human injuries and fatalities due to venomous marine snails of the family Conidae. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Jul;54(7):524-38. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer