Polycystic ovary syndrome

References

Key articles

Zawadzki JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: towards a rational approach. In: Dunaif A, Givens JR, Haseltine F, et al., eds. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992:377-84.

The Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25. Abstract

Azziz R, Carmina E, Dewailly D, et al. Positions statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-45.Full text  Abstract

Day F, Karaderi T, Jones MR, et al. Large-scale genome-wide meta-analysis of polycystic ovary syndrome suggests shared genetic architecture for different diagnosis criteria. PLoS Genet. 2018 Dec 19;14(12):e1007813.Full text  Abstract

International PCOS Network. International evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

Wang R, Li W, Bordewijk EM, et al. First-line ovulation induction for polycystic ovary syndrome: an individual participant data meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2019 Nov 5;25(6):717-32.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Zawadzki JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: towards a rational approach. In: Dunaif A, Givens JR, Haseltine F, et al., eds. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992:377-84.

2. The Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25. Abstract

3. Azziz R, Carmina E, Dewailly D, et al. Positions statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-45.Full text  Abstract

4. Azziz R, Carmina E, Dewailly D, et al. The Androgen Excess and PCOS Society criteria for the polycystic ovary syndrome: the complete task force report. Fertil Steril. 2009 Feb;91(2):456-88. Abstract

5. Norman RJ, Dewailly D, Legro RS, et al. Polycystic ovary syndrome. Lancet. 2007 Aug 25;370(9588):685-97. Abstract

6. Dewailly D, Catteau-Jonard S, Reyss AC, et al. Oligoanovulation with polycystic ovaries but not overt hyperandrogenism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Oct;91(10):3922-7.Full text  Abstract

7. Zawadzki JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: towards a rational approach. In: Dunaif A, Givens JR, Haseltine F, et al., eds. Polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992:377-84.

8. Azziz R, Woods KS, Reyna R, et al. The prevalence and features of the polycystic ovary syndrome in an unselected population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;89(6):2745-9.Full text  Abstract

9. Bozdag G, Mumusoglu S, Zengin D, et al. The prevalence and phenotypic features of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 2016 Dec;31(12):2841-55. Abstract

10. Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Kouli CR, Bergiele AT, et al. A survey of the polycystic ovary syndrome in the Greek island of Lesbos: hormonal and metabolic profile. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Nov;84(11):4006-11.Full text  Abstract

11. Asuncion M, Calvo RM, San Millan JL, et al. A prospective study of the prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome in unselected Caucasian women from Spain. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jul;85(7):2434-8.Full text  Abstract

12. Michelmore KF, Balen AH, Dunger DB, et al. Polycystic ovaries and associated clinical and biochemical features in young women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999 Dec;51(6):779-86. Abstract

13. Goodarzi MO, Quiñones MJ, Azziz R, et al. Polycystic ovary syndrome in Mexican-Americans: prevalence and association with the severity of insulin resistance. Fertil Steril. 2005 Sep;84(3):766-9. Abstract

14. Davis SR, Knight S, White V, et al. Preliminary indication of a high prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in indigenous Australian women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2002 Dec;16(6):443-6. Abstract

15. Azziz R, Sanchez LA, Knochenhauer ES, et al. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Feb;89(2):453-62.Full text  Abstract

16. Sam S, Sung YA, Legro RS. Evidence for pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction in brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Metabolism. 2008 Jan;57(1):84-9. Abstract

17. Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Demers L, et al. Elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels as the reproductive phenotype in the brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;87(5):2134-8.Full text  Abstract

18. Goodarzi MO. Looking for polycystic ovary syndrome genes: rational and best strategy. Semin Reprod Med. 2008 Jan;26(1):5-13. Abstract

19. Vink JM, Sadrzadeh S, Lambalk CB, et al. Heritability of polycystic ovary syndrome in a Dutch twin-family study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun;91(6):2100-4.Full text  Abstract

20. Chen ZJ, Zhao H, He L, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci for polycystic ovary syndrome on chromosome 2p16.3, 2p21 and 9q33.3. Nat Genet. 2011 Jan;43(1):55-9. Abstract

21. Goodarzi MO, Jones MR, Li X, et al. Replication of association of DENND1A and THADA variants with polycystic ovary syndrome in European cohorts. J Med Genet. 2012 Feb;49(2):90-5. Abstract

22. Eriksen MB, Brusgaard K, Andersen M, et al. Association of polycystic ovary syndrome susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphism rs2479106 and PCOS in Caucasian patients with PCOS or hirsutism as referral diagnosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012 Jul;163(1):39-42. Abstract

23. Welt CK, Styrkarsdottir U, Ehrmann DA, et al. Variants in DENND1A are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in women of European ancestry. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jul;97(7):E1342-7.Full text  Abstract

24. Bao S, Cai JH, Yang SY, et al. Association of DENND1A gene polymorphisms with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2016 Jun 5;8(2):135-43.Full text  Abstract

25. Shi Y, Zhao H, Shi Y, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies eight new risk loci for polycystic ovary syndrome. Nat Genet. 2012 Sep;44(9):1020-5. Abstract

26. Hayes MG, Urbanek M, Ehrmann DA, et al. Genome-wide association of polycystic ovary syndrome implicates alterations in gonadotropin secretion in European ancestry populations. Nat Commun. 2015 Aug 18;6:7502.Full text  Abstract

27. Day FR, Hinds DA, Tung JY, et al. Causal mechanisms and balancing selection inferred from genetic associations with polycystic ovary syndrome. Nat Commun. 2015 Sep 29;6:8464.Full text  Abstract

28. Day F, Karaderi T, Jones MR, et al. Large-scale genome-wide meta-analysis of polycystic ovary syndrome suggests shared genetic architecture for different diagnosis criteria. PLoS Genet. 2018 Dec 19;14(12):e1007813.Full text  Abstract

29. Azziz R, Dumesic DA, Goodarzi MO. Polycystic ovary syndrome: an ancient disorder? Fertil Steril. 2011 Apr;95(5):1544-8.Full text  Abstract

30. Shah NA, Antoine HJ, Pall M, et al. Association of androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 May;93(5):1939-45.Full text  Abstract

31. Hickey TE, Legro RS, Norman RJ. Epigenetic modification of the X chromosome influences susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jul;91(7):2789-91.Full text  Abstract

32. Kahsar-Miller MD, Nixon C, Boots LR, et al. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in first-degree relatives of patients with PCOS. Fertil Steril. 2001 Jan;75(1):53-8. Abstract

33. Legro RS, Driscoll D, Strauss JF III, et al. Evidence for a genetic basis for hyperandrogenemia in polycystic ovary syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998 Dec 8;95(25):14956-60.Full text  Abstract

34. Goodarzi MO, Azziz R. Diagnosis, epidemiology, and genetics of the polycystic ovary syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun;20(2):193-205. Abstract

35. Ibáñez L, Dimartino-Nardi J, Potau N, et al. Premature adrenarche-normal variant or forerunner of adult disease? Endocr Rev. 2000 Dec;21(6):671-96.Full text  Abstract

36. Brower MA, Hai Y, Jones MR, et al. Bidirectional Mendelian randomization to explore the causal relationships between body mass index and polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2019 Jan 1;34(1):127-36. Abstract

37. Ibáñez L, Potau N, Francois I, et al. Precocious pubarche, hyperinsulinism, and ovarian hyperandrogenism in girls: relation to reduced fetal growth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Oct;83(10):3558-62.Full text  Abstract

38. Ibáñez L, Valls C, Potau N, et al. Polycystic ovary syndrome after precocious pubarche: ontogeny of the low-birthweight effect. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001 Nov;55(5):667-72. Abstract

39. Melo AS, Vieira CS, Barbieri MA, et al. High prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in women born small for gestational age. Hum Reprod. 2010 Aug;25(8):2124-31. Abstract

40. Valgeirsdottir H, Vanky E, Sundström-Poromaa I, et al. Prenatal exposures and birth indices, and subsequent risk of polycystic ovary syndrome: a national registry-based cohort study. BJOG. 2019 Jan;126(2):244-51. Abstract

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42. Kuijper EA, Vink JM, Lambalk CB, et al. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in women from opposite-sex twin pairs. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jun;94(6):1987-90. Abstract

43. Anderson H, Fogel N, Grebe SK, et al. Infants of women with polycystic ovary syndrome have lower cord blood androstenedione and estradiol levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 May;95(5):2180-6. Abstract

44. Barry JA, Kay AR, Navaratnarajah R, et al. Umbilical vein testosterone in female infants born to mothers with polycystic ovary syndrome is elevated to male levels. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2010;30(5):444-6. Abstract

45. Kandaraki E, Chatzigeorgiou A, Livadas S, et al. Endocrine disruptors and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): elevated serum levels of bisphenol A in women with PCOS. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar;96(3):E480-4. Abstract

46. Hu Y, Wen S, Yuan D, et al. The association between the environmental endocrine disruptor bisphenol A and polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2018 May;34(5):370-7. Abstract

47. Azziz R, Carmina E, Dewailly D, et al. Positions statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-45.Full text  Abstract

48. Anon. Screening and management of the hyperandrogenic adolescent: ACOG committee opinion, number 789. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Oct;134(4):e106-14.Full text  Abstract

49. Peña AS, Witchel SF, Hoeger KM, et al. Adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome according to the international evidence-based guideline. BMC Med. 2020 Mar 24;18(1):72.Full text  Abstract

50. The Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25. Abstract

51. International PCOS Network. International evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

52. Vassalou H, Sotiraki M, Michala L. PCOS diagnosis in adolescents: the timeline of a controversy in a systematic review. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Jun 26;32(6):549-59. Abstract

53. Legro RS, Arslanian SA, Ehrmann DA, et al; Endocrine Society. Diagnosis and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Dec;98(12):4565-92.Full text  Abstract

54. Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril. 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25. Abstract

55. Zhao Y, Zhao Y, Wang C, et al. Diagnostic value of anti-Müllerian hormone as a biomarker for polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis update. Endocr Pract. 2019 Oct;25(10):1056-66. Abstract

56. Elting MW, Kwee J, Korsen TJ, et al. Aging women with polycystic ovary syndrome who achieve regular menstrual cycles have a smaller follicle cohort than those who continue to have irregular cycles. Fertil Steril. 2003 May;79(5):1154-60. Abstract

57. Carmina E, Koyama T, Chang L, et al. Does ethnicity influence the prevalence of adrenal hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Dec;167(6):1807-12. Abstract

58. Wild RA, Carmina E, Amanti-Kandarakis E, et al. Assessment of cardiovascular risk and prevention of cardiovascular disease in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome: a consensus statement by the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS) Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 May;95(5):2038-49.Full text  Abstract

59. Azziz R, Hincapie LA, Knochenhauer ES, et al. Screening for 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia among hyperandrogenic women: a prospective study. Fertil Steril. 1999 Nov;72(5):915-25. Abstract

60. Kakoly NS, Khomami MB, Joham AE, et al. Ethnicity, obesity and the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in PCOS: a systematic review and meta-regression. Hum Reprod Update. 2018 Jul 1;24(4):455-67.Full text  Abstract

61. Salley KE, Wickham EP, Cheang KI, et al. Glucose intolerance in polycystic ovary syndrome: a position statement of the Androgen Excess Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Dec;92(12):4546-56.Full text  Abstract

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65. Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Dunaif A. Prevalence and predictors of dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Med. 2001 Dec 1;111(8):607-13. Abstract

66. Ayala C, Steinberger E, Smith KD, et al. Serum testosterone levels and reference ranges in reproductive-age women. Endocr Pract. 1999 Nov-Dec;5(6):322-9. Abstract

67. Bui HN, Sluss PM, Hayes FJ, et al. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Chim Acta. 2015 Oct 23;450:227-32. Abstract

68. Legro RS, Schlaff WD, Diamond MP, et al. Total testosterone assays in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: precision and correlation with hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Dec;95(12):5305-13.Full text  Abstract

69. Woods KS, Reyna R, Azziz R. Effect of oral micronized progesterone on androgen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2002 Jun;77(6):1125-7. Abstract

70. Alsamarai S, Adams JM, Murphy MK, et al. Criteria for polycystic ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome as a function of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Dec;94(12):4961-70. Abstract

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74. Moran LJ, Brinkworth G, Noakes M, et al. Effects of lifestyle modification in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Reprod Biomed Online. 2006 May;12(5):569-78. Abstract

75. Kiddy DS, Hamilton-Fairley D, Bush A, et al. Improvement in endocrine and ovarian function during dietary treatment of obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1992 Jan;36(1):105-11. Abstract

76. Clark AM, Ledger W, Galletly C, et al. Weight loss results in significant improvement in pregnancy and ovulation rates in anovulatory obese women. Hum Reprod. 1995 Oct;10(10):2705-12. Abstract

77. Harrison CL, Lombard CB, Moran LJ, et al. Exercise therapy in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update. 2011 Mar-Apr;17(2):171-83.Full text  Abstract

78. Lim SS, Hutchison SK, Van Ryswyk E, et al. Lifestyle changes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 28;(3):CD007506.Full text  Abstract

79. Oberg E, Gidlöf S, Jakson I, et al. Improved menstrual function in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome after behavioural modification intervention - a randomized controlled trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2019 Mar;90(3):468-78. Abstract

80. Stamets K, Taylor DS, Kunselman A, et al. A randomized trial of the effects of two types of short-term hypocaloric diets on weight loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2004 Mar;81(3):630-7. Abstract

81. Moran JL, Noakes M, Clifton PM, et al. Short-term meal replacements followed by dietary macronutrient restriction enhance weight loss in polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):77-87.Full text  Abstract

82. Moran LJ, Noakes M, Clifton PM, et al. Dietary composition in restoring reproductive and metabolic physiology in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Feb;88(2):812-9.Full text  Abstract

83. Moran LJ, Ko H, Misso M, et al. Dietary composition in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review to inform evidence-based guidelines. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Apr;113(4):520-45. Abstract

84. Leeman L, Acharya U. The use of metformin in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome and associated anovulatory infertility: the current evidence. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009 Aug;29(6):467-72. Abstract

85. Ehrmann DA, Cavaghan MK, Imperial J, et al. Effects of metformin on insulin secretion, insulin action, and ovarian steroidogenesis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Feb;82(2):524-30.Full text  Abstract

86. Johnson NP, Bontekoe S, Stewart AW. Analysis of factors predicting success of metformin and clomiphene treatment for women with infertility owing to PCOS-related ovulation dysfunction in a randomised controlled trial. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 Jun;51(3):252-6. Abstract

87. Sharpe A, Morley LC, Tang T, et al. Metformin for ovulation induction (excluding gonadotrophins) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Dec 17;(12):CD013505.Full text  Abstract

88. Feng L, Lin XF, Wan ZH, et al. Efficacy of metformin on pregnancy complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2015;31(11):833-9. Abstract

89. Zeng XL, Zhang YF, Tian Q, et al. Effects of metformin on pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Sep;95(36):e4526. Abstract

90. Tan X, Li S, Chang Y, et al. Effect of metformin treatment during pregnancy on women with PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Invest Med. 2016 Sep 11;39(4):E120-31. Abstract

91. Løvvik TS, Carlsen SM, Salvesen Ø, et al. Use of metformin to treat pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PregMet2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019 Apr;7(4):256-66. Abstract

92. Hanem LGE, Salvesen Ø, Juliusson PB, et al. Intrauterine metformin exposure and offspring cardiometabolic risk factors (PedMet study): a 5-10 year follow-up of the PregMet randomised controlled trial. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2019 Mar;3(3):166-74. Abstract

93. Smithson DS, Vause TDR, Cheung AP. No. 362-ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2018 Jul;40(7):978-87. Abstract

94. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee opinion no. 738: aromatase inhibitors in gynecologic practice. Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Jun;131(6):1. Abstract

95. Wang R, Li W, Bordewijk EM, et al. First-line ovulation induction for polycystic ovary syndrome: an individual participant data meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2019 Nov 5;25(6):717-32.Full text  Abstract

96. Casper RF, Mitwally MF. Review: aromatase inhibitors for ovulation induction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Mar;91(3):760-71.Full text  Abstract

97. Legro RS, Brzyski RG, Diamond MP, et al. Letrozole versus clomiphene for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jul 10;371(2):119-29.Full text  Abstract

98. Franik S, Eltrop SM, Kremer JA, et al. Aromatase inhibitors (letrozole) for subfertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 May 24;(5):CD010287.Full text  Abstract

99. Misso ML, Wong JL, Teede HJ, et al. Aromatase inhibitors for PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2012 May-Jun;18(3):301-12. Abstract

100. Yu Q, Hu S, Wang Y, et al. Letrozole versus laparoscopic ovarian drilling in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2019 Feb 6;17(1):17.Full text  Abstract

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103. Bordewijk EM, Nahuis M, Costello MF, et al. Metformin during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination for subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 24;(1):CD009090.Full text  Abstract

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105. Bordewijk EM, Ng KYB, Rakic L, et al. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling for ovulation induction in women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Feb 11;(2):CD001122.Full text  Abstract

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108. Huang X, Wang P, Tal R, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of metformin among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing assisted reproductive technology procedures. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015 Nov;131(2):111-6. Abstract

109. Martin KA, Anderson RR, Chang RJ, et al. Evaluation and treatment of hirsutism in premenopausal women: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Apr 1;103(4):1233-57.Full text  Abstract

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114. Yildiz BO. Oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome: risk-benefit assessment. Semin Reprod Med. 2008 Jan;26(1):111-20. Abstract

115. Cosma M, Swiglo BA, Flynn DN, et al. Clinical review: insulin sensitizers for the treatment of hirsutism: a systematic review and metaanalyses of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Apr;93(4):1135-42.Full text  Abstract

116. Fraison E, Kostova E, Moran LJ, et al. Metformin versus the combined oral contraceptive pill for hirsutism, acne, and menstrual pattern in polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Aug 13;(8):CD005552.Full text  Abstract

117. Barba M, Schünemann HJ, Sperati F, et al. The effects of metformin on endogenous androgens and SHBG in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 May;70(5):661-70.Full text  Abstract

118. Thethi TK, Katalenich B, Nagireddy P, et al. Role of insulin sensitizers on cardiovascular risk factors in polycystic ovarian syndrome: a meta-analysis. Endocr Pract. 2015 Jun;21(6):645-67. Abstract

119. Nieuwenhuis-Ruifrok AE, Kuchenbecker WK, Hoek A, et al. Insulin sensitizing drugs for weight loss in women of reproductive age who are overweight or obese: systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2009 Jan-Feb;15(1):57-68.Full text  Abstract

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