Multiple sclerosis

References

Key articles

Lublin FD, Reingold SC, Cohen JA, et al. Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: the 2013 revisions. Neurology. 2014 Jul 15;83(3):278-86.Full text  Abstract

Wattjes MP, Ciccarelli O, Reich DS, et al. 2021 MAGNIMS-CMSC-NAIMS consensus recommendations on the use of MRI in patients with multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 2021 Aug;20(8):653-670.Full text  Abstract

Thompson AJ, Banwell BL, Barkhof F, et al. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria. Lancet Neurol. 2018 Feb;17(2):162-73. Abstract

Kantarci O, Wingerchuk D. Epidemiology and natural history of multiple sclerosis: new insights. Curr Opin Neurol. 2006 Jun;19(3):248-54. Abstract

Tramacere I, Del Giovane C, Salanti G, et al. Immunomodulators and immunosuppressants for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 18;(9):CD011381.Full text  Abstract

Scolding N, Barnes D, Cader S, et al. Association of British Neurologists: revised (2015) guidelines for prescribing disease-modifying treatments in multiple sclerosis. Pract Neurol. 2015 Aug;15(4):273-9.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Lublin FD, Reingold SC, Cohen JA, et al. Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: the 2013 revisions. Neurology. 2014 Jul 15;83(3):278-86.Full text  Abstract

3. Wattjes MP, Ciccarelli O, Reich DS, et al. 2021 MAGNIMS-CMSC-NAIMS consensus recommendations on the use of MRI in patients with multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 2021 Aug;20(8):653-670.Full text  Abstract

4. Thompson AJ, Banwell BL, Barkhof F, et al. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria. Lancet Neurol. 2018 Feb;17(2):162-73. Abstract

5. Wingerchuk DM, Banwell B, Bennett JL, et al. International consensus diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Neurology. 2015 Jul 14;85(2):177-89.Full text  Abstract

6. Wingerchuk DM. Immune-mediated myelopathies. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2018 Apr;24(2, Spinal Cord Disorders):497-522. Abstract

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9. Salama S, Pardo S, Levy M. Clinical characteristics of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 May;30:231-5.Full text  Abstract

10. Wingerchuk DM, Lucchinetti CF. Comparative immunopathogenesis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol. 2007 Jun;20(3):343-50. Abstract

11. GBD 2016 Multiple Sclerosis Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of multiple sclerosis 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol. 2019 Mar;18(3):269-85.Full text  Abstract

12. Wallin MT, Culpepper WJ, Campbell JD, et al. The prevalence of MS in the United States: a population-based estimate using health claims data. Neurology. 2019 Mar 5;92(10):e1029-40.Full text  Abstract

13. Orton SM, Herrera BM, Yee IM, et al. Canadian Collaborative Study Group. Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in Canada: a longitudinal study. Lancet Neurol. 2006 Nov;5(11):932-6. Abstract

14. Giovannoni G, Ebers G. Multiple sclerosis: the environment and causation. Curr Opin Neurol. 2007 Jun;20(3):261-8. Abstract

15. Marrie RA, Cutter G, Tyry T, et al. Does multiple sclerosis-associated disability differ between races? Neurology. 2006 Apr 25;66(8):1235-40. Abstract

16. De Angelis F, John NA, Brownlee WJ. Disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis. BMJ. 2018 Nov 27;363:k4674. Abstract

17. Calabrese M, Filippi M, Gallo P. Cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis. Nat Rev Neurol. 2010 Aug;6(8):438-44. Abstract

18. Kantarci O, Wingerchuk D. Epidemiology and natural history of multiple sclerosis: new insights. Curr Opin Neurol. 2006 Jun;19(3):248-54. Abstract

19. Compston A, Coles A. Multiple sclerosis. Lancet. 2008 Oct 25;372(9648):1502-17.Full text  Abstract

20. Compston A, Coles A. Multiple sclerosis. Lancet. 2002 Apr 6;359(9313):1221-31. [Erratum in: Lancet. 2002 Aug 24;360(9333):648.] Abstract

21. Harirchian MH, Fatehi F, Sarraf P, et al. Worldwide prevalence of familial multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2018 Feb;20:43-7. Abstract

22. Yeo TW, De Jager PL, Gregory SG, et al. A second major histocompatibility complex susceptibility locus for multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2007 Mar;61(3):228-36.Full text  Abstract

23. Tizaoui K. Multiple sclerosis genetics: results from meta-analyses of candidate-gene association studies. Cytokine. 2018 Jun;106:154-64. Abstract

24. Ascherio A, Munger KL, Simon KC. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun;9(6):599-612. Abstract

25. Pierrot-Deseilligny C, Souberbielle JC. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis: an update. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2017 May;14:35-45. Abstract

26. Banwell B, Bar-Or A, Arnold DL, et al. Clinical, environmental, and genetic determinants of multiple sclerosis in children with acute demyelination: a prospective national cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2011 May;10(5):436-45. Abstract

27. Sheik-Ali S. Infectious mononucleosis and multiple sclerosis - updated review on associated risk. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2017 May;14:56-9. Abstract

28. Voumvourakis KI, Kitsos DK, Tsiodras S, et al. Human herpesvirus 6 infection as a trigger of multiple sclerosis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010 Nov;85(11):1023-30.Full text  Abstract

29. Brown RF, Tennant CC, Sharrock M, et al. Relationship between stress and relapse in multiple sclerosis: part II. Direct and indirect relationships. Mult Scler. 2006 Aug;12(4):465-75. Abstract

30. Abdollahpour I, Nedjat S, Mansournia MA, et al. Stress-full life events and multiple sclerosis: a population-based incident case-control study. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2018 Nov;26:168-72. Abstract

31. Hauser SL, Oksenberg JR. The neurobiology of multiple sclerosis: genes, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. Neuron. 2006 Oct 5;52(1):61-76. Abstract

32. Rosso M, Chitnis T. Association between cigarette smoking and multiple sclerosis: a review. JAMA Neurol. 2020 Feb 1;77(2):245-53. Abstract

33. Degelman ML, Herman KM. Smoking and multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis using the Bradford Hill criteria for causation. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2017 Oct;17:207-16. Abstract

34. Munger KL, Levin LI, Hollis BW, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis. JAMA. 2006 Dec 20;296(23):2832-8.Full text  Abstract

35. Ramagopalan SV, Dyment DA, Valdar W, et al. Canadian Collaborative Study Group. Autoimmune disease in families with multiple sclerosis: a population-based study. Lancet Neurol. 2007 Jul;6(7):604-10. Abstract

36. Rasul T, Frederiksen JL. Link between overweight/obese in children and youngsters and occurrence of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol. 2018 Dec;265(12):2755-63. Abstract

37. Holick MF. Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6 Suppl):1678-88S.Full text  Abstract

38. Lavi R, Yarnitsky D, Rowe JM, et al. Standard vs atraumatic Whitacre needle for diagnostic lumbar puncture: a randomized trial. Neurology. 2006 Oct 24;67(8):1492-4. Abstract

39. Arendt K, Demaerschalk BM, Wingerchuk DM, Camann W. Atraumatic lumbar puncture needles: after all these years, are we still missing the point? Neurologist. 2009 Jan;15(1):17-20. Abstract

40. Nath S, Koziarz A, Badhiwala JH, et al. Atraumatic versus conventional lumbar puncture needles: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018 Mar 24;391(10126):1197-204. Abstract

41. Rochwerg B, Almenawer SA, Siemieniuk RAC, et al. Atraumatic (pencil-point) versus conventional needles for lumbar puncture: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2018 May 22;361:k1920.Full text  Abstract

42. Ahmed SV, Jayawarna C, Jude E. Post lumbar puncture headache: diagnosis and management. Postgrad Med J. 2006 Nov;82(973):713-6.Full text  Abstract

43. Arevalo-Rodriguez I, Ciapponi A, Roqué i Figuls M, et al. Posture and fluids for preventing post-dural puncture headache. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 7;(3):CD009199.Full text  Abstract

44. Polman CH, Reingold SC, Banwell B, et al. Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria. Ann Neurol. 2011 Feb;69(2):292-302.Full text  Abstract

45. Kurtzke JF. Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology. 1983 Nov;33(11):1444-52. Abstract

46. Kuspinar A, Rodriguez AM, Mayo NE. The effects of clinical interventions on health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Mult Scler. 2012 Dec;18(12):1686-704. Abstract

47. Sesel AL, Sharpe L, Naismith SL. Efficacy of psychosocial interventions for people with multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis of specific treatment effects. Psychother Psychosom. 2018;87(2):105-11. Abstract

48. Rosti-Otajärvi EM, Hämäläinen PI. Neuropsychological rehabilitation for multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Feb 11;(2):CD009131.Full text  Abstract

49. Amatya B, Khan F, Galea M. Rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis: an overview of Cochrane Reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 14;(1):CD012732.Full text  Abstract

50. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Multiple sclerosis in adults: management. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

51. Myhr KM, Mellgren SI. Corticosteroids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 2009;(189):73-80. Abstract

52. Burton JM, O'Connor PW, Hohol M, et al. Oral versus intravenous steroids for treatment of relapses in multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Dec 12;(12):CD006921.Full text  Abstract

53. Le Page E, Veillard D, Laplaud DA, et al; COPOUSEP investigators; West Network for Excellence in Neuroscience. Oral versus intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone for treatment of relapses in patients with multiple sclerosis (COPOUSEP): a randomised, controlled, double-blind, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2015 Sep 5;386(9997):974-81. Abstract

54. Abboud H, Petrak A, Mealy M, et al. Treatment of acute relapses in neuromyelitis optica: steroids alone versus steroids plus plasma exchange. Mult Scler. 2016 Feb;22(2):185-92.Full text  Abstract

55. Comi G. Shifting the paradigm toward earlier treatment of multiple sclerosis with interferon beta. Clin Ther. 2009 Jun;31(6):1142-57. Abstract

56. Montalban X, Gold R, Thompson AJ, et al. ECTRIMS/EAN guideline on the pharmacological treatment of people with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2018 Feb;24(2):96-120.Full text  Abstract

57. Tramacere I, Del Giovane C, Salanti G, et al. Immunomodulators and immunosuppressants for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 18;(9):CD011381.Full text  Abstract

58. Scolding N, Barnes D, Cader S, et al. Association of British Neurologists: revised (2015) guidelines for prescribing disease-modifying treatments in multiple sclerosis. Pract Neurol. 2015 Aug;15(4):273-9.Full text  Abstract

59. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Beta interferons and glatiramer acetate for treating multiple sclerosis. Jun 2018 [internet publication].Full text

60. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Dimethyl fumarate for treating relapsing‑remitting multiple sclerosis. Aug 2014 [internet publication].Full text

61. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Teriflunomide for treating relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Jun 2014 [internet publication].Full text

62. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fingolimod for the treatment of highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Apr 2012 [internet publication].Full text

63. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Natalizumab for the treatment of adults with highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Aug 2007 [internet publication].Full text

64. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Ocrelizumab for treating relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis. Jul 2018 [internet publication].Full text

65. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Alemtuzumab for treating highly active relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Mar 2020 [internet publication].Full text

66. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Cladribine for treating relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis. Dec 2019 [internet publication].Full text

67. Ontaneda D, Tallantyre E, Kalincik T, et al. Early highly effective versus escalation treatment approaches in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 2019 Oct;18(10):973-80. Abstract

68. Harding K, Williams O, Willis M, et al. Clinical outcomes of escalation vs early intensive disease-modifying therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. JAMA Neurol. 2019 May 1;76(5):536-41.Full text  Abstract

69. He A, Merkel B, Brown JWL, et al. Timing of high-efficacy therapy for multiple sclerosis: a retrospective observational cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2020 Apr;19(4):307-16. Abstract

70. Clerico M, Faggiano F, Palace J, et al. Recombinant interferon beta or glatiramer acetate for delaying conversion of the first demyelinating event to multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Apr 16;(2):CD005278.Full text  Abstract

71. Armoiry X, Kan A, Melendez-Torres GJ, et al. Short- and long-term clinical outcomes of use of beta-interferon or glatiramer acetate for people with clinically isolated syndrome: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and network meta-analysis. J Neurol. 2018 May;265(5):999-1009.Full text  Abstract

72. Melendez-Torres GJ, Armoiry X, Court R, et al. Comparative effectiveness of beta-interferons and glatiramer acetate for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: systematic review and network meta-analysis of trials including recommended dosages. BMC Neurol. 2018 Oct 3;18(1):162.Full text  Abstract

73. Goodin DS, Reder AT, Ebers GC, et al. Survival in MS: a randomized cohort study 21 years after the start of the pivotal IFNβ-1b trial. Neurology. 2012 Apr 24;78(17):1315-22.Full text  Abstract

74. Ziemssen T, Schrempf W. Glatiramer acetate: mechanisms of action in multiple sclerosis. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2007;79:537-70. Abstract

75. Qizilbash N, Mendez I, Sanchez-de la Rosa R. Benefit-risk analysis of glatiramer acetate for relapsing-remitting and clinically isolated syndrome multiple sclerosis. Clin Ther. 2012 Jan;34(1):159-76.e5. Abstract

76. Giovannoni G, Southam E, Waubant E. Systematic review of disease-modifying therapies to assess unmet needs in multiple sclerosis: tolerability and adherence. Mult Scler. 2012 Jul;18(7):932-46. Abstract

77. Balak DM, Hengstman GJ, Çakmak A, et al. Cutaneous adverse events associated with disease-modifying treatment in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. Mult Scler. 2012 Dec;18(12):1705-17. Abstract

78. Khan O, Rieckmann P, Boyko A, et al; GALA Study Group. Three times weekly glatiramer acetate in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2013 Jun;73(6):705-13. Abstract

79. Calabresi PA, Kieseier BC, Arnold DL, et al; ADVANCE Study Investigators. Pegylated interferon beta-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (ADVANCE): a randomised, phase 3, double-blind study. Lancet Neurol. 2014 Jul;13(7):657-65. Abstract

80. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Peginterferon beta-1a for treating relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis. Feb 2020 [internet publication].Full text

81. Gold R, Kappos L, Arnold DL, et al. Placebo-controlled phase 3 study of oral BG-12 for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2012 Sep 20;367(12):1098-107.Full text  Abstract

82. Fox RJ, Miller DH, Phillips JT, et al. Placebo-controlled phase 3 study of oral BG-12 or glatiramer in multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2012 Sep 20;367(12):1087-97.Full text  Abstract

83. van Oosten BW, Killestein J, Barkhof F, et al. PML in a patient treated with dimethyl fumarate from a compounding pharmacy. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 25;368(17):1658-9. Abstract

84. Muñoz MA, Kulick CG, Kortepeter CM, et al. Liver injury associated with dimethyl fumarate in multiple sclerosis patients. Mult Scler. 2017 Dec;23(14):1947-9. Abstract

85. Derfuss T, Mehling M, Papadopoulou A, et al. Advances in oral immunomodulating therapies in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 2020 Apr;19(4):336-47. Abstract

86. Palte MJ, Wehr A, Tawa M, et al. Improving the gastrointestinal tolerability of fumaric acid esters: early findings on gastrointestinal events with diroximel fumarate in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis from the phase 3, open-label EVOLVE-MS-1 study. Adv Ther. 2019 Nov;36(11):3154-65.Full text  Abstract

87. He D, Zhang C, Zhao X, et al. Teriflunomide for multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 22;(3):CD009882.Full text  Abstract

88. Kappos L, Radue EW, O'Connor P, et al; FREEDOMS Study Group. A placebo-controlled trial of oral fingolimod in relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 4;362(5):387-401. Abstract

89. Yang T, Tian X, Chen CY, et al. The efficacy and safety of fingolimod in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2020 Apr;86(4):637-45.Full text  Abstract

90. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Fingolimod (Gilenya): new contraindications in relation to cardiac risk. Dec 2017 [internet publication].Full text

91. Cohen JA, Barkhof F, Comi G, et al; TRANSFORMS Study Group. Oral fingolimod or intramuscular interferon for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 4;362(5):402-15. Abstract

92. Food and Drug Administration. Safety announcement: FDA warns about severe worsening of multiple sclerosis after stopping the medicine Gilenya (fingolimod). Nov 2018 [internet publication].Full text

93. Kappos L, Li DK, Stüve O, et al. Safety and efficacy of siponimod (BAF312) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: dose-blinded, randomized extension of the phase 2 BOLD study. JAMA Neurol. 2016 Sep 1;73(9):1089-98.Full text  Abstract

94. Gajofatto A. Spotlight on siponimod and its potential in the treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: the evidence to date. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2017 Nov 2;11:3153-7.Full text  Abstract

95. Giovannoni G, Comi G, Cook S, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of oral cladribine for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jan 20;362(5):416-26.Full text  Abstract

96. Miller DH, Khan OA, Sheremata WA, et al; International Natalizumab Multiple Sclerosis Trial Group. A controlled trial of natalizumab for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jan 2;348(1):15-23.Full text  Abstract

97. Ho PR, Koendgen H, Campbell N, et al. Risk of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients with multiple sclerosis: a retrospective analysis of data from four clinical studies. Lancet Neurol. 2017 Nov;16(11):925-33. Abstract

98. Gorelik L, Lerner M, Bixler S, et al. Anti-JC virus antibodies: implications for PML risk stratification. Ann Neurol. 2010 Sep;68(3):295-303. Abstract

99. McGuigan C, Craner M, Guadagno J, et al. Stratification and monitoring of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk: recommendations from an expert group. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2016 Feb;87(2):117-25.Full text  Abstract

100. Vukusic S, Rollot F, Casey R, et al. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy incidence and risk stratification among natalizumab users in France. JAMA Neurol. 2020 Jan 1;77(1):94-102.Full text  Abstract

101. Hauser SL, Bar-Or A, Comi G, et al. Ocrelizumab versus interferon beta-1a in relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jan 19;376(3):221-34.Full text  Abstract

102. Montalban X, Hauser SL, Kappos L, et al. Ocrelizumab versus placebo in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jan 19;376(3):209-20.Full text  Abstract

103. McCool R, Wilson K, Arber M, et al. Systematic review and network meta-analysis comparing ocrelizumab with other treatments for relapsing multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 Apr;29:55-61.Full text  Abstract

104. Li H, Hu F, Zhang Y, et al. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of disease-modifying therapies in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. J Neurol. 2020 Dec;267(12):3489-98. Abstract

105. Berntsson SG, Kristoffersson A, Boström I, et al. Rapidly increasing off-label use of rituximab in multiple sclerosis in Sweden - outlier or predecessor? Acta Neurol Scand. 2018 Oct;138(4):327-31. Abstract

106. He D, Guo R, Zhang F, et al. Rituximab for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Dec 6;(12):CD009130.Full text  Abstract

107. Hu Y, Nie H, Yu HH, et al. Efficacy and safety of rituximab for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Autoimmun Rev. 2019 May;18(5):542-8. Abstract

108. Coles AJ, Twyman CL, Arnold DL, et al; CARE-MS II investigators. Alemtuzumab for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis after disease-modifying therapy: a randomised controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012 Nov 24;380(9856):1829-39. Abstract

109. Coles AJ, Fox E, Vladic A, et al. Alemtuzumab versus interferon beta-1a in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: post-hoc and subset analyses of clinical efficacy outcomes. Lancet Neurol. 2011 Apr;10(4):338-48. Abstract

110. Cohen JA, Coles AJ, Arnold DL, et al. Alemtuzumab versus interferon beta 1a as first-line treatment for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2012 Nov 24;380(9856):1819-28. Abstract

111. Zhang J, Shi S, Zhang Y, et al. Alemtuzumab versus interferon beta 1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Nov 27;(11):CD010968.Full text  Abstract

112. European Medicines Agency. Lemtrada. Feb 2020 [internet publication].Full text

113. Food and Drug Administration. Safety announcement: FDA warns about rare but serious risks of stroke and blood vessel wall tears with multiple sclerosis drug Lemtrada (alemtuzumab). Nov 2018 [internet publication].Full text

114. European Medicines Agency. Lemtrada for multiple sclerosis: measures to minimise risk of serious side effects. 31 Oct 2019 [internet publication].Full text

115. Dobson R, Dassan P, Roberts M, et al. UK consensus on pregnancy in multiple sclerosis: 'Association of British Neurologists' guidelines. Pract Neurol. 2019 Apr;19(2):106-14.Full text  Abstract

116. Confavreux C, Hutchinson M, Hours MM, et al. Rate of pregnancy-related relapse in multiple sclerosis. Pregnancy in Multiple Sclerosis Group. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jul 30;339(5):285-91.Full text  Abstract

117. Krysko KM, Rutatangwa A, Graves J, et al. Association between breastfeeding and postpartum multiple sclerosis relapses: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Neurol. 2020 Mar 1;77(3):327-38.Full text  Abstract

118. European Medicines Agency. Updated restrictions for Gilenya: multiple sclerosis medicine not to be used in pregnancy. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text

119. Kappos L, Bar-Or A, Cree BA, et al. Siponimod versus placebo in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (EXPAND): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 study. Lancet. 2018 Mar 31;391(10127):1263-73. Abstract

120. Montalban X, Leist TP, Cohen BA, et al. Cladribine tablets added to IFN-β in active relapsing MS: the ONWARD study. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2018 Sep;5(5):e477.Full text  Abstract

121. La Mantia L, Vacchi L, Di Pietrantonj C, et al. Interferon beta for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jan 18;(1):CD005181.Full text  Abstract

122. La Mantia L, Vacchi L, Rovaris M, et al. Interferon beta for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013 Apr;84(4):420-6. Abstract

123. Kapoor R, Ho PR, Campbell N, et al. Effect of natalizumab on disease progression in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (ASCEND): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with an open-label extension. Lancet Neurol. 2018 May;17(5):405-15. Abstract

124. Wundes A, Kraft GH, Bowen JD, et al. Mitoxantrone for worsening multiple sclerosis: tolerability, toxicity, adherence and efficacy in the clinical setting. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2010 Dec;112(10):876-82. Abstract

125. Martinelli Boneschi F, Vacchi L, Rovaris M, et al. Mitoxantrone for multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 May 31;(5):CD002127.Full text  Abstract

126. Cohen JA, Confavreux C. Combination therapy in multiple sclerosis. In: Cohen JA, Rudick RA, eds. Multiple sclerosis therapeutics. 3rd ed. London, UK: Informa Pub; 2007:681-98.

127. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Ocrelizumab for treating primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Jun 2019 [internet publication].Full text

128. Leary SM, Thompson AJ. Treatment for patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. In: Cohen JA, Rudick RA, eds. Multiple sclerosis therapeutics. 3rd ed. London, UK: Informa Pub; 2007:751-60.

129. Andreasen AK, Stenager E, Dalgas U. The effect of exercise therapy on fatigue in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2011 Sep;17(9):1041-54.Full text  Abstract

130. Latimer-Cheung AE, Pilutti LA, Hicks AL, et al. Effects of exercise training on fitness, mobility, fatigue, and health-related quality of life among adults with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review to inform guideline development. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Sep;94(9):1800-28.e3.Full text  Abstract

131. Kjølhede T, Vissing K, Dalgas U. Multiple sclerosis and progressive resistance training: a systematic review. Mult Scler. 2012 Sep;18(9):1215-28. Abstract

132. Senders A, Wahbeh H, Spain R, et al. Mind-body medicine for multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. Autoimmune Dis. 2012;2012:567324.Full text  Abstract

133. Alphonsus KB, Su Y, D'Arcy C. The effect of exercise, yoga and physiotherapy on the quality of life of people with multiple sclerosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Med. 2019 Apr;43:188-95. Abstract

134. Chalah MA, Ayache SS. Cognitive behavioral therapies and multiple sclerosis fatigue: a review of literature. J Clin Neurosci. 2018 Jun;52:1-4. Abstract

135. Brown JN, Howard CA, Kemp DW. Modafinil for the treatment of multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Jun;44(6):1098-103. Abstract

136. Shangyan H, Kuiqing L, Yumin X, et al. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of modafinil versus placebo in the treatment of multiple sclerosis fatigue. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2018 Jan;19:85-9. Abstract

137. Panitch H, Applebee A. Treatment of walking impairment in multiple sclerosis: an unmet need for a disease-specific disability. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011 Jul;12(10):1511-21. Abstract

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