Constipation

References

Key articles

Brandt LJ, Prather CM, Quigley EM, et al. Systematic review on the management of chronic constipation in North America. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(suppl 1):S5-S21. Abstract

Rao SS. Dyssynergic defecation and biofeedback therapy. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2008 Sep;37(3):569-86.Full text  Abstract

Dennison C, Prasad M, Lloyd A, et al. The health-related quality of life and economic burden of constipation. Pharmacoeconomics. 2005;23(5):461-76. Abstract

Rao SS, Ozturk R, Laine L. Clinical utility of diagnostic tests for constipation in adults: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jul;100(7):1605-15. Abstract

Rao S, Lembo AJ, Shiff SJ, et al. A 12-week, randomized, controlled trial with a 4-week randomized withdrawal period to evaluate the efficacy and safety of linaclotide in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Nov;107(11):1714-24.Full text  Abstract

Rao SS, Seaton K, Miller M, et al. Randomized controlled trial of biofeedback, sham feedback, and standard therapy for dyssynergic defecation. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Mar;5(3):331-8. Abstract

Ramkumar D, Rao SS. Efficacy and safety of traditional medical therapies for chronic constipation: systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Apr;100(4):936-71. Abstract

Rao SS, Seaton K, Miller M, et al. Randomized controlled trial of biofeedback, sham feedback, and standard therapy for dyssynergic defecation. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5:331-338. Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Higgins PD, Johanson JF. Epidemiology of constipation in North America: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004;99:750-759. Abstract

3. Rao SS, Tuteja AK, Vellema T, et al. Dyssynergic defecation: demographics, symptoms, stool patterns, and quality of life. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2004;38:680-685. Abstract

4. Brandt LJ, Prather CM, Quigley EM, et al. Systematic review on the management of chronic constipation in North America. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(suppl 1):S5-S21. Abstract

5. Thompson WG, Longstreth GF, Drossman DA, et al. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain. Gut. 1999 Sep;45(suppl 2):II43-7. Abstract

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8. Rao SS. Dyssynergic defecation and biofeedback therapy. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2008 Sep;37(3):569-86.Full text  Abstract

9. Bharucha AE, Dorn SD, Lembo A, et al. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on constipation. Gastroenterology. 2013 Jan;144(1):211-7.Full text  Abstract

10. Suares NC, Ford AC. Prevalence of, and risk factors for, chronic idiopathic constipation in the community: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Sep;106(9):1582-91. Abstract

11. Peppas G, Alexiou VG, Mourtzoukou E, et al. Epidemiology of constipation in Europe and Oceania: a systematic review. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008 Feb 12;8:5.Full text  Abstract

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20. Higgins PD, Johanson JF. Epidemiology of constipation in North America: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Apr;99(4):750-9. Abstract

21. Drossman DA, Li Z, Andruzzi E, et al. U.S. householder survey of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Prevalence, sociodemography, and health impact. Dig Dis Sci. 1993 Sep;38(9):1569-80. Abstract

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23. Pekmezaris R, Aversa L, Wolf-Klein G, et al. The cost of chronic constipation. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2002 Jul-Aug;3(4):224-8. Abstract

24. Rao SS, Tuteja AK, Vellema T, et al. Dyssynergic defecation: demographics, symptoms, stool patterns, and quality of life. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2004 Sep;38(8):680-5. Abstract

25. Chang L, Toner BB, Fukudo S, et al. Gender, age, society, culture, and the patient's perspective in the functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterology. 2006 Apr;130(5):1435-46. Abstract

26. Derbyshire E, Davies J, Costarelli V, et al. Diet, physical inactivity and the prevalence of constipation throughout and after pregnancy. Matern Child Nutr. 2006 Jul;2(3):127-34. Abstract

27. Mudipalli RS, Remes-Troche J, Andersen L, et al. Functional chest pain: esophageal or overlapping functional disorder. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007 Mar;41(3):264-9. Abstract

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29. Locke GR 3rd, Zinsmeister AR, Fett SL, et al. Overlap of gastrointestinal symptom complexes in a US community. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2005 Feb;17(1):29-34. Abstract

30. Talley NJ, Dennis EH, Schettler-Duncan VA, et al. Overlapping upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients with constipation or diarrhea. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Nov;98(11):2454-9. Abstract

31. Dennison C, Prasad M, Lloyd A, et al. The health-related quality of life and economic burden of constipation. Pharmacoeconomics. 2005;23(5):461-76. Abstract

32. Rao SS. Constipation: evaluation and treatment. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2003 Jun;32(2):659-83. Abstract

33. Martin BC, Barghout V, Cerulli A. Direct medical costs of constipation in the United States. Manag Care Interface. 2006 Dec;19(12):43-9. Abstract

34. Crowell MD, Harris L, Jones MP, et al. New insights into the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome: implications for future treatments. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2005;7:272-279. Abstract

35. Rao SS, Sadeghi P, Beaty J, et al. Ambulatory 24-hour colonic manometry in slow-transit constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Dec;99(12):2405-16. Abstract

36. Rao SS, Sadeghi P, Batterson K, et al. Altered periodic rectal motor activity: a mechanism for slow transit constipation. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2001 Dec;13(6):591-8. Abstract

37. Bassotti G, de Roberto G, Castellani D, et al. Normal aspects of colorectal motility and abnormalities in slow transit constipation. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 May 14;11(18):2691-6. Abstract

38. Rao SS, Welcher KD, Leistikow JS. Obstructive defecation: a failure of rectoanal coordination. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998 Jul;93(7):1042-50. Abstract

39. Crowell MD, Harris L, Jones MP, et al. New insights into the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome: implications for future treatments. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2005 Aug;7(4):272-9. Abstract

40. Levy RL, Jones KR, Whitehead WE, et al. Irritable bowel syndrome in twins: heredity and social learning both contribute to etiology. Gastroenterology. 2001 Oct;121(4):799-804. Abstract

41. Park MI, Camilleri M. Genetics and genotypes in irritable bowel syndrome: implications for diagnosis and treatment. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2005 Jun;34(2):305-17. Abstract

42. Choi YK, Johlin FC Jr, Summers RW, et al. Fructose intolerance: an under-recognized problem. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Jun;98(6):1348-53. Abstract

43. Choi Y, Jackson M, Summers RW, et al. Fructose intolerance and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:309.

44. Pimentel M, Chow EJ, Lin HC. Eradication of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Dec;95(12):3503-6. Abstract

45. Pimentel M, Park S, Mirocha J, et al. The effect of a nonabsorbed oral antibiotic (rifaximin) on the symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Oct 17;145(8):557-63. Abstract

46. Gwee KA. Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2001 Aug;4(4):287-91. Abstract

47. Wilder-Smith CH, Schindler D, Lovblad K, et al. Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging of rectal pain and activation of endogenous inhibitory mechanisms in irritable bowel syndrome patient subgroups and healthy controls. Gut. 2004 Nov;53(11):1595-601.Full text  Abstract

48. Fleming V, Wade WE. A review of laxative therapies for treatment of chronic constipation in older adults. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2010 Dec;8(6):514-50. Abstract

49. Coremans G, Margaritis V, Gebruers K. Is there a genetic component in chronic functional constipation? Gastroenterology. 2005;128(suppl 2):A272.

50. Brown WJ, Mishra G, Lee C, et al. Leisure time physical activity in Australian women: relationship with well being and symptoms. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2000 Sep;71(3):206-16. Abstract

51. Kinnunen O, Salokannel J. Constipation in elderly long-stay patients: its treatment by magnesium hydroxide and bulk-laxative. Ann Clin Res. 1987;19(5):321-3. Abstract

52. Burkitt DP, Walker AR, Painter NS. Effect of dietary fiber on stool and transit times and its role in the causation of disease. Lancet. 1972 Dec 30;2(7792):1408-12. Abstract

53. Tucker DM, Sandstead HH, Logan GM Jr, et al. Dietary fiber and personality factors as determinants of stool output. Gastroenterology. 1981 Nov;81(5):879-83. Abstract

54. Muller-Lissner SA, Kamm MA, Scarpignato C, et al. Myths and misconceptions about chronic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jan;100(1):232-42. Abstract

55. Chun AB, Sokol MS, Kaye WH, et al. Colonic and anorectal function in constipated patients with anorexia nervosa. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997 Oct;92(10):1879-83. Abstract

56. Chiarioni G, Bassotti G, Monsignori A, et al. Anorectal dysfunction in constipated women with anorexia nervosa. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000 Oct;75(10):1015-9. Abstract

57. Anti M, Pignataro G, Armuzzi A, et al. Water supplementation enhances the effect of high-fiber diet on stool frequency and laxative consumption in adult patients with functional constipation. Hepatogastroenterology. 1998 May-Jun;45(21):727-32. Abstract

58. Herz MJ, Kahan E, Zalevski S, et al. Constipation: a different entity for patients and doctors. Fam Pract. 1996 Apr;13(2):156-9. Abstract

59. Lewis SJ, Heaton KW. Stool form scale as a useful guide to intestinal transit time. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997 Sep;32(9):920-4. Abstract

60. Cash BD, Acosta RD, Chandrasekhara V, et al; ASGE Standards of Practice Committee. The role of endoscopy in the management of constipation. Gastrointest Endosc. 2014 Oct;80(4):563-5.Full text  Abstract

61. Rao SS, Ozturk R, Laine L. Clinical utility of diagnostic tests for constipation in adults: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jul;100(7):1605-15. Abstract

62. Shorvon PJ, McHugh S, Diamant NE, et al. Defecography in normal volunteers: results and implications. Gut. 1989 Dec;30(12):1737-49.Full text  Abstract

63. Ekberg O, Mahieu PH, Bartram CI, et al. Defecography: dynamic radiological imaging and proctology. Gastroenterol Int. 1990;3:93-9.

64. Roos JE, Weishaupt D, Wildermuth S, et al. Experience of 4 years with open MR defecography: pictorial review of anorectal anatomy and disease. Radiographics. 2002 Jul-Aug;22(4):817-32. Abstract

65. Fletcher JG, Busse RF, Riederer SJ, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of anatomic and dynamic defects of the pelvic floor in defecatory disorders. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Feb;98(2):399-411. Abstract

66. Dvorkin LS, Hetzer F, Scott SM, et al. Open-magnet MR defaecography compared with evacuation proctography in the diagnosis and management of patients with rectal intussusception. Colorectal Dis. 2004 Jan;6(1):45-53. Abstract

67. Becker G, Blum HE. Novel opioid antagonists for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction and postoperative ileus. Lancet. 2009 Apr 4;373(9670):1198-206. Abstract

68. Rauck R, Slatkin NE, Stambler N, et al. Randomized, double-blind trial of oral methylnaltrexone for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in patients with chronic noncancer pain. Pain Pract. 2017 Jul;17(6):820-8.Full text  Abstract

69. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). MedWatch safety information: Relistor (methylnaltrexone bromide) subcutaneous injections. August 2013 [internet publication].Full text

70. Attaluri A, Donahoe R, Valestin J, et al. Randomised clinical trial: dried plums (prunes) vs. psyllium for constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Apr;33(7):822-8. Abstract

71. Lee-Robichaud H, Thomas K, Morgan J, et al. Lactulose versus polyethylene glycol for chronic constipation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jul 7;(7):CD007570.Full text  Abstract

72. Belsey JD, Geraint M, Dixon TA. Systematic review and meta analysis: polyethylene glycol in adults with non-organic constipation. Int J Clin Pract. 2010 Jun;64(7):944-55. Abstract

73. Kamm MA, Mueller-Lissner S, Wald A, et al. Oral bisacodyl is effective and well-tolerated in patients with chronic constipation. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Jul;9(7):577-83. Abstract

74. Johanson JF, Panas R, Holland PC, et al. Long-term efficacy of lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation. Gastroenterology. 2006;130(suppl 2):M1171.

75. Johanson JF, Gargano MA, Holland PC, et al. Initial and sustained effects of lubiprostone, a chloride channel-2 (ClC2) activator for the treatment of constipation: data from a 4-week phase III study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(suppl 9):S328.

76. Barish CF, Drossman D, Johanson JF, et al. Efficacy and safety of lubiprostone in patients with chronic constipation. Dig Dis Sci. 2010 Apr;55(4):1090-7. Abstract

77. Ford AC, Suares NC. Effect of laxatives and pharmacological therapies in chronic idiopathic constipation: systematic review and meta-analysis. Gut. 2011 Feb;60(2):209-18. Abstract

78. Currie MG, Kurtz CB, Mahajan-Miklos S, et al. Effects of a single dose administration of MD-1100 on safety, tolerability, exposure, and stool consistency in healthy subjects. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:S328.

79. Johnston JM, Kurtz CB, Macdougall JE, et al. Linaclotide improves abdominal pain and bowel habits in a phase IIb study of patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Gastroenterology. 2010 Dec;139(6):1877-1886.e2. Abstract

80. Lembo AJ, Schneier HA, Shiff SJ, et al. Two randomized trials of linaclotide for chronic constipation. N Engl J Med. 2011 Aug 11;365(6):527-36. Abstract

81. Rao S, Lembo AJ, Shiff SJ, et al. A 12-week, randomized, controlled trial with a 4-week randomized withdrawal period to evaluate the efficacy and safety of linaclotide in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Nov;107(11):1714-24.Full text  Abstract

82. Chey WD, Lembo AJ, Lavins BJ, et al. Linaclotide for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation: a 26-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate efficacy and safety. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Nov;107(11):1702-12.Full text  Abstract

83. Lee N, Wald A. Linaclotide: evidence for its potential use in irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation. Core Evid. 2012;7:39-47.Full text  Abstract

84. Quigley EM, Tack J, Chey WD, et al. Randomised clinical trials: linaclotide phase 3 studies in IBS-C - a prespecified further analysis based on European Medicines Agency-specified endpoints. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Jan;37(1):49-61.Full text  Abstract

85. DeMicco M, Barrow L, Hickey B, et al. Randomized clinical trial: efficacy and safety of plecanatide in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2017 Nov;10(11):837-51.Full text  Abstract

86. Tack J, van Outryve M, Beyens G, et al. Prucalopride (Resolor) in the treatment of severe chronic constipation in patients dissatisfied with laxatives. Gut. 2009 Mar;58(3):357-65. Abstract

87. Camilleri M, Kerstens R, Rykx A, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of prucalopride for severe chronic constipation. N Engl J Med. 2008 May 29;358(22):2344-54.Full text  Abstract

88. Camilleri M, Deiteren A. Prucalopride for constipation. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Feb;11(3):451-61. Abstract

89. Müller-Lissner S, Rykx A, Kerstens R, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of prucalopride in elderly patients with chronic constipation. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010 Sep;22(9):991-8. Abstract

90. Quigley EM, Vandeplassche L, Kerstens R, et al. Clinical trial: the efficacy, impact on quality of life, and safety and tolerability of prucalopride in severe chronic constipation - a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Feb 1;29(3):315-28.Full text  Abstract

91. Yiannakou Y, Piessevaux H, Bouchoucha M, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of prucalopride in men with chronic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2015 May;110(5):741-8.Full text  Abstract

92. Chiarioni G, Whitehead WE, Pezza V, et al. Biofeedback is superior to laxatives for normal transit constipation due to pelvic floor dyssynergia. Gastroenterology. 2006 Mar;130(3):657-64. Abstract

93. Rao SS, Seaton K, Miller M, et al. Randomized controlled trial of biofeedback, sham feedback, and standard therapy for dyssynergic defecation. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Mar;5(3):331-8. Abstract

94. Rao SS, Kinkade K, Miller MJ, et al. Randomized controlled trial of long term outcome of biofeedback therapy (BT) for dyssynergic defecation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:386.

95. Heymen S, Wexner SD, Vickers D, et al. Prospective, randomized trial comparing for biofeedback techniques for patients with constipation. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999 Nov;42(11):1388-93. Abstract

96. Rao SS, Enck P, Loening-Baucke V. Biofeedback therapy for defecation disorders. Dig Dis. 1997;15(suppl 1):78-92. Abstract

97. Lees NP, Hodson P, Hill J, et al. Long-term results of the antegrade continent enema procedure for constipation in adults. Colorectal Dis. 2004 Sep;6(5):362-8. Abstract

98. Pemberton JH, Rath DM, Ilstrup DM. Evaluation and surgical treatment of severe chronic constipation. Ann Surg. 1991 Oct;214(4):403-11. Abstract

99. Arebi N, Kalli T, Howson W, et al. Systematic review of abdominal surgery for chronic idiopathic constipation. Colorectal Dis. 2011 Dec;13(12):1335-43. Abstract

100. Schiller LR. Review article: the therapy of constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Jun;15(6):749-63. Abstract

101. Ramkumar D, Rao SS. Efficacy and safety of traditional medical therapies for chronic constipation: systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Apr;100(4):936-71. Abstract

102. Siegel JD, Di Palma JA. Medical treatment of constipation. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2005 May;18(2):76-80. Abstract

103. Johnston JM, Drossman DA, Lembo A, et al. Late-breaking abstract 65A: Linaclotide improves bowel habits and patient reported outcomes in subjects with chronic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101(suppl 2):S470-S494.

104. ClinicalTrials.gov. A 26-week study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tenapanor in IBS-C (T3MPO-2). February 2017 [internet publication].Full text

105. ClinicalTrials.gov. A long-term safety study of tenapanor for the treatment of IBS-C (T3MPO-3). April 2016 [internet publication].Full text

106. Chalazonitis A. Neurotrophin-3 in the development of the enteric nervous system. Prog Brain Res. 2004;146:243-63. Abstract

107. Parkman HP, Rao SS, Reynolds JC, et al. Neurotrophin-3 improves functional constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Jun;98(6):1338-47. Abstract

108. Dinning PG, Fuentealba SE, Kennedy ML, et al. Sacral nerve stimulation induces pan-colonic propagating pressure waves and increases defecation frequency in patients with slow-transit constipation. Colorectal Dis. 2007 Feb;9(2):123-32. Abstract

109. Holzer B, Rosen HR, Novi G, et al. Sacral nerve stimulation for neurogenic faecal incontinence. Br J Surg. 2007 Jun;94(6):749-53. Abstract

110. Malouf AJ, Wiesel PH, Nicholls T, et al. Short-term effects of sacral nerve stimulation for idiopathic slow transit constipation. World J Surg. 2002 Feb;26(2):166-70. Abstract

111. Dudding TC. Future indications for sacral nerve stimulation. Colorectal Dis. 2011;2011 Mar;13(suppl 2):23-8. Abstract

112. Maeda Y, Matzel K, Lundby L, et al. Postoperative issues of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence and constipation: a systematic literature review and treatment guideline. Dis Colon Rectum. 2011 Nov;54(11):1443-60. Abstract

113. Chey WD, Webster L, Sostek M, et al. Naloxegol for opioid-induced constipation in patients with noncancer pain. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jun 19;370(25):2387-96. Abstract

114. Murata T, Katakami N, Harada T, et al. Treatment of opioid-induced constipation with naldemedine in patients with cancer: onset of action in a randomized phase 3 trial. Ann Oncol. 2016;27:1466P.

115. Luthra P, Burr NE, Brenner DM, et al. Efficacy of pharmacological therapies for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation: systematic review and network meta-analysis. Gut. 2018 May 5 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract

116. Manini ML, Camilleri M, Goldberg M, et al. Effects of velusetrag (TD-5108) on gastrointestinal transit and bowel function in health and pharmacokinetics in health and constipation. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010 Jan;22(1):42-9, e7-8.Full text  Abstract

117. Camilleri M, Vazquez-Roque MI, Burton D, et al. Pharmacodynamic effects of a novel prokinetic 5-HT receptor agonist, ATI-7505, in humans. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2007 Jan;19(1):30-8. Abstract

118. Goldberg M, Li YP, Johanson JF, et al. Clinical trial: the efficacy and tolerability of velusetrag, a selective 5-HT4 agonist with high intrinsic activity, in chronic idiopathic constipation - a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Nov;32(9):1102-12.Full text  Abstract

119. Shin A, Camilleri M, Kolar G, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: highly selective 5-HT4 agonists (prucalopride, velusetrag or naronapride) in chronic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Feb;39(3):239-53.Full text  Abstract

120. American College of Gastroenterology Chronic Constipation Task Force. An evidence-based approach to the management of chronic constipation in North America. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100 Suppl 1:S1-4. Abstract

121. Barish CF, Drossman D, Johanson JF, et al. Efficacy and safety of lubiprostone in patients with chronic constipation. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:1090-1097. Abstract

122. Müller-Lissner S, Rykx A, Kerstens R, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of prucalopride in elderly patients with chronic constipation. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:991-998. Abstract

123. Quigley EM, Vandeplassche L, Kerstens R, et al. Clinical trial: the efficacy, impact on quality of life, and safety and tolerability of prucalopride in severe chronic constipation - a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;29:315-328.Full text  Abstract

124. Mueller-Lissner S, Kamm MA, Wald A, et al. Multicenter, 4-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sodium picosulfate in patients with chronic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:897-903. Abstract

125. Lembo AJ, Kurtz CB, Macdougall JE, et al. Efficacy of linaclotide for patients with chronic constipation. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:886-895. Abstract

126. Chiarioni G, Whitehead WE, Pezza V, et al. Biofeedback is superior to laxatives for normal transit constipation due to pelvic floor dyssynergia. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:657-664. Abstract

127. Rao SS, Seaton K, Miller M, et al. Randomized controlled trial of biofeedback, sham feedback, and standard therapy for dyssynergic defecation. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;5:331-338. Abstract

128. Heymen S, Wexner SD, Vickers D, et al. Prospective, randomized trial comparing for biofeedback techniques for patients with constipation. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42:1388-1393. Abstract

129. Enck P, Van der Voort IR, Klosterhalfen S. Biofeedback therapy in fecal incontinence and constipation. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2009;21:1133-1141. Abstract

130. Lees NP, Hodson P, Hill J, et al. Long-term results of the antegrade continent enema procedure for constipation in adults. Colorectal Dis. 2004;6:362-368. Abstract

131. Pemberton JH, Rath DM, Ilstrup DM. Evaluation and surgical treatment of severe chronic constipation. Ann Surg. 1991;214:403-413. Abstract

132. Nyam DC, Pemberton JH, Ilstrup DM, et al. Long-term results of surgery for chronic constipation. Dis Colon Rectum. 1997;40:273-279. Abstract

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